[Week 02, IID] Introduction to UX Prototyping

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download


  • Lecture 2

    Introduction to User Experience Prototyping

    UX Prototyping / IID 2015