Earning Value from Earned Value

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  • 1.Thankyouforattendingthissession.MytalktodayisaboutusingEarnedValuetoincreasethe probabilityofsuccessforyourprogram.TheProbabilityofProgramSuccess(PoPS)isaDoD. FromtheUSArmysPoPSmanualSecretaryBoltondirectedthiseffortasaresultofhisconcernthat,althoughArmyprogramswereheavilymeasuredandreportedviaexistingmetricssystems,herepeatedlysawprogramsidentifysignificantproblems(unreportedinthemetrics)priortodecisionreviewsathislevel,orUSD(AT&L)s. StartingwiththecoreconceptsofEarnedValue,I dliketoexplorehowthesecanbeusedto increase Starting with the core concepts of Earned Value Id like to explore how these can be used to increase theprobabilityofsuccess.1

2. WeallacknowledgethatCost,Schedule,andTechnical Performanceareinseparable.TheNDIAEarned ValueManagementIntentGuide(EVMIG)statesthis. Thechallengeistoputthisintentintopractice.TouseEVisthepresenceoftheunderlyingstatistical natureofprogramactivities. Whatweneedtodonextistoputthisunderstandingtoworkinthepursuitofincreasingthe probabilityofsuccessforaprogram. Thetermprobabilityofsuccessitselfisstatistical.TheunderlyingvariablesofEarnedValueandthe underlyingengineeringprocessesinadevelopmentprogramarestatistical. underlying engineering processes in a development program are statistical Everythingisstatistical. SowhydowespeakinwordsaroundCPI,SPI,TCPI,andalltheotherPIsinstatic,singlepointvalues? Weareignoringtheverynatureofprograms.Theyarestatistcial process 2 3. InordertomaketheconnectionbetweenCost,Schedule,andTechnical PerformanceMeasures,we firstneedtoestablishthedomaininwhichwewillbemeasuringthings. Inorderperformmeasurementsweneedtoknowwhatdonelookslike,sosomeassessmentof PhysicalPercentCompletecanbedetermined.MeasuresofPhysicalPercentCompleteatthedetailed workpackagelevelmaybedifferentthanphysicalpercentcompleteatthesystemlevel.Anddifferent againattheMissionCapabilitieslevel.3 4. Ateachoftheselevelsthereareastandard setofquestionsaroundEarnedValue.Thescaleofeach questionmaybedifferent,butthequestionsarestillthesame. Thesequestionsneedtobeaskedandansweredoften.Onmostoftheprogramwework,theseare askedandansweredweekly. 4 5. Using 748Btherearetwoapproachtogainingcompliance.BottomupandTopdown.Letslookat both,butletsstartwiththebottomup. ThecomplianceImtalkingaboutisnotthefullDCMAtypecompliance,becauseevenwiththatfull compliancetheprogrammaynotbesuccess. ThiscomplianceistheworkprocessesthatincreasetheProbabilityofProgramSuccess(PoPS).Ifyou havenotheardofPoPS,thenIhavesomethingtooffer.GotoGoogleandsearchforthephrase ProbabilityofProgramSuccess.EachDoDServicehasahandbookforwhattodointhisarea. ThisismorethanEVcompliance,thisishowtomanageaprogramusingEV. This is more than EV compliance this is how to manage a program using EV Wehavetoremember,alltheEVcomplianceisnecessary,butmanytimesnotsufficientforprogram success5 6. Itisthediscoveryoftheuncertaintyinthecost,schedule,andtechnicalmeasuresthatisthestarting point. Thenecessaryconditionsofestablishingtheperformancemeasurementbaseline(PMB),collectingthe EarnedValueperformancemeasures,andmanagingchangestothebaseline,mustbeaccompaniedby thesufficientconditions: Whatarethenaturalvariancesonthecostandschedulemetrics? Howdothesevariancesimpactthecostandscheduleoutcomes? Whatarethecorrelationsbetweenthescheduleelementsandhowdothesecorrelationsimpactthe hh lbhh l l h h l h forecastingconfidence? Thiscorrelationanalysisofdevelopedinthecostestimatingworld,buthasnotreachedthesamelevel ofmaturityintheschedulingworld.6 7. EarnedValuecanprovideanswerstothestandardquestionsofProgramPlanningandControlsonlyif therearemeasuresofPhysicalPercentCompleteattheWorkPackagelevel. ThesemeasuresarerolleduptotheControlAccountsandthenormalContractPerformanceReporting processresultsinthemonthlyCPR. ButtherearenofieldsintheCPRfortheprobabilityorconfidenceintervalsonthenumbers. ItslikepredictingthepathofahurricaneanditstargetintheGulfofMexico,whenthestormis formingintheopenAtlantic. WeallknowthestatementthatCPIatthe15%pointintheprogramisagoodpredictoroftheETC.But ll kh h hhf h thisislikesayingthatthestormwillstrikethecoastofNorthAmericaaboveorbelowFlorida.Its usefulinformationbutisprovidedatthemacroscalelevel. Thequestioniswhatcanwedotochangetheoutcome,onceweknowwerenotgoingtomakeit? 7 8. Especiallywhenthereisanunexpected oratleastundesirableevent ontheprogram. DealingwithunexpectedeventsispartofaCredibleIMSandCostPlan.Sothisisnothingnewtothe gppg maturePP&Corganization. ButhowistheIMSimpacteddownstreamwhenPlanBreplacesPlanA? ModelingtheimpactonscheduleandcostforPlanBisastart.Butthesemodelsneedtoincludethe emergingstatisticalnatureoftheprogrammaticperformanceaswellasthetechnicalperformanceof theprogram8 9. WehaveinstructionstoincludeCost,Schedule,andTechnicalPerformanceMeasuresfromtheNDIAEV IntentGuide. Thechallengeistoputthemtoworkonaprogram.TouseEVtoIncreasetheProbabilityofSuccess.9 10. HeresasetofpromisesprovidedintheEVMIGthatneedactionableworktocausethemtoappear. Whileeachoftheseisarecognizablebeneficialoutcomethatnoonewouldargueiscriticaltoag g programssuccess,thestepsneededarenotincludedintheEVMIG. Thespecificsofeachofthesestatementsneedtobeworkedoutinenoughdetailsotheycanbe generallyappliedtoabroadsetofprograms.10 11. Theultimateoutcomeofapplyingtheprocessesistheabilitytoforecastthefutureinsomeway. Theforecasthastohaveaconfidenceintervalassignedtoit.g Ithastohavecorrectableprocessesiftheoutcomeisnotasdesirableasyouwouldlike. Soknowingjustthestatisticalnatureoftheprocessesisnecessarybutisnotsufficientforincreasing theprobabilityofprogramsuccess.11 12. LetsfirstthecoreproblemwithEarnedValue.Theunitsofmeasurearedollarsorwhatevercurrency youuseinyournativecountry. Withasimpleslightofhand,moneyisturnedintotime.Wevemonetizedtimeinalinearmanner.With littleornoconsiderationifthisisactuallythecase.Thereisnosolutiontothisdilemmaatthispoint. Therearealternativestothisissue,buttheyarecontroversialorobviousdependingonyourpointof view. 12 13. Afterthetimeisnotmoneyandmoneyisnottimediscovery,thenexteyeopeneristhenatural statisticalvariabilityofthetimeelements. TheMonteCarlosimulationsareonewaytoassessthebehaviorofthenetworkofactivities,butthere subtletiesbeyondjustthesimulationofthenetwork. TheMonteCarlotoolsdonteasilymodelthecouplingandcorrelationsbetweentheworkactivitiesin aproactivemanner.Thereareothertoolsformodelingthenetwork,buttheyarealsooutsidethis presentation. 13 14. Sowhenwemakesimpleassumptions,eveniftheyappearcomplex,whenwetrytosimplifywhatis actuallyacomplexproblem,whenwanttoboundthevariabilitytofitinsideourexpectedoutcomes wearesettingourselvesupfornaveoutcomes. tti l f t Maybeoutcomesthatareuseful,butmaybenaveallthesame. Naveinthesensethattheydont,ormanytimes,cantincreasetheprobabilityoftheprogram's success.14 15. LetsgobacktothefoundationofEarnedValueinthecontextofthebusinessofprojectsuccess. ManytimesEarnedValueisseenandusedasreportingtoolsforpastperformance.Ofcoursethereare yp g p p forecaststhatcanbederived TCPIisone.Otherpredictivemeasurescanbeusedaswell. Butthebusinessprocesses,theprogrammanagementprocesses,aremorethanjusttheSVandCV derivedvariables.15 16. Whenwelookatthe32criteriaforEVwecancount7to9itemsareactuallyrelatedtoearningvalue orthemeasurementofearningthisvalue. Whilethisisobviouswhenyoulookatthischart,itmaynotbeobviousintheheatofthebattle,to gettheCPRoutthedooronmonthend. InordertoearnvaluefromEarnedValueweneedtobringtheunderstandingaboutthebusiness elementsintofocus. 16 17. Soletsextractthemanagementprocessesfrom748B 17 18. Thisistheneverendingstoryofprogrammanagement.ThefundingspreadsareassignedtothePMB. Forallbutatrivialproject,thesespreadsandtheworktheyfundchangesatthedetailedlevelaspart ofthenormalvarianceofaprogram.Sothequestionofhowmuchhasavarianceitself.f thl ifS th ti f hh hiit lf Thisvarianceisexpressedinaconfidenceinterval. ThemanagementreserveisoutsidethePerformanceMeasurementBaseline.Buthowmuchdowe actuallyneedinmanagementreserve.Theanswercomesfromthequestionhowmuchunidentified scopeiscontainedintheprogram,thatwillchangethePMB,manageditselfbytheContractBudget Baseline,guidebytheChangeControlProcessandreportedinForm3and5oftheCPR.18 19. Theanswerstothepreviousquestionsandmanymoreintheprogrammanagementprocessesstarts withhowcanwegetvalueoutofEarnedValueprocesses,beyondjustmandatoryreportstothe customer?t? ByvalueImeanbusinessvalue.Thereturnonourinvestment.Theadditionofbusinessvalueforthe costofimplementingearnedvalue. Someonehastopayforallthisearnedvalueeffort.Howcanthesunkcostberecoveredinsome measureableway. 19 20. TheconceptofROIforEarnedValueseemsodd.EVappearstobeanexpense. SowellhavetothinkabitaboutreturningtheinvestedvaluefromourEVsystem. gy 20 21. TheDCASGoldPracticeisonesourceofEarnedValueadvicebeyondjusttheformulasandcompliance documents. TheGoldCardsuggeststherearefourvaluegeneratingoutcomesfromapplyingEarnedValue. BetterVisibilitymeanswecanseewhathasbeenhappeningandwhatwillhappeninthefuture. Reducecycletimemeanswecangetourworkdonefasterwhilemaintainingtheneededqualityand cost. FosteringAccountabilitymeansthereisnoambiguityastowhoisaccountablefortheplanned outcomes ReducedRiskmeansthatthepotentialimpedimentstoprogresscanbeidentified,mitigatedor retired/21 22. FromtheDAUGoldBook,wearetoldaboutthesebenefitsofEarnedValue. Letslookathowtogettothebeneficialoutcomesofthesepromises.g p Witheachstatementissomeoutcome. Butwitheachstatementweneedtounderstandwhatactivitiesneedtotakeplacetoproducethat outcome. Howmucheffortisneededtoproducetheoutcome? Doesthiseffortgetpaidbackfromthebenefitsoftheoutcome?g p 22 23. Gainedbettervisibilityintotheprogramsperformanceisthestartingpointforimprovement.Ifwe dontknowhowweredoingwecanknowifweneedtoimprove. Butmoreimportantlywecantknowiftheseimprovementactuallyresultinbusinessvalueforthe program. Withouttheunitsofmeasureoftheimprovementprocess,wecantmonetizetheseunitsinsomeway thatwecanuseforcomparison. 23 24. Reducingcycletimemeansreducingthetimeittakestoproduceaproductforthecustomer. ThedetailedplanningthatcomeswithEVcanbethebasisofreducingrework,missedefforts,andp gg othercontributorstodelays24 25. TheaccountabilityaspectscomeaspartofthestandardimplementationofEarnedValue.TheOBS/ WBSproducestheRAM25 26. RiskreductionispartofthePerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB)26 27. NowletslookatthetopdownapproachforearningthevaluefromEarnedValue 27 28. WiththePerformanceMeasurementBaselineestablishedforthemanagementoftheprogram,the bulkofthesunkcostforEarnedValueiscomplete.Youhavethesequenceofworkpackages,atime phasedbudget,adescriptionofthedeliverables.h db d t d i ti f th d li bl Whatremainsisgettingallthisinformationintosomesystemsoanalysiscanbemade. Butifyouhavedecidedtomanagetheprograminsomecrediblewaytostartwith buildingthe PerformanceMeasurementBaseline thenyourealmostthere. 28 29. ThecompletionofthePerformanceMeasurementisnecessarybutnotsufficient.Asparticipantsinthe EarnedValuecommunitythereissometimethenotionthathavingaPMBisallthatisneeded.The PMBisnecessary,butnotsufficient.Thesufficientattributesare: PMB i b t t ffi i t Thffi i t tt ib t Identificationoftheneededsystemcapabilities ifwedontknowwhatthesystemissupposedto dofromthetechnicalorbusinessmissionpointofview,thenthePMBcannotbecredible.Because notmattertheaccuracyofthePMBortheproperrepresentationoftheworkpackagesequencing,or thelaborspreads,ifthePMBdescribesthewrongwork,thentheresultwillbedisappointing. Onlyafterthereisaclearandconcisedescriptionoftheneededtechnicalormissioncapabilities usuallyintheformofaConceptofOperations(ConOps)andsupportingsystemsengineeringmodels usually in the form of a Concept of Operations (ConOps) and supporting systems engineering models canthetechnical,operational,programmatic,andbusinessrequirementsbedeveloped. ThesetwosourcesformtherawmaterialforthePerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB).All ConOpselementsmustflowdowninaproperlystructuredtreetorequirements.The RequirementsmustproperlyflowdowntoaWorkBreakdownStructure(WBS)toproperlydescribe thedeliverables.OnlythencanthePMBbedeveloped.AnIntegratedMasterPlan/Integrated MasterSchedule(IMP/IMS)paradigmshouldbeusedtostructurethePMB,nomatterthesizeofthe program. Theprogramthenneedstobeexecuted Alltheseactivitiesmustbeperformedinsidethecontextofcontinuousriskmanagement 29 30. TranslatingSystemCapabilitiesintoSystemRequirementsbeginswiththeanarrativedescriptionofthe neededCapabilities.Thissoundslikeatautology aChickenortheEggproblem.Butdiscoveringthe systemrequirementsisdifficultintheabsenceofsomehigherleveldescriptionoftheneeded system requirements is difficult in the absence of some higher level description of the needed Capabilitiesofthedesiredsystem. TheconceptofaCapabilityisacapacityorpotential[Davis]: Providedbyasetofresourcesandabilities,Toachieveameasureableresult,Inperformingaparticulartask,Underspecificconditions,Tospecificperformancestandards Oneapproachtocapturingthesystemcapabilitiesis: Startwiththecustomersunderstandingthecurrentandfutureoperationalneedsoftheirsystem Aligningthoseneedswithindustrystandardsandtrends TranslatingtheneedsintosystemcapabilitiesintheformofsystemrequirementsspecificationoraConceptofOperations.TheSystemsRequirementsSpecificationisnotthesameasaTechnicalRequirementsSpecification. Establishahighlevelsystemconcepttoidentifysystemcomponentsandtheirinterfaces GuidetheIntegratedProductandProcessDevelopment(IPPD)Teams,mentoring,andworkingwithprovidersofsystemcomponents(bothcustombuiltandCOTS)toensuretheyadheretotheoverallsystemview t i WorkwiththecustomertoidentifyandmitigatetechnicalrisksthroughastructuredRiskManagementprocessattheSystemsRequirementslevel VerifyeachsystemcapabilitythroughaSystemIntegrationandQualificationTestPlan WorkwiththecustomertodevelopaFieldingandProductSupportPlanofthedeliveredsystem30 31. Poorlyformedrequirementshavebeenshowntocontributeasmuchas25%tothefailuremodesof programsandprojects. Requirementsengineeringcanbedecomposedintotheactivitiesofrequirementselicitation, specification,andvalidation.Mostoftherequirementstechniquesandtoolstodayfocuson specification,i.e.,therepresentationoftherequirements.TheDeliverablesBasedPlanningsmmethod concentratesinsteadonelicitation.Thismethodaddressesproblemsfoundwithrequirements engineeringthatarenotadequatelyaddressedbyspecificationtechniques.[Christel] Thismethodincorporatesadvantagesofexistingelicitationtechniqueswhileaddressingtheactivities performedduringrequirementselicitation.Theseactivitiesincludefactfinding,requirements gathering,evaluationandrationalization,prioritization,andintegration.Therequirementsbaselineis establishedstartingwithaFactFindingactivity.Thisdoesnotsearchforrequirements,butinstead definestheboundariesoftherequirementsspace. Withtheseboundariesestablished,theactualrequirementscanbegatheredandclassified.The classificationprocessisanimportantstateforassessingtheneed,evaluation,andtradeoffprocesses. Evaluatingtherequirementsisdoneagainstthebackgroundofthesystemboundariesandsystem capabilities.Withtheseevaluation,prioritizationcanstart.Theseprioritizationsassesstheorderinp,p p whichtherequirementswillbedeployedagainstthefundingandresourcelimitations. Withtherequirementsprioritized,theycanthenbeintegratedandvalidated.Theintegrationprocess definestheinterdependenciesbetweenrequirementsthatguidethedevelopmentoftheWork Packagesthatproducethedeliverablesthatfulfilltherequirements.31 32. ThePerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB)istheprimaryassessmentdocumentforassuringthe credibilityofaprojectplan.ThePMBisthebaselineofthecost,scheduleanddeliverablesforeach WorkPackage(WP)intheplan. W kP k (WP) i th l ConstructingthePMBrequiresknowledgeofthesystemrequirements,skillindevelopingtheWPsthat producethedeliverablesfortheserequirements,anddisciplineinassemblingthecost,scheduleand relationshipsbetweentheWPs.Itisthediscipline thatrequiresthemostfocusfortheplannersand projectcontrolsstaff.Withoutthisdiscipline,thedevelopmentofacrediblebaselineissimplynot possible. IntheendtheplannersandprojectcontrolsstaffmustknowinintimatedetaileachWP,its I thd th ldj t t l t ff t k i i ti t d t il h WP it deliverablesandresourcerequirements,theperformancemeasurementcriteriaandthedependencies thatformthecriticalpaththroughtheprojectschedule.TheconceptofaDeliverablesBasedPlan (DBP)isatthecoreofthePerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB). Deliverablesaretheunitsofmeasureofprogresstoplan. Deliverablesarewhatthecustomerhaspaidmoneyfor. Deliverablescontainthesystemcapabilities,theassociatedvaluethatfulfilltherequirementsoftheli bl i h bili ih i d lh f lfill h i f h masterplan ThefirstcriticalsuccessfactorinbuildingthePerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB)isthe decompositionofthesystemrequirementsintotechnicalcapabilities,thenintodeliverablesthat enablethosetechnicalcapabilities,andfinallyintotheWPsthatproducethosedeliverables.32 33. ThefocusofthePerformanceMeasurementBaselineexecutionstepsistophysicallyassessthe progressoftheprograminunitsreflectingtheprogressusingthethreeindependentvariables: C tCost Schedule TechnicalPerformanceThetraditionalEarnedValueManagementapproachusesthreedatasources,thebudget(or planned)expenditures(BCWS),theactualexpenditures(ACWP),andtheEarnedValue(BCWP) capturedfromtheControlAccountorWorkPackageManagers.Thecomparisonofbudgetversus actualexpendituresindicateswhatwasplannedtobespentversuswhatwasactuallyspentatany p pp y py giventime.TheuseofEarnedValue(BCWP)indicateswhatwasproducedforthatexpenditure.Withthisapproachtheuseofphysicalpercentcompletefortheamountofworkperformedisa startingpoint.Itdoesnotindicateanythingabouttheconformancetospecificationofthework producedfortheamountofmoneyspent.ByaddingTechnicalPerformanceMeasures(TPM)totheanalysisofEarnedValueManagement,the programmanagercanassesstheactualprogressoftheprogram.Noncompliancewiththeplanned TechnicalPerformanceMeasuresdilutestheEarnedValueproportionally.Thisdilutionisintheformof: Technical Performance Measures dilutes the Earned Value proportionally This dilution is in the form of: Reworkofnoncompliantdeliverables Deferredworknotcompletedduringtheplannedperiodofperformance Withtheperiodofperformancecomplete,theunusedfunds ifany