Chapter 10 PowerPoint presentation
1. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to PracticeWritten By: Jack C Richards 2. Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functions. 3. Expanded version of Brown & Yules framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk: Talk as interaction Talk as transaction Talk as performance 4. Talk as Interaction This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function(conversation). 5. Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2) ~Has a primary social function ~Reflects role relationships ~Reflects speakers identity~May be formal or casual ~Uses conversational conventions ~Reflect degrees of politeness ~Employs many generic words ~Uses conversational register ~Is jointly constructed 6. Skills Involved in Using Talk asInteraction Richards (p.3) Opening and Closing Conversations Choosing Topics Making Small Talk Recounting personal incidents and experiences Turn-talking Using adjacency-pairs Interrupting Reacting to others 7. Talk as Interaction There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction:1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved.Example: Asking someone for the time. 2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services. Example: Checking into a hotel room. 8. Talk as Transaction This type of talk focuses on what is said or done.The focus is to be clear and accurate during talk. 9. The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4) It has a primary information focus The main focus is the message and not the participants Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks There may be negotiations and digression Linguistic accuracy is not always important 10. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction Richards (p.4) Explaining a need or intention Describing something Asking questions Confirming information Justifying an opinion Making suggestions Clarifying understanding Making comparisons Agreeing and disagreeing 11. Talk as Performance This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches. 12. The Main Features of Talk asPerformance Richards (p. 5) There is a focus on both message and audience It reflects organization and sequencingForm and accuracy is importantLanguage is more like written languageIt is often monologic 13. Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance Richards (p.5) Using an appropriate formatPresenting information in an appropriate sequenceMaintaining audience engagementUsing correct pronunciation and grammarCreating an effect on the audienceUsing appropriate vocabularyUsing appropriate opening and closing 14. Implications for Teaching Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs. Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information.Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings.