nutritional statistics in india

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nutrition and food statistics in india

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<ul><li>1. 1 TST Issues Brief: Food Security and Nutrition1 I. Stocktaking Foodsecurityandnutritionareessentialdimensionsofsustainabledevelopment.Inadequatefoodsecurityand nutritiontakeanenormoustolloneconomiesandhavenegativeconsequencesforthelivelihoodsandeconomic capabilitiesofvulnerablepopulations.Aworldwhereallenjoyfreedomfromwant,andprogressivelyrealizetheir righttoadequatefoodandnutritioncanonlyberealizedthroughfarreachingtransformations,supportedbypolicies andprogrammespromotingsustainabledevelopmentinallitsthreedimensions.Stronginterdependenciesexist betweenfoodsecurityandnutritionandmanyotherpartsofabroadsustainabledevelopmentagendainclusive economicgrowth,populationdynamics,decentemployment,socialprotection,energy,water,health,sanitation, naturalresourcemanagementandprotectingecosystems.Theempowermentofwomen,andaddressing inequalitiesnotablygenderinequityandruralurbaninequalitiesareascriticaltofoodsecurityandnutritionas theyaretoauniversalsustainabledevelopment.Theempowermentoffamilies,especiallywomenwhoarethe mainchildcareprovidersandareresponsibleforthefoodpreparationandinfantandyoungchildfeeding,isalso criticalforthesegoals. Hunger,foodinsecurityandmalnutritioncanbeendedsustainablywithinageneration2 .However,thechallengeis immense:oneineightpeopleintheworldtoday(868million)areundernourishedandapproximatelytwobillion sufferfrommicronutrientdeficiencies.Significantprogresshasbeenmadetoreduceratesofundernourishment, childstunting,underweight,micronutrientdeficiencies,andchildmortality.Butsuchprogresshasbeenunevenand subjecttosetbackscausedbyfoodpriceincreases,conflict,andothershocks.Newchallengeshavealsoemerged, suchasincreasingincidenceofoverweightinmanycountries. Thebroaderenvironmentthatencompassesfoodsystems,andtheirproductionandconsumptioncomponents,has changedconsiderablyinrecentyears.Moreornewformsofinvestmentareflowingintothefoodandagricultural sectors,althoughneedsfarexceedinvestmentlevels.Newpatternsofgovernanceoffoodsystemsareemerging. Theenvironmentforfoodproductionisincreasinglychallengingparticularlyforsmallholdersdueto environmentalandclimaterelatedconstraints,degradationofecosystems,globalization,andmarketintegration. Thisnewlandscapehasprofoundimplicationsacrossnationalboundaries,underliningtheneedforholistic, innovative,andcollaborativesolutions,policies,andstrategies.Thereisneedforauniversalagenda,butalsofor countryandcontextspecificstrategies.Peoplecenteredapproachesareneeded,underpinnedbyprinciplesof humanrights,inclusion,nationalownership,andaccountability. Despiteprogress,theglobalcommunitymustaddresssignificantchallengestomeettheneedsoftheestimated868 millionundernourishedtoday.Incomparisonwiththeglobalsituationseveraldecadesago,asignificantlylower percentageofchildrenundertheageoffivetodayarestunted(lowheightforage),underweight(lowweightfor age),orwasted(lowweightforheight).However,majorregionaldisparitiesexist:insubSaharanAfrica36%of childrenundertheageoffivearestunted,inAsiathecorrespondingfigureis27%3 .Moreover,otherformsof malnutritionspecificallyoverweightandobesityarerapidlyrising.Globally,morethan1.4billionadultsare overweight.4 Theincreasingprevalenceofoverweightandthecloselyrelatedincreasesinnoncommunicable diseaseisatleastpartlyaconsequenceofchangingdietsandlifestyles.Inmanycontexts,however,theincidenceof overweightisalsocloselyrelatedtopoverty.Currenttrendsintheprevalenceofoverweightmaycontinueaspartof societaltransformationsassociatedwitheconomicgrowthandurbanization.Thisputsadditionalpressureonpublic healthsystemsandonagriculture.Theagriculturalsectorisalsounderpressurefromenvironmentalandclimatic factorsandfrompopulationgrowth.Globaldemandforfoodaswellasnonfoodagriculturalproducts(e.g.biofuels) 1 TheTechnicalSupportTeam(TST)iscochairedbytheDepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairsandtheUnitedNations DevelopmentProgramme.PreparationofthebriefhasbeencoledbyWFP,FAOandIFAD,withcontributionsfromESCAP,ILO, UNEP,UNICEF,UNV,andUNWomen. 