areusedtoadjusttheEarnedValue(BCWP)toreflecttheunfinishedordeferredwork. Iftheworkisdeferredandthereisremainingfunds,achangeorderisissuedtomovethefunding. Iftheworkisnoncompliantandthefundingisexhausted,adilutionofBCWPisneededtoreflectthetrueEarnedValue33 34. Letsreview.Theseprocessesrepresentasequenceofactivitiesthatincreasethematurityofthe programmaticaspectsofaprojectorprogram.TheplansthatresultfromtheseeffortsdescribetheincreasingmaturityoftheproductorservicesTh l th t lt fthff t d ib th iit it f th d ti thatarethedeliverablesfromtheproject.InordertodevelopandexecuteaPlan,asetofrequirementsisneeded.Beforetheserequirements canbedeveloped,anunderstandingofthesystemcapabilitiesshouldbedeveloped. 1. IdentifyBusinessNeeds DefinethesetofcapabilitiesneededtoachievetheprogramobjectivesoraparticularendstateforaspecificscenariousingtheConceptofOperations(ConOps).CONOPsisaverbalorgraphicstatement,inbroadoutline,ofanassumptionorintentinregardtoanoperationg p , , p g porseriesofoperations,mission,orsystem. 2. EstablishRequirementsBaseline definesthetechnical,organizational,andoperationalrequirementsthatmustbeinplaceforthesystemcapabilitiestobefulfilled.Definetheserequirementsintermsisolatedfromtheimplementationdetails.Onlythen,bindtheserequirementswiththetechnicalalternatives. 3. EstablishPerformanceMeasurementBaseline buildatimephasednetworkofscheduledactivitiesdescribingtheworktobeperformed,thebudgetedcostforthiswork,andtheorganizationaldescribing the work to be performed the budgeted cost for this work and the organizationalelementsthatproducethedeliverablesfromthiswork.Definethetechnicalperformancemeasuresshowinghowthisworkproceedsaccordingtothetechnicalandprogrammaticplan. 4. ExecutethePerformanceMeasurementBaseline executethePerformanceMeasurementBaselineWorkPackages,whileassuringallperformanceassessmentsrepresentmeasuresofPhysicalPercentComplete. 5. ContinuousRiskManagement identify,plan,andbudgetriskmitigationorretirementactivitiesatassureimpedimentstoprogressarehandled.34 35. PrinciplesarethesourceofguidanceforPractices. Aprincipleisageneraltruth,alawonwhichotherarefoundedorfromwhichothersarederived. [Webster] Fortheprinciplesofprogramandprojectmanagementtobeeffectivetheymust: Expressabasicconcept Beuniversallyapplicable Becapableofstraightforwardexpression Beselfevident The10PrinciplesofDeliverablesBasedPlanningsmguidetheapplicationofthefourprocessareas. Theseprinciplesencompasstheentirelifecycleofaprojectorprogram,frominceptionandthe discoveryofthebusinessorsystemcapabilities,throughrequirementselicitation,tothecreationofthe PerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB),totheexecutionofthisbaseline. Theprinciplesprovideseveralfeedbackloopstoassurethatsubsequentactivitiesprovidemeasurable informationtocorrectgapsthatexistinthepreviousactivities.Thisiterativeandincrementalapproach toprogrammanagementassurestheperiodsofassessmentforcorrectiveactionsareappropriately spacedtominimizeriskwhilemaximizingthedeliveredvaluetotheprogram. 35 36. ANSI 748isessentialabusinessmanagementframework. TheEarnedValueportionsareminimalcomparedtothegoodmanagementaspects.p p gg p36 37. Thesegoodmanagementprocessesareevidencedbydocumentsandreports. Theseareconnectedtothe748Bprocessareasinthefollowingway. pg y 37 38. Sowevearrivedattheendofourshorttimehere.Whatdidwelearn?38 39. CPI/SPIarethefirstleveloutputsfromEarnedValue,buttheyareonlyindicatorsofpastperformance. Andtheirunitsofmeasuresaremoney,nottime. y Allvariablesontheprogramhavestatisticalbehaviors. Whenwedontspeakintermsofconfidenceintervals,thenourcredibilityisreduced. 39 40. Buttherearestepsthatcanbetakentostartdowntheroadofproducingvalue,fromEarnedValue. 40

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