- 1. Biology 3.3Responses totheEnvironmentAS 916035 External CreditsMs Gibellini 2014
2. Achievement StandardDemonstrate understanding involves describing plant and animal responses totheir external environment. The description includes: the process(es) within each response and/or the adaptive advantageprovided for the organism in relation to its ecological niche.Demonstrate in-depth understanding involves using biological ideas to explain: how the responses occur why the responses provide an adaptive advantage for the organism inrelation to its ecological niche.Responses are selected from those relating to: orientation in space (tropisms, nastic responses, taxes, kineses, homing,migration) orientation in time (annual, daily, lunar, tidal rhythms) interspecific relationships (competition for resources, mutualism,exploitation including herbivory, predation, and parasitism) intraspecific relationships (competition for resources, territoriality,hierarchical behaviour, cooperative interactions, reproductivebehaviours). External environment will include both biotic and abiotic factors. 3. Exam SpecificationsCandidates should be familiar with graphical andtabulated data.Candidates should be familiar with the followingterms: agonistic behavior endogenous home range auxin entrainment kin selection biological clock exogenous photoperiodism cooperative breeding free running periodzeitgeber. courtship 4. Topic Outline The Basics abiotic, biotic, ecological niche How/Why Respond Responses in space Responses in time Interspecfic relationships Intra specific relations 5. The Basics Abiotic non living Temperature Light intensity Moisture Substrate Chemicals/pH Biotic Predators Prey Courtship andmating behaviours 6. Online Activities1. Watch the following clips, complete the quizzes.http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/30707-assignment-discovery-abiotic-and-biotic-factors-video.htmhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-environment-levels-of-ecology-and-ecosystems.html#transcripthttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/ecosystems-habitats-and-ecological-niches.html#lessonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1pp_7-yTN42. Read through the following pagehttp://www2.ccsd.ws/sbfaculty/team8e/jecole/Science/abiotic_vs_.htmhttp://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=233. Complete the following activity to test your understandinghttp://www.pbslearningmedia.org/asset/lsps07_int_ecosystem/ 7. The Basicso Ecological niche Where an organism lives, what it eats, what eats it,when it is active, adaptations it has to survive Realised nicheWhere the organism is actually found due to limitingfactors competition, lack of resources Fundamental nicheWhere the organism could potentially be found 8. Why Respond? Why respond? - put your ideas onto the followingpadlet brainstormhttp://padlet.com/wall/ResponseAdvantage Adaptive Advantage - directly or indirectly helpsindividual's survive or reproduce What is the adaptive advantage of being able torespond to the environment? Get maximum sunlight for photosynthesis Grow roots towards nutrients and water source Move to warmer surroundings Hide when its daylight or too cold conserve energy 9. Online Activities1. Watch the following clip, read the information and answerthe quizhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/interspecific-competition-competitive-exclusion-niche-differentiation.html#lessonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_behavior_(ecology)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SDzjctfmAwhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6-evXswaQshttps://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/presentation/d/1g_bW-21tsNc_P3WpuJQzwRCX9jSbGdASs8FfBs1KOj8/edit#slide=id.p14 10. The BasicsStimulus: Anything that causes anorganism to react. Cause Stimulus : singular Stimuli: pluralResponse: Any change an organismmakes as a result of a changein the environment Effect 11. Stimulus Photo light Geo gravity Hydro water Chemo chemicals Thigmo touch Helio sunlight Thermo temperature 12. How do organism detectchange Animals use their senses Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Plants use chemicals and hormones todetect changes in their environment 13. How do animals respond?Innate- Born with behaviour- Spiders spinning a webLearned- Taught behaviour over time- Chimps using stick to get ants froma log 14. Learnt and Innate Human BehavioursAim:To unlearn an innate behaviourMethod:1. Blow across the eye of your partner What happens? Did the person do this consciously?What is the adaptive advantage of this behaviour?2. Repeat (blowing across eye) at 30 sec intervals,record how many times you do it before theperson learns not to react What is the stimulus? What is the response? What isthe adaptive advantage of unlearning this innatebehaviour? 