2 Foraglobalvisionandbuildingblockstowardsendinghunger,foodinsecurityandmalnutrition,readersmayreferto documentationstemmingfromtheHighLevelConsultationonHunger,FoodSecurityandNutritioninthePost2015 DevelopmentFramework(Madrid,4April2013)availableat:http://www.worldwewant2015.org/food2015 3 UNICEFWHOTheWorldBank:JointchildmalnutritionestimatesLevelsandtrends.2011estimates. http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/estimates/en/index.html 4 WHO.2012.Obesityandoverweight.FactsheetNo.311.Geneva,Switzerland </li></ul><p>2. 2 isincreasing,andmoreresourceintensive(e.g.animalprotein)foodsrepresentagreaterpartofthisdemand. Meanwhile,alargepercentageoffoodcurrentlyproducedislostorwasted.Moresustainableproductionand consumptionmodelsareneeded. Whilecurrentandfuturechallengesdifferfromthepast,responsestonewchallengescanandshouldbuildon lessonslearnedfromnationalexperiences. MDG1recognizesthecloselinkbetweenincomepovertyandfoodaccess,whichisimportanttoretainatatime whenfoodinsecurityandundernutritionareprimarilyproblemsofaccess.Poornutritionaloutcomesarealso relatedtoinadequatehealth,poorsanitation,andmanyotherfactors.GlobalexperienceinthepursuitofMDG1 shows,however,thatprogressinreducingextremeincomepovertydoesnotnecessarilyresultinaproportionate reductionofcaloricintakedeficiencies.Althoughrecentdataindicatesthattheworldhassucceededinachievingthe povertytargetofMDG1,progressinreducingfoodinsecurityandmalnutritionhasbeenlessrobust.Measuresof foodinsecurity,particularlythosethataddressundernourishment,donotadequatelycaptureandreflectaspects relatedtomicronutrientdeficiencies,nordotheyadequatelydistinguishbetweenchronicfoodinsecurityand shorterperiodsofacutedeprivationorvulnerability. Onemajorlessonisthatstrategiesforaddressingpovertyneedtobenutritionsensitivetoensurecommensurate impactsonmalnutrition.Thishasimplicationsintermsofthepolicyandinvestmentchoicesmadebycountriesfor drivingdevelopmentandgrowth,aswellasformodelsofsustainablegrowth,production,andconsumption. Nutritionsensitivegrowthisgrowththatinvolvesandreachespeoplelivinginpoverty,especiallythrough increasedemploymentandotherincomeearningopportunities.Italsogeneratesresourcesthatpoorhouseholds andpublicinstitutionsactuallyusetoimprovenutritionalstatus.Appropriateincentivesandservicesareneededto improvedietsandaccesstohealthcare.Agricultureledgrowthisgenerallymosteffectiveinreducingfood insecurityandmalnutrition,especiallywhensupplementedbysocialprotectionandnutritionspecificinterventions, suchasmicronutrientsupplementationandsupporttobreastfeeding.However,agricultureledgrowthcanonly leadtosustainableimprovementsinfoodsecurityifitisrootedinmoreproductive,sustainable,resilient,and inclusiveagriculturesystems. Asecondlessonisthatprogressinraisingaveragecalorieintakeandimprovingnutritionalstatusissensitivetoprice shocks,suchasthoseaffectingglobalfoodmarketsoverthepastsixyears.Pricevolatilityisgenerallyexpectedto becomemorecommoninthefuture.Higherfoodpriceshaveslowedorevenreversedprogressinreducingfood insecurityforseveralcountries.Thereisagreaterneedtoincorporateresilienceintolocalfoodsystems,livelihoods andgrowthstrategies. Athirdlessonisthatevenashortperiodofinadequatenutritionbeforetheageoftwo(first1000days)has importantlongtermconsequencesduetoitslargelyirreversibleeffectsonanindividualsphysicalandmental development.Suchconsequencesimpactnotonlytheindividualandthehousehold,butalsothelongerterm