The American pika: a model species to study biotic responses to climate change

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PowerPoint Presentation Philippe Henry, November 21st 2011The American pika: a model species to study biotic responses to climate changePhilippe HenryNRESi Colloquium SeriesSeptember 27th 2013, UNBC, PG, BC.THANK YOU ALLAN. IT IS A GREAT PLEASE TO BE ABLE TO PRESENT SOME OF THE RESEARCH I HAVE DONE/ AND CONTINUED TO DO ON PIKAS. MY TALK TODAY WILL FOCUS ON INTRODUCING THE AMERICAN PIKA AS A MODEL SYSTEM TO STUDY BIOTIC RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND HOW SOME OF THE RESULTS OF MY WORK COULD BE APPLIED TO GUIDE WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.1American pika biology & climate changeUBC-O/UofC research in BC Coast MntsApplications to Management and future directionsEnough time for questionsHERE IS HOW THE TALK IS STRUCTURED. I HAVE USED DIFFERENT COLORS TO REPRESENT THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF MY TALK.2What is a Pika?A small relative of rabbits and hares:Order lagomorphaWHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? WELL YOU MAY NOT KNOW THAT, BUT THE RABBIT HAS BEEN ENTIRELY SEQUENCED, deep coverage draft 7X coverage - 3500MBASE, 21 CHROMOSOMES, MEANING THAT PIKAS ARE A GENOME ENABLED SPECIES3LIKE RABBITS, PIKAS DO NOT HIBERNATE AND REMAIN ACTIVE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. IN WINTER, RELYING ON A HEAVY BLANKED OF SNOW TO SHELTER THEN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES. ALTHOUGH A GOOD BUNCH OF SNOW IS A GOOD INSULATOR, SUB-NIVAL TEMPERATURES ARE NEVERTHELESS COLD AS YOU CAN IMAGINE. THIS IS AN ISSUE FOR PIKAS SINCE THEY HAVE A RELATIVELY SMALL BODY SIZE AND THUS LOOSE HEAT MORE RAPIDLY THAN THEIR LARGER COUSINS. TO DEAL WITH THE VAGARIES OF THE ENVIRONMENTS THEY INHABIT, PIKAS HAVE EVOLVED A VERY HIGH RESTING METABOLIC RATE TO KEEP THEM WITHIN THEIR THERMAL LIMIT IN WINTER, BUT THIS ALSO MEANS THAT THEY ARE VERY SUCCESPTIBLE TO OVERHEATING IN SUMMER. the body temperature of a pika is near its thermal maximum: the resting temperature is 40 deg C, but the lethal temperature is 43 deg C. They also lack heat dissipatingmechanisms like panting. Theyve been shown to die of hyperthermia aftereven brief exposure to moderately high temperatures: 26 to 28 deg C.*** LIKE RABBITS, generalist herbivores, HINDGUT FERMENTERS, HAVE BEEN REFFERED TO AS MICRO-UNGULATES.4FROM THE PREVIOUS SLIDE YOU REMEMBER THAT PIKA SPENT THEIR WINTERS UNDER THE SNOW AND SO RESORT TO A HEAVY DOSE OF FOOD HOARDING DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS IN ORDER TO STASH ENOUGH ENOUGH RESERVES FOR THE WINTER. THAT VARIED VEGETATION IN HAYPILES LIKE THE ON YOU SEE ON THIS PHOTO. 5ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF PIKAS IS THAT THEY ARE Habitat specialists! Talus slopes, rocks slopes of various shapes. THIS HAS SEVERAL IMPLICATIONS. FIRST, THAT MAKES PIKAS EASY TO FIND. IN THIS EXAMPLE HERE IS A SATTELLITE IMAGE FROM GOOGLE EARTH WHICH I USE TO SCOPE OUT POTENTIAL SITES, THE STAR REPRESENTS THE PLACE WHERE THE PHOTO WAS TAKEN THE SUMMER AFTER. SO EASY TO FIND, EVEN FROM YOUR DESK!!!THIS TYPE OF HABITAT IS NOT CONTINUOUS, AND IS NATURALLY FRAGMENTED.ANOTHER THING IS THAT TALUS PROVIDES SHELTER FROM PREDATORS AS WELL AS ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES.6ANOTHER GREAT THING ABOUT PIKAS IS THEIR High probability of detection! THERE ARE SEVERAL REASONS FOR THAT. FIRST, PIKAS ARE HIGHLY TERRITORIAL AND ACTIVELY DEFEND THEIR TERRITORIES WITH VOCALIZATIONS, MY TITLE IMAGE WAS A PIKA ACTIVELY TELLING ME TO GET OUT OF HIS/HER TERRITORY, SAME HERE ANOTHER GREAT THING IS THOSE HAYPILES THAT WE TALKED ABOUT, EASY TO FIND. AND LATRINE SITES COVERED IN PEPPERCORN SIZED PELLETS. ALSO GREAT INDICATOR OF PAST OCCUPANCY IN CASE SITE IS EXTIRPATED. Ideal species for patch occupancy modelling7Two species in North AmericaBEFORE I GO ANY FURTHER, I WANT TO STATE THAT FACT THAT THERE ARE TWO SPECIES IN NA. THE MOUNTANOUS AREAS OF EURASIA ARE THE SITES OF ORIGIN OF THESE LITTLE GUYS WITH 28 PIKA SPECIES FOUND ON THAT CONTINENT. The ancestor of these wonderful lagormorph species travelled across the bearing strait during THE MIOCENE (5-20MYA) and differentiated sometime before the pleistocene and this was the classic story. UNTIL RECENTLY IT WAS THOUGHT THAT THE AMERICAN PIKAS WAS A DESCENDANT FROM ITS NORTHERN NEIGHBOR AS HAS BEEN THE CASE FOR A NUMBER OF NORTH AMERICAN TAXA8Collared pikaPostglacial re-colonization occurred South to North Not North to south as previously thoughthost-parasite comparative phylogeographical (HPCP) approach to evaluate one such history, by testing competing biogeographic hypotheses for five lineages of host-specific parasites shared by the collared pika (Ochotona collaris) and American pika (Ochotona princeps) of North America. THIS IS NOT NECESSARILY CENTRAL TO MY TALK, BUT I FIGURED I WOULD MENTION IT AS IT IS A REALLY NEAT CASE OF USING PARASITE TO REVEAL CRIPTIC BIOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN HOST SPECIES. 5 SPECIES OF PARASITES9Definitive taxonomybased on: mtDNA Vocalizations MorphometricsGOING BACK TO THE AMERICAN PIKA, SO SOUTH OF WHERE WE ARE ANOTHER GREAT THINGS ABOUT PIKAS IS THAT THERE TAXONOMY HAS BEEN INTENSELY STUDIES AND REACHED A CLIMAX WITH THIS 2010 REVISION OF THE SUB-SPECIFIC TAXONOMY! Compared to previously descirbed 36 subspecies/10 in BC!!!!10Range retraction- 30% extirpated- 145 m upslope migration/decadeDrivers of extirpation- Snowpack ~ cold temperature- Summer temperature- ElevationIT IS COMMONLY ACKNOWLEDGED IN THE LITERATURE THAT CLIMATE CHANGE HAS LED AND WILL LEAD TO SHIFTING DISTRIBUTIONS IN A NUMBER OF SPECIES. PIKAS ARE NO EXCEPTIONS, HERE IS THE LAST OF A SERIES OF PAPERS THAT DEMONSTRATES 30% LOCAL EXTIRPATION IN PIKA POPULATIONS FROM THE GREAT BASIN USA. THEY REVISITED HISTORICAL SITES OF KNOWN PIKA OCCURANCE FROM LAST CENTURY IN 1999 AND 2008.. ALSO MODELLED THE DRIVERS OF EXTIRPATION IN THIS SYSTEM AND.previous estimate from Parmesan and Yohe, 2003: 6m per per decadeChronic mean annual temp. ACUTE MIN WINTER TEMP AND MAX SUMMER TEMP.11EvolutionVolume 63, Issue 11, pages 2848-2863, 3 AUG 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00803.xhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00803.x/full#f5Figure 5. Ecological niche models (ENM) showing the predicted distribution of Ochotona princeps under (A) last glacial maximum (LGM),(B) current, and (C) future climatic conditions. Distributions are shown at 0.1 (light gray) and 0.5 (dark gray) probability thresholds. Thevisible area in all maps is 103 to 130 W and 30 to 60 N. Note that the continental margin depicted on the LGM map differs from theothers because sea levels were lower during glacial periods. On the LGM map, the approximate extent of the continental ice sheet andmontane glaciers (P ewe 1983; Porter et al. 1983) and full-pluvial lakes (Baker 1983; Smith and Street-Perrott 1983) are masked in white.Open triangles indicate fossil pika localities that date to the Late Pleistocene and Holocene (Mead 1987; Hafner 1993; Grayson 2005). Onthe current conditions map, open circles indicate localities used to train and test the ENM.12Field siteLoarie, predicted probability of extirpation for 21st century (red is high).1314LOCATION OF BELLA COOLA VALLEY, DARK GREY AREAS REPRESENT THE DISTRIBUTION OF AMERICAN PIKAS. ONE THING YOU WILL NOTICE RIGHT AWAY IS THAT THESE STUDY SITES ARE NEAR THE NORTHERN LIMIT OF PIKA DISTRIBUTION AND ONE NEAT THING ABOUT THIS VALLEY IS THAT PIKA ARE DISTRIBUTED ALONG ELEVATION GRADIENTS, FROM SEA LEVEL TO ABOUT 1500M.Elevation gradients: The Hill Henry et al. (2012) Northwest Science15THESE ELEVATION GRADIENTS WERE USED AS SURROGATES FOR THE FORCASTED CLIMATE CHANGES FOR THE REGION IN A SPACE FOR TIME NATURAL EXPERIMENT. HERE IS THE EXAMPLE OF ONE GRADIENT WHERE WE SET TEMPERATURE LOGGERS TO MONITOR AMBIANT AND TALUS TEMPERATURES. Average of 7C difference from top to bottom of transect. Temperature loggers along elevation gradient, Natural experimentThree elevation transects as surrogates for predicted climate change. Space for time!!!Noninvasive samplingHenry & Russello (2011) European Journal of Wildlife Research; Henry et al. (2011) Journal of Visualized Experiments16MY INTEREST WAS TO SHED LIGHT ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENETIC VARIATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. I THUS REQUIRED A MEANS TO SAMPLE A LARGE NUMBER OF PIKAS. LIFE TRAPPING CAN BE COMPLICATED WITH THIS SPECIES, SO I EXPERIEMENTED WITH NONINVASIVE SAMPLING. AND THIS IS WHAT WE CAME UP WITH. THE BEAUTY ABOUT THIS SNARE IS THAT IT REQUIRES NOTHING MORE THAN A ROLL OF PACKING TAPE, PRETT EASY TO HAUL AROUND.Noninvasive samplingHenry & Russello (2011) European Journal of Wildlife Research; Henry et al. (2011) Journal of Visualized Experiments17Noninvasive sampling18This is what a successful hair snag should look like, the hair collected will be stored in tubes or paper envelopes and stored at -20 in a liquid nitrogen dewer until the samples are returned to the lab for molecular work.This is called noninvasive genetic sampling. That means that you dont need to capture the animals any longer, you can simply invent ways to collect biological material from them for your studies. This is very often used in studies of endangered species since researchers want to have the least negative effect on these species!Noninvasive samplingin action19This is what a successful hair snag should look like, the hair collected will be stored in tubes or paper envelopes and stored at -20 in a liquid nitrogen dewer until the samples are returned to the lab for molecular work.This is called noninvasive genetic sampling. That means that you dont need to capture the animals any longer, you can simply invent ways to collect biological material from them for your studies. This is very often used in studies of endangered species since researchers want to have the least negative effect on these species!Hair samples = DNA20This is what a successful hair snag should look like, the hair collected will be stored in tubes or paper envelopes and stored at -20 in a liquid nitrogen dewer until the samples are returned to the lab for molecular work.This is called noninvasive genetic sampling. That means that you dont need to capture the animals any longer, you can simply invent ways to collect biological material from them for your studies. This is very often used in studies of endangered species since researchers want to have the least negative effect on these species!Hill LOW Elevation21Open circles represents admixed individuals and full circles represent migrants. There is evidence for migration between the low elevation populations from the Hill, and evidence for downhill migration in nusatsum, but no evidence for uphill migrations2. Genetic basis of adaptation across elevation gradientsMETHODSEnvironmental variablesClimateBC:Altitude (ALT)Mean annual temperature (MAT)Mean annual precipitation (MAP)Precipitation as Snow (PAS)Summer mean maximum temperature (Tmax)Winter mean minimum temperature (Tmin)22THE NEXT STEP IS TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER ADAPTATIONS CAN BE FOUND AT THE GENETIC LEVEL IN THIS SYSTEM. Environmental driversMAP, PAS, Tmax, Tmin ~23Linear regression of the frequency of E31T37_104 against mean annual precipitation (MAP), depicting a significant negative relationship (=0.84, F-test, F=47.27, DF=8, P=0.0001) across the longitudinal gradient from coast to interior.10 were correlated with MAP, seven with PAS, and three with Tmax and TminMidHighEnvironmental drivers Tmax, Tmin, MAP, PASLow~24Linear regression of the frequency of E38T32_136 against summer mean maximum temperature (Tmax), depicting a significant negative relationship (=0.82, F-test, F=23, DF=6, P=0.009) across the Hill elevation gradient. Tmax was associated with four outliers, followed by Tmin (three loci), MAP (two loci), and PAS (one locus)What are proximate causesDirect:Temperature cold (~quality of snowpack) and heat stressIndirect:Precipitation effect on vegetation and snowpackBiotic interactions:Competition other mammals moving uphillPredation/Parasitism25Climate might affect pikas directly through thermal stress. Most attention has focused on this thermal stress because, even at rest, the body temperature ofa pika is near its thermal maximum: the resting temperature is 40 deg C, but the lethal temperature is 43 deg C. They also lack heat dissipatingmechanisms like panting. Theyve been shown to die of hyperthermia after even brief exposure to moderately high temperatures: 26 to 28 deg C.Applications to ManagementAssisted migrationIf circumventing climate-driven extinction is a conservation priority, then assisted migration must be considered a management option. 26First steps Banff Monitoring programCounting hay pilesHair snaresRemote camerasIf circumventing climate-driven extinction is a conservation priority, then assisted migration must be considered a management option. 27First steps Banff Monitoring program28Future directionExtend sampling and Monitoring programIn the first place Canadian Rockies293 low elevation(1 site )3 high elevation(1 site )normalized cDNA library construction454 GS FLX Titanium (Gnome Qubec )~25,000 SNPs identified-liver, heart, gill, testes, olfactory bulbs - Pooled approach30-liver, heart, gill, testes, olfactory bulbs - Pooled approach31The sea level pikas32

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