15. Online Activities1. Watch the following clipshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/revision/1/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dj08D-tllHs&ytsession=ZQbvpv4AUPLGOBbJljtb6DG2FrCZJPxzxDW5YtfGGNIhsIyB8S4fQCaHXUHkNlBLAeB7w80bjaDrWD-56NmwP3YkwQszdokqh1YgSS_VKN-ZJQGhAJUTfjyLTNZXMqqQbPmbwblOTh75NQ5j60AJsiTsuXsT1L9SpCdYXHtimTSUmgWwD5lRmwd3fWro3ZDbEw2fQczgE_02TnAa4DXR2OGdJ-X84qSKtm6jPGanzVXtVS2CYxLICjB4hCT3cD6ToQwdd0w8hAHifr0pfLgdNQhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/innate-behavior-reflexes-kineses-and-taxes.html#lessonhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/learned-behavior-imprinting-habituation-and-conditioning.html#lessonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJsE6KneH4chttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xq4ahmk4_HE2. Read the following informationhttp://click4biology.info/c4b/e/e3.htm#1http://www.ib.bioninja.com.au/options/option-e-neurobiology-and-2/e3-innate-and-learned-behav.html 16. Behaviour Types1. What are the differences between innate and learned behaviour?Defn. ExamplesLearnedInnate2. What is the adaptive advantage of:- having innate behaviours?- being able to learn behaviour?http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/activity/http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/behaviour/quiz/q23631376/ 17. How do Plants Respond?Growth movements slowchange in size/shape of cellsControlled by hormonesTurgor movementsFaster, reversibleWater content of cells changes 18. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SDzjctfmAw 19. Plants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:Hormone Where is itmadeEffect site Action EffectAuxinGibberelinCytokininsAbscisic acid(ABA)EthyleneGoogle doc of tables 20. Plants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:Hormone Where Effect site Action EffectAuxin Shoot tip(meristem)GrowingregionsCell elongationdue to turgorpressureTip bends towardsstimulusGibberelin Fruits, seeds,growing buds& stemsWhole plant Growth of cellsBreaking ofdormancyGrowth, germinationof seeds, flowering,fruit growthCytokinins Roots & fruit Branch & leafbudsPromotes celldivision anddifferentiationGrowth of lateralbranchesAbscisic acid(ABA)Chloroplasts Where fruit &leaves join toplant. SeedInhibits growth Causes fruit & leavesto fall from treeCloses stomataPromotes seeddormancyEthylene Ripening fruit CellularmetabolismIncreases sugar infruitRipens fruit & leavesand causes it to fall 21. Online Activities1. Watch the following video, read the text, complete the quizhttps://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/plant-hormones-chemical-control-of-growth-and-reproduction.html#lessonhttp://www.rooting-hormones.com/Video_auxinuse.htmhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormonesrev1.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormones/quiz/q72974343/http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/planthormones/quiz/q16929046/ 22. Plant Responses Vernalisation flowering or germination after a cold snap Ensures flowering/germination in spring Dormancy Arrested (slowed) plant growth Ensures survival during winter/summer drought Abscission Leaf fall Prevents leaves freezing in winter 23. Jellybeans and AuxinAim: To demonstrate effects of auxin in the shoot.Method:1. Create a shoot with small jellybeans (5 on each side) and half amarshmallow at the top (apical meristem) take a photo2. When exposed to light lollie pop, IAA (choc chips) is released from themarshmallow (apical meristem) and travels to the dark side of the stem take a photo3. The IAA (choc chips) is absorbed into the cells on the dark side, causingthese cells to enlargeslowly remove the choc chips and replace 3 smalljelly beans with large ones on the side opposite to sun one at a time,ensuring the top and bottoms of jellybeans are always touching and themiddle, take a photo each time4. Keep the jellybeans ALL touching and the top two jellybeans ending atthe same point with the marshmallow on the top.Results:5. What happens to the direction of growth? Why? 24. IAA There are many types of Auxins Indole Acetic Acid is involved with cellelongation 25. Auxin Auxin is a plant hormone whichcauses cells to elongate http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/auxin.htm Auxin is made in the tip, and movesdown the dark side of the shoot,causing the shoot to bend towardsthe stimulus Auxin is soluble in water, but notmica or glass Auxin also moves with gravity tolower side causing elongation andshoots to grow up out of soil 26. Auxin ExperimentsExperiment 1: Effect of IAA on cell elongation in theshoots Rub IAA onto left side of one set of shoots, take beforeand after photos compare Rub IAA onto the right side of a different set of shoots,take before and after photos compareExperiment 2: Effect of IAA on cells in the direction ofgrowth in the roots Soak and grow bean shoots and roots, too 3 cm length Rub IAA onto left side of one set of roots, take beforeand after photos compare Rub IAA onto the right side of a different set of roots,take before and after photos compare 27. Stem CuttingsAim: Investigate the effect of rooting hormone on therate of root development.Method: (tissue culturing) see worksheet1. Sterilize utensils, workspace, containers(the trick isto keep things as sterile as possible so that yougrow plant tissue and not bacteria or fungi.)2. Take cutting, sterilize cutting3. Dip cutting in rooting hormone4. Place one in agar with rooting hormone, and theother in agar without hormone (label!) 