growthprospectsofsocieties. Similartoextremeincomepoverty,foodinsecuritycontinuestobepredominantlyconcentratedinruralareasof developingcountries,anddisproportionatelyaffectspoorfarmers,agriculturalworkers,pastoralists,andrural communities.Promotingfoodsecurityrequiresparticularattentiontotheruralsectorwithadualfocuson smallholderagricultureandthenonfarmeconomy.Akeyunderlyingcauseofrecentglobalfoodpriceshocksis,for instance,concentrationofproductionofthemaintradedcerealsinafewgeographicareas,coupledwithgrowing environmentalandclimaticchallenges,thininternationalmarkets,andhightransactioncosts.Investinginrural sectors,improvingruralurbanlinkages,andpromotingmarketdevelopmentcanmitigatefoodpriceshocksand theirimpactonfoodsecurity.Resilientandsustainablesystemsrequireresponsibleandinclusiveinvestment.This isanimportantdimensionoffoodsecurityandnutritionthatdidnotquiteemergeintheMDGsbecauseofthelack oflinkagesbetweenMDG1andMDG7. ImplementationofMDG1has,ingeneral,notadequatelyaddressedmalnutrition(includingunderandover nutrition)initsmanydimensions.ThisispartlybecauseMDG1hadalimitedfocusintermsofindicatorsofunder nutrition,andpartlybecauseitdidnotencourageaspecificfocusondeterminantsoffoodsecurity,suchasgender equalityandwomensempowerment,socialinclusionandequalaccesstoopportunitiesandresources.Nordid MDG1encouragespecificattentiontounequalnutritionaloutcomesamongdifferentpopulationgroups.Different 3. 3 countrieshaveundertakendifferentstrategiestoachieveMDG1,whichprovideavarietyoflessonsfortheSDGs.In particular,theevidencepointstoaneedfor: Strategiestopromoteinclusivegrowth,particularlyintheruralsectorandwithafocusonsmallholder systems.Thereisalonghistoryofsuccessinreducingfoodinsecurityandmalnutritionincountriesthathave investedinagricultureled,inclusivegrowththroughacombinationofagriculturalresearch,adoptionofimproved technologies,knowledge,extensionandinformationservicesforsmallproducers.Otherimportantelementsinclude ruraleducation,secureandequitableaccesstoland,water,productiveresourcesandfinancialcapital,infrastructure development(e.g.irrigation,roads,warehouses),andastablemarketenvironment.Theexperienceofseveral countriesinEastandSouthEastAsiaduringandaftertheGreenRevolutionisanotableexampleofacomprehensive agriculturefocusedstrategyofgrowththatresultedinsimultaneouslyreducingpovertyandfoodinsecurityatscale, althoughwithsignificantenvironmentalexternalities.Theimpactpathwaysofthisapproachwereatleastthreefold vastlyincreasedfoodproduction(primarilybysmallholderfarmers)andcheaperfoodforurbanconsumers;higher profitsforfarmers;andhigherwagesforagriculturallabourers.Similarimpactwasachievedincountriesasdiverse asIndia,China,andBangladeshfromcreatingamoreenablingenvironmentforprivateinvestorsonfarmorin ancillarysectors. Strategiesintegratingsocialprotectionwithfoodinterventions.Socialprotectionisanimportantelement ofmanynationalstrategiestoreducemalnutrition.Thisincludesspecificprogramsdesignedtoaddressthe nutritionalneedsofwomenofchildbearingage,pregnantandlactatingmothers.Thereisaneedforagreater emphasisonchildhoodnutritionduringthefirst1000daysofachildslife,fromconceptiontotwoyearsofage, whenundernutritionismostlikelytohavelonglastingnegativeconsequences.Additionally,socialprotection measures,includingsocialprotectionfloorinitiatives,areincreasinglyseenasintegraltostrategiestopromote growthandinvestment.Integratedsocialprotectionprogramswithexplicitfoodsecurityandnutritionobjectives havebeenpromotedincountrieslikeBrazil,Mexico,Colombia,Ethiopia,Kenya,andothers;althoughthe determinantsofimpactsonnutritionarenotalwaysclear.Conditionalcashtransfershavedemonstratedthat positiveimpactsonnutritionrequireamultidimensionalapproach.Examplesincludeprogrammesthatpromote healthcare,education,andwomensempowerment.Unconditionalcashtransfershavealsobeenfoundtohave