28. Auxin in the Root Auxin falls with gravity tothe lower side of theshoot and root In the shoot it causes cellelongation, shoot growsup towards the light In the root it stops thecells elongating, andtherefore the root bendsdown towards the soiland water 29. Auxin MovementAim: To investigate the movement of auxinMethod:1. Set up a box with three plants in2. Plant A cut the tip off (about 2cm)3. Plant B cover the tip with tin foil4. Plant C leave as is5. Put a hole in the box on one side and angle towardslight6. Take a photo after 5 daysResults:Describe what and why each tip responded as it did.What is the adaptive advantage of this type of response?What is the stimulus causing the response? What is thename given to this type of response? 30. Explain what is happening in each experiment andwhy. 31. Page 105:When auxin conc. In roots gets to above__________ppm of auxin the cell growth is_____________When auxin conc. In shoots gets to ________ ppm ofauxin the cell growth is ___________ up until_______ppm when the growth is rapidly inhibited Vine curls around trunk, auxin migrates to nontouching side of vine, causing cell elongation andthe vine curves towards trunk and around it 32. Apical Dominance High concentration of axuin in tip (apical meristem)of tree prevents growth Concentration decreases towards base of tree Adaptive advantage because the top leaves donot shade the leaves underneath Resulting in Xmas tree shape 33. Online ActivitiesComplete the prequiz, watch and read the animation, complete the post quiz didyou improve?http://kisdwebs.katyisd.org/campuses/MRHS/teacherweb/hallk/Teacher%20Documents/AP%20Biology%20Materials/Plants/Plant%20Hormones/39_A01s.swfhttp://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/pracexam/HotPotatoExam/Exam2/pracex2c.htmhttp://leavingbio.net/plant%20responses.htmhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-hormones-and-their-functions.htmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/control_plant_growthrev2.shtmlhttp://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/hormones/horm9.cfmhttp://www.slideshare.net/mazz4/plant-responses-15051190http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/examcentre.aspx?id=221http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp38/3802002.html 34. NCEA QuestionPadlet your answer here 35. Tropisms Plants grow in response to stimuli Growth towards positive Growth away from negative 36. Tropic ResponsesExperiment 1: Phototropic ResponsesAim: To investigate phototropic responses in bean plantsMethod:1. Soak beans over night to encourage germination2. Celleotape bean into small box3. Cut a hole to let the light in on one side of the box4. Leave for 5 days open and investigateResults:What is the adaptive advantage of this type of response?What is the stimulus causing the response? What is thename given to this type of response? 37. Experiment 2: Geotropic ResponsesAim: To investigate the geotropic responses in beanplants.Method:1. Soak beans over night to encourage germination2. Scellotape bean into petri dish3. Blue tack dish vertically onto the wall4. Leave for 5 days take a photograph5. Turn petri dish 1806. Leave for 5 days take a photographResults:What is the adaptive advantage of this type ofresponse? What is the stimulus causing the response?What is the name given to this type of response? 38. Tropisms1. Why do plants need to respond to the environment?2. What things can stimulate plants to respond?3. What does tropos mean?4. Give a definition and example of the following (tryand find a photo to insert as well)- Table as google doc remember to make a copy!Tropism Definition Stimulus Example Picture AdvantagePhototropismChemotropismGravitropismThigmotropismHydrotropismHeliotropism 39. Tropisms1. Why do plants need to respond to the environment?- so they can survive, grow and reproduce, make themost of resources2. What things can stimulate plants to respond?- gravity, light, chemicals, touch, water3. What does tropos mean?- Turn 40. Tropism Definition Stimulus Example Picture AdvantagePhototropism Growth inresponse to lightLight Sunflower movingto face the sunIncreased light soincreasedphotosynthesisChemotropism Growth inresponse tochemicalsChemicals Pollen tubegrowing towardsovariesPollen can fertilizeegg in safe protectedplace forreproductionGravitropism Growth responseto gravityGravity Roots growingdown into theground, shootsgrowing upagainst gravityRoots gainanchorage, growthtowards water,Shoots grow towardslight for p/sThigmotropism Growth responseto touchHard surface Grape vinecurling around astakeGrowth up towardsthe light forphotosynthesisHydrotropism Growth responseto waterWater Willow rootsgrowing into riverbanksGet water forphotosynthesis,transpiration andturgityHeliotropism Tracking thepath of the sunLight source Sunflower movingto face the sunIncreased light soincreasedphotosynthesis 41. - The shoot responds to gravity by growing upwards (negative geotropism) and upwardstowards the light (positive phototropism)- Auxin is a hormone, that is produced in the tip (apical meristem), IAA is an example,causes cell elongation by making the vacuole retain water. Auxin moves down from thetip causing cells to elongate and grow upwards.- Gravity causes the shoot on sprouting from the seed to grow upwards, if it needs to curveto do this auxin is released to the lower side (gravity drops it to this side) elongating the cellson this side causing the shoot to bend upwards and grow up and out of the soil- Once exposed to light auxin is released from the tip and travels down the dark side of theshoot causing cell elongation and the shoot to bend towards the light- The advantage of negative geotropism is that the shoot grows in the correct direction toget to sunlight quickly so it can start carrying out photosynthesis- There is no light under the soil so it cannot rely on phototropism. Once exposed to light theplant is a producer and therefore makes its own energy and needs light for the process ofphotosynthesis, growing towards the light increases light intensity and therefore rate ofphotosynthesis and growth 42. Online Activities1. Watch the following cliphttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5JXm1USHlQYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uX5eoxKbzHEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pi3P3uJOsN4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGIgvzGpPRwhttps://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/tropisms-phototropic-geotropic-and-thigmotropic-plant-growth.html#lesson (complete the quiz too!)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDMlvthj8MY2. Read the following pages.http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/tropism/tropisms.htmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/controlplantgrowthrev1.shtmlhttp://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp38/3802001.html - complete the quiz too!http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/auxin.htmhttp://leavingbio.net/plant%20responses.htmhttp://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/nastic/nastic.htmlhttp://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/nastic/nastic.htmlhttp://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/nastic/nastic.htmlhttp://www.slideshare.net/mazz4/plant-responses-150511903. Complete this online quizhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/controlplantgrowth/quiz/q78887607/http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter40/chapter_quiz.html 43. Nastic Responses Plants respond rapidly to stimuli as aresult of osmotic pressure changes(water in the cells) It is a non directional response Rate of response can increase withincreasing stimuli Eg flowers closing at night - photonasty 44. Padlet your answer here 45. Padlet your answers http://www.biol.uzh.ch/filme/life_on_earth/Chapter_26/Present/Activities/26_3/26_3_2a.html 46. Animal Responses Taxis movement of an animal towards or awayfrom a stimulus Kinesis an animals non directional activity speedresponse to a stimulus Homing ability to find and return to a home site Migration movement of animals between twohabitats 47. KinesisCan relate to speed of movement orthokinesis ordirection of movement klinokinesis in relation to theintensity of the stimulusEg more light = faster movement (to get out of lightand predators vision) 48. Animal ResponsesExample StimulusPrefix(hydro, geo etc)Kinesis/taxisKlino/orthoPositive/negativeAdaptiveadvantage 49. Animal ResponsesAim: To investigate taxic responses in slatersMethod:1. Using choice chambers setup the following conditions:A. Light vs Dark (cover one side with a rag)B. Dry vs Moist (moisten filter paper and put in one dish)C. Hot vs Cold (put ice under one side)Results:What is the adaptive advantage of this type ofresponse? What is the stimulus causing the response?What is the name given to this type of response? 50. Animal ResponsesAim: To investigate kinetic responses in slatersMethod:1. Put 5 slaters in an ice cream container2. Observe speed of movement3. Shine light at them from 50cm4. Observe speed of movement5. Shine light at them from 25cm6. Observe speed of movementResults:What is the adaptive advantage of this type ofresponse? What is the stimulus causing the response?What is the name given to this type of response? 51. Online Activities http://prezi.com/cczzkebzdbij/taxis-and-kinesis-in-animals/Why respond? What is the adaptiveadvantage? Padlet Complete tables on kinesis and taxic responses 52. NCEA QuestionsPadlet Answer come up with a differentexample to the ones already on the padlet! 53. HomingWhat: Innate ability of an animal to return to its nestingsite.Why: To meet and mate at a breeding site To return to nest and young Returning to a safe well resourced placeHow: Topographical memory - Visual cues such aslandmarks, seas, rivers, mountains Magnetic orientation, sun compass, celestialnavigation, olfaction (smell) 54. HomingOrganism Why it goeshomeHow itnavigatesInterestingInfoAlbatross Link to tableBeesPigeonsLoggerheaded seaturtle 55. Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1gxRsc9MMXk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2VcUre72Wg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkjybwx3XF4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbHSkZySTBw 56. Migration 57. MigrationWhat: regular and intentional mass movement of animals froma breeding area to another area where they do notbreedWhy? More resources (food, water, space, nesting sites) atnew location Meet up with others to breed Better climate (warmer)How? Internal clocks respond to environmental cues Topographical memory - Visual cues such as landmarks,seas, rivers, mountains Magnetic orientation, sun compass, celestial navigation,olfaction (smell) 58. MigrationOrganism Trigger thatcauses migrationHow itnavigatesMigrationRoute (map)Humpback whale(Megapteranovaeangliae)Link to tableMonarch butterfly(Danaus plexippus)Shining Cuckoo(NZ)Shortfin EelsGodwits 59. MigrationAdvantages DisadvantagesNew/more resources Uses lots of energy (need to store energyprior to migration)Greater genetic mixingBetter breeding conditionsCould get lost on the wayThey grow larger Could get killed (eaten) on the wayReduces predation and diseasefrom parasitesOnce arrive location may have changed no habitat, no food, no nesting sites,climate changeAnimals remain in a favourabletemperatureCould run out of energy before reachingdestination and dieMay lead to the colonisation of anew area.Constant food supply 60. Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vy1l-LJYRsg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_tS87KgtBQ 61. Online Activities http://pinewood.auckland.ac.nz/291009/Lens_29_10_09/STREAMING.html http://lens.auckland.ac.nz/index.php/Animal_Navigation:_Magnetic_Sense#Useful_Links.C2.A0 http://lens.auckland.ac.nz/images/a/a3/Animal_Navigation_Question09-2.pdf http://lens.auckland.ac.nz/images/0/06/Magnetic_Navigation_09_Final2.pdf http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/animal-migration-13259533 62. Migration and HomingQuestionsQuestions1. Differentiate between migration and homing.2. One - way migrations are usually in response to what?3. What factors may have been responsible for the one - way migration of earlyhumans?4. Suggest some environmental factors that may trigger migration.5. Of what advantage is it for animals to migrate?6. What are the risks of migration?7. Why must the Golden Plover make a non - stop migratory flight from Alaska toHawaii?8. What evidence is there that migration is species specific and innate?9. What evidence is cited to illustrated that the sum and the stars are used formigratory navigation?10. Give details of the migratory behaviour of four species of animal found in NewZealand.11. What does the wasp example illustrate?12. What enable pigeons to home successfully?13. What other cues, apart form recognising land marks and celestial bodies, doanimals use to orient themselves 63. Answers 64. Human Body Clock http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/068--Circadian%20Rhythms.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3LGFysTFOXM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aF24ZmPwzb0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ICUF-y3hLs http://media.hhmi.org/biointeractive/click/morning-evening_quiz/index.html http://media.hhmi.org/biointeractive/media/bobtail_squid-lg.mov 65. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aF24ZmPwzb0 http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp52/5202002.html 66. Responses to TimeWhy: Synchronise activity with the environment andother organisms (food, mates) Time activity with food availability Time activity with reduced risk of predators Saves energy checking when the time is right Ensures reproductive activity occurs at the sametime in species Prepare for winter, migrationHow: Internal body clocks endogenous External environmental cues (temp, day length) - exogenousWhen: Annual yearly or circa annual (about a year) Daily 24 hours or circadian (about 24hours) Lunar - monthly or circa lunar (about 29.5 days) tidal rhythms 12.5 hours or circa tidal (about 12.5 hours 67. Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62MSZyDE8Hs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEkjNgaCCu4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IulLbBQPaQo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YRSaLCxfE4&list=PL99360A5D7876B764 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9IdZb3z7Jw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIoIVVPr9fU 68. Terms you MUST knowExogenous = controlled by environmental stimulusEndogenous = biological clock/ regulated internally, no environmentalstimulus neededPeriod of rhythm = time it takes to complete one cycle of activityPhase shift = this occurs during entrainment, it is how much the activity/rhythm has been shifted forward or backFree running period = cyclic behaviour observed without external stimulusEntrainment = the resetting of the biological clockZeitgeber = the environmental cue which resets the biological clockCrepuscular active at dawn and duskDiurnal active during the dayNocturnal active at night 69. Online Activities http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/leafmovements/clocks.html http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp52/5202002.html How good is your biological clock? http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/esttime.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/yawn.html Online interactive on mice activity, you need to read and follow theinstructions http://neuron.illinois.edu/games/mouse-actogram-game http://neuron.illinois.edu/sites/default/files/games/MouseActogram/exploration_guide.pdf http://neuron.illinois.edu/sites/default/files/games/MouseActogram/MouseActogramResponses.pdf Online interactive on fruit fly activity, you need to read and follow theinstructions http://neuron.illinois.edu/games/fruit-fly-simulation http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/measuring-circadian-activity-drosophila 70. RhythmLengthName Givento this typeof RhythmEnvironmental Cue(zeitgeber)Example- give a plantand animalexample- exo/endo?AdvantageAbout 24 hoursAbout 12.5hoursAbout 29.5daysAbout 365 days 71. Daily Cycles in Animals(circadian rhythms) Animals are active at different times of the day: Diurnal active during the day, inactive at night Nocturnal active at night, inactive during the day Crepuscular active at dawn and dusk Arrhythmic no regular pattern 72. Compound Rhythms Animal responds to more than oneenvironmental rhythm Eg. Sandhopper uses lunar orientationat night, solar navigation during the day. 73. Body Temperature Measure your temperature every 2 hours from the timeyou get up in the morning to the time you go to sleep. Don't eat or drink anything right before you take yourtemperature. Make sure to take your temperature the same wayevery time and that you read the temperature VERYACCURATELY....the differences in your bodytemperature are only a few 0.1 of a degree. Chart your body temperature with time...use the X axisfor "Time of Day" and Y axis for "Body Temperature". Do you see a pattern? 74. Actograms 75. Actograms https://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/presentation/d/1yurhxyokv3_eSuOdj9uR4QNBKt-Rm3YHKK0WYC5LXsM/edit#slide=id.p http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IulLbBQPaQo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62MSZyDE8Hs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIoIVVPr9fU http://www.google.co.nz/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDQQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fyear13bio.wikispaces.com%2Ffile%2Fview%2FBIOLOGICAL%2BCLOCKS-wto%2Bmod.ppt&ei=CrrdUq28EYTuiAeAj4DYBg&usg=AFQjCNFGSxfflskQl1UOjKf3gUySkL6e9g&sig2=EX-ol_nGgYw_KCAREEG7sw&bvm=bv.59568121,d.aGc http://lens.auckland.ac.nz/images/8/85/Biological_clocks_seminar_paper.pdf 76. Worksheet 77. Lunar Questions 78. Photoperiodism response in plants to the changing length of nightShort day plants require short days and long nights flower when the photoperiod is less than the criticallength (10 hours daylight and 14 hours darkness) flower in winter e.g. chrysanthemumsLong-day plants require long days and short nights flower when the photoperiod is greater than the criticallength 14 hours daylight and 10hours darkness). flower in summer e.g. sunflowersDay-neutral plants relatively unaffected by the amount of light per day andwill flower at any time of the year e.g. tomatoes 79. Phytochrome SystemPlants photoperiodic response is controlled by a pigment calledphytochromeThis pigment exists in two forms: Pr also called P665 or P red Pfr also called P725 or Pfar RedDaylight is made up of mainly red light with the wavelength of about665nmAt night mainly far red light is present with a wavelength of about725nm 80. Phytochrome absorbs red light during the day andconverts Pr into Pfr At night Pfr is slowly converted back into Pr If the day is long enough Pfr accumulates and longday plants flower If the day is short and night is long Pr accumulatesand short day plants flower 81. Adaptive Advantages Germinate when greatest chance of survivlal Seeds masting (seeds all produced at same time)not all are eaten Flower at same time so can increase crosspollination Flower when pollinators are active Commercially florist can flash different types oflight to induce flowering for valentines etc 82. Online Activities http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp39/3902s.swf http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter41/animation_-_phytochrome_signaling.html http://click4biology.info/c4b/9/plant9.3.htm#6 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGOs8OLJpaY https://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/presentation/d/1-pYQwQ6I86FIK6xuiTg-CZRih2FeIqJMzg5XS5yrims/edit#slide=id.p5 83. Interspecific RelationshipsVideos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1aRSeT-mQE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiQTrA0-TE8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSmL2F1t81Q http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qqa0OPbdvjw https://kleinsclasses.wikispaces.com/file/view/apes-08-species_interactions.swf http://www.skoool.co.uk/content/keystage3/biology/pc/learningsteps/CORLC/LO_Template.swf 84. Interspecific Relationships Relationships BETWEEN two Different species 85. Padlet TableRelationship Definition Example(NZ ifpossible)Advantagefor species 1Advat/disadvantspecies 2CompetitionPredationParasitismCommensalismMutualismHerbivory 86. Answers Competition: Tortoises compete with one another as well aswith the wild goats for food. Predation: The Galpagos tortoise was killed by sailors,pirates, and other human visitors during the 19th century. Parasitism: Mites and ticks suck blood from the tortoise. Mutualism: The tortoise is "cleaned" of ticks and mites by theground finches that eat these parasites, and the tortoisebenefits by not losing blood to the parasitic insects. Commensalism: The scientists at the Charles DarwinResearch Station help tortoises survive by raising theendangered young in specialized areas. Humans receive nodirect benefit from this action. 