positiveimpactsonreducingstuntinginsomecountries(e.g.Ecuador,SouthAfrica).Researchshowsthatsafetynet programsneedtocombinedifferentapproaches(e.g.cashplusfood)torespondtodifferentcircumstances(e.g. localfoodsupplycapacity). Strategiespromotinghumancapitaldevelopmentandinclusion,withparticularfocusongender.Muchof theliteratureonnutritionsuggeststhatdeterminantsvarydependingoncontextandpopulationgroup.Onevery commonfindingacrosscontextsisthatprogressinwomensempowermentandgenderequalityisstrongly correlatedwithimprovednutrition.Therearemultiplefacetsandcausallinkagesrelatedtoincomegeneration,food production,processing,andpreparation,childbearing,caretakingandmotheringroles.Investmentinwomens educationparticularlybeyondtheprimarylevelandinwomenshealth(includingreproductivehealthandrights), aswellastheremovalofdiscriminatorylawsandpoliciestoensurewomensequalaccessandrightstoresources, servicesandsocialprotection,areallimportantfactorsforimprovednutrition.Reductionsinfoodinsecurityand malnutritionhavealsobeenassociatedwithcomprehensivepoliciesoneducationandgenderequalityinanumber ofcountries.Investmentinhealthandnutritioneducationprogrammesinschoolsandininformalandnonformal settingshasalsoshownpositiveimpact. Integratedpolicyandprogrammeinterventionsfocusedonfoodsecurityandnutrition.Numerous countriestodayhaveintegratedfoodsecurityandnutritionplans.OneexampleistheEthiopiaNationalNutrition Programme,whichincludesanumberofinterventionsthataddressbothimmediateandunderlyingcausesof malnutritionatthecommunitylevelthroughfreehealthservices,micronutrientsupplementation,andsocial protectioninitiativesbasedoncashorfoodforwork.Theprogramhasledtomeasurableimprovementsinnutrition outcomes(e.g.childstunting).Severalothercountrieshavelargenutritionalprogramsinvolvingschoolfeeding, foodpreparationandnutritionalawareness,promotionofbreastfeeding,improvedweaningpractices,andbio fortification.Diverseandintegratedapproachesofteninvolveagriculture,employmentgeneration,social protection,education,healthcare,andsanitation.Nepal,Peru,Rwanda,andothercountrieshaveimplemented multisectorcommunitylevelinterventionswithinbroadernationalframeworks.Thesecountrieshaveincluded specificeffortstoreachouttomarginalizedareasandpopulationgroups,includingindigenouspeoples,andto promotediversityoflocalfoodavailability.Abroaderapproachhasbeenundertakeninanumberofcountries 4. 4 adoptingzerohungerstrategies.Insomecases,thesehaveinvolvedacomplexsetofinstitutionalandpolicy initiativeslinkingmacroeconomicpolicytosocialprotection,marketdevelopment,minimumwageincreases, investmentinhumancapital,citizenshipinvolvementandcommunityemploymentgeneration.InBrazilsFomeZero program,atransformationoffoodmarketstoensuretheempowermentandintegrationofsmallfamilyfarmershas alsobeenanimportantfactor. Addressingfoodinsecurityincrisissituations.Onekeylessonfromacountrydisaggregatedreviewof trendsinfoodsecurityandnutritionistheimportanceofinsecurity,conflict,climatevariability,andvulnerabilityto shocksandcrises.Afarreachingexercisetoidentifychallengestopromotingfoodsecurityandimprovednutrition inprotractedcriseshasbeenunderwayundertheauspicesoftheCommitteeonWorldFoodSecuritysince2011. Causesofprotractedcrisissituationsarediverse,butcommonconditionsincludefrequentorcontinuedexposureto shocksthatunderminelivelihoods,foodandmarketsystems.Weakinstitutionalandgovernancecapacityaswellas unsustainableorinequitableuseofnaturalresourcesarealsoacommonfeatureofprotractedcrises.Emergency interventionsinthesecontextsareoftennotwellintegratedwithdevelopmentapproachestoaddressstructural issuesandpromoteresilience.Futureadvancesinpracticeandresearchareneededbettertopromoteresilienceand integratepeacebuildingintofoodsecurityinterventionsinthesecontexts. II. Overviewofproposals ExistinggoalscanbedrawnbothfromtheMDGsandagreedoutcomesofUnitedNationsconference...</p>