87. Online Activities http://www.slideshare.net/ericchapman81/5-1-species-interactions http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/content/primary/science/social_patterns/index.html http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/interactives/ecology/ecology.html http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp54/5402003.html http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073031208/student_view0/chapter25/multiple_choice.html You might have to do some research to answer all of these! Have a go at these quizlets http://quizlet.com/ngibellini/folders/300-biology Read the information and then fill in the table: http://www.nsta.org/publications/interactive/galapagos/activities/pdf/atales.pdf http://www.nsta.org/publications/interactive/galapagos/activities/pdf/btales.pdf 88. Plant Responses to theBiotic Environment Plant-plant relationships Plant-fungi relationships Plant-animal relationships Plant defences (aggressive) Co-operative relationships 89. Plant-plant relationships Relationships between plants is morecomplex than you might think. Examples Allelopathy this is when a plant may secretea toxic substance from their roots or leavesthat inhibits plants growing near them. E.g. Chaparral bush, black walnut Seed dispersal mechanisms ensures spreadof offspring over a wide area 90. Plant-plant relationships Growing larger leaves to capture available lightwhen it is reduced Plants arranging in layers (stratification) in responseto differing environmental conditions (will haveadaptations enabling them to survive in certainlayers) Epiphytes grow on other trees to gain access tobetter conditions Lianas plant climb up trees 91. Plant-fungi relationshipsMany plants will form relationships withFungi Mycorrhizal fungi form mutualistic relations withmany plant roots. The fungi help the plantroots absorb water and minerals and in returnget organic molecules (nutrients) made by theplant by photosynthesis Obligate mutualistic relationships lichen(made up of algae and fungi) that are obligedto live together. Fungi absorbs water andnutrients and keeps the algae wet and thealgae carries out photosynthesis and providessugars and food for the fungus. 92. Plant-animal relationships Herbivores eat plants by: Grazing Browsing Suck sap Feed on nectar, pollen, fruit and seeds Chew roots Eat gum 93. Plant defences Plants must have strategies to defendthemselves against herbivory: Examples Thorns Divarication Chemicals Low growing point Seed masting Hiding etchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EFRCe65NV44 94. Co-operation in plants Co-operative interactions between plants andother plants, and plant and animals can include Pollination animal pollinators (insects/birds) areattracted by rewards or advertisements Guarding plants by animals Animals gaining protection from thorns Eating fruits and seeds pass through digestive trackand are dispersed 95. Intraspecific relationshipsVideos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hIjsdq3kdQ http://www.skoool.co.uk/content/keystage3/biology/pc/learningsteps/CORLC/LO_Template.swf 96. Intraspecific RelationshipsRelationships within the same species: Competition for resources Territoriality Hierarchical behaviour Cooperative interactions Hunting in packs Teaching Clumping for: Predator avoidance Warmth Reproductive behaviours Courtship Parental care Pair bond 97. Advantages of Grouping Padlet your ideas:http://padlet.com/wall/advantagesofgrouping Defence - safety in numbers Hunting - cooperative Detection - finding food/ spot predators Mating - accessible Learning - Passing on of knowledge/ skills Clumping - warmth/moisture retention Share responsibility of bringing up young Role specialisation Socialisation - friendship Population size regulation (breeding ability) Aerodynamics - flight in V 98. Disadvantages of Grouping Padlet your ideas:http://padlet.com/wall/disadvantagesgroups competition for resources - food/ mates/ shelter/space/ air Easily spotted by predators Easy transmission of disease Hierarchies - low may get less resources or not breed Fighting - Drama Infant mortality - cannibalism of infants 99. Tasks:For your topic you need to create and interestinginteractive (ict or practical) way to teach the class thefollowing: Definition of behaviour Definitions of key terms related to behaviour (seeindividual slides) You tube clip about behaviour How behaviour is maintained Several Examples of behaviour Adaptive advantages of behaviour Disadvantages of behaviour Make a roll play/skit to demonstrate the behaviour Human example of the behaviour 100. Competition 101. Territorailty http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp53/5302001.html 102. Heriachy 103. Co operative Behaviours 104. Reproductive Behaviours Courtship Mating Pair Bond Parental Care 105. Courtship http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/140848/courtship http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/triple_edexcel/behaviour/animal_plant_behaviour/revision/1/ http://www.thevirtualschool.com/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqsMTZQ-pmE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKKabd3W904 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YQrLPW5DdY http://www.ck12.org/biology/Reproductive-Behavior-of-Animals/lesson/Reproductive-Behavior-of-Animals/r21/ 106. Mating 107. Pair Bonds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uH_rIT0juiM 108. Parental care http://www.thevirtualschool.com/ http://www.ck12.org/biology/Reproductive-Behavior-of-Animals/lesson/Reproductive-Behavior-of-Animals/r21/ 109. Online Activities Sign in using your google account:http://www.ck12.org/biology/Reproductive-Behavior-of-Animals/quiz/Reproductive-Behaviors-of-Animals-Quiz/r1/ 110. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Agonistic behaviour Is aggressive Towards members of the same species Involves threats or fighting Determines which competitor gains accessto resources. Especially strong between members of thesame sex e.g. males fighting over females. 111. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Territories Are established areas for feeding, mating orrearing young, that are defended. Held by aggressive behaviours Usually consist of a lair or nest in the centreof the territory, surrounded by a large homerange that animals cover regularly in searchof food and mates. Only the territory is defended 112. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Advantages of territoriality Ensures space for each animal Reduces disease Harder for predators to find animals if theyare spread out Reduces fighting Ensures there is enough food for everyone Safe breeding sights that are defended Best genes are handed on to offspring 113. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Disadvantages of territoriality Males without territories fail to breed as notseen as attractive Losers must spread out to find food ratherthan fight 114. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Marking and defending Singing Mark with urine Using scent glands Using signals Calling 115. Intraspecific aggressiveresponses Hierarchies when every animal is either above or belowanother (linear hierarchy). There are no equals Forms Pecking Orders (see pg 221-222) Usually established competitively top dog will usually make decisions forthe group Maintained by posture and display 116. Intraspecific co-operativebehaviour Includes Group formation Courtship and pair-bond formation Parental care 117. Group FormationWhen animals join together to co-operativelyundertake tasks E.g. Hunting, defence, protection etc 118. Advantages of forming groupsTeam work while hunting leads toincreased success rate. Less predation as can have membersof the group on look out Older members protect young orweak individuals Large numbers can cause confusionfor predators Breeding sites are located within aboundary that is protected bymembers of a group 119. Disadvantages of groupformation Competition is increased Disease can spread faster Parasites (e.g. fleas) spread faster Increases conflict between members 120. Courtship/pair-bond Refqourirmes cao-toipoernation, suppression of aggressivebehaviours and communication. Usually females make the choice who they matewith, but both partners need to make sure; They are the same species Both fertile Both fully prepared to mate. See 225 121. Courtship Males usually will compete for theattention of females by; Competing with other males by fighting orritualised combat Compete indirectly by attracting femalesby displays and adornments E.g. antlers in deer, brightly coloured feathersin peacocks, singing and dancing of manybird species, producing pheromones. 122. Pair-bond relationship A stable relationship between animals ofthe opposite sex that ensures co-operativebehaviour on mating andrearing of the young E.g. turns, albatross 123. Parental Care Survival depends on successfully breedingadequate numbers of offspring. Can be achieved by to possible strategies R-strategy produce large numbers ofunprepared offspring with a low chance ofsurvival K-strategy produce few, well preparedoffspring which have a high chance ofsurvival See 227 Biozone. 124. Parental Care Degree of parental care depends on thespecies E.g. eggs buried and then abandoned(many fish species), nest constructed anddefended, offspring themselves defended Often those species that have a highdegree of parental care will teach theiroffspring how to find food, where to findwater, how to make a home etc. 125. Reproductive Strategies Monogamy each mating with only onemember of the opposite sex (often for life)Polygyny males mate with many femalesthus fathering many offspringPolygamy dominant males mates with aharem of femalesPolyandry females mate with more thanone malePolygynadry (promiscuity) both male andfemale mate with more than one memberof the opposite sex.See 224 Biozone 126. Achievement StandardDemonstrate understanding involves describing plant and animal responses totheir external environment. The description includes: the process(es) within each response and/or the adaptive advantageprovided for the organism in relation to its ecological niche.Demonstrate in-depth understanding involves using biological ideas to explain: how the responses occur why the responses provide an adaptive advantage for the organism inrelation to its ecological niche.Responses are selected from those relating to: orientation in space (tropisms, nastic responses, taxes, kineses, homing,migration) orientation in time (annual, daily, lunar, tidal rhythms) interspecific relationships (competition for resources, mutualism,exploitation including herbivory, predation, and parasitism) intraspecific relationships (competition for resources, territoriality,hierarchical behaviour, cooperative interactions, reproductivebehaviours). External environment will include both biotic and abiotic factors. 127. Revision https://sites.google.com/a/tamaki.ac.nz/mrs-j-s-science/year-13-biology/plant-animal http://mrsthorntonnz.wikispaces.com/Year+13+Biology#WELCOME!!!--Animal%20Behaviour%20and%20Plant%20Responses%20%2891603%29 https://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/document/d/14NdGdL7WpXQY8T-hVLH7qxC39xJJ2wHRcA0thca_Sec/edit Answers:https://docs.google.com/a/cloud.waimea.school.nz/document/d/1o3tPvEVFkcZt-zQrj2GsH4_fLqhVmheRXmkp4a1GXFw/edit 128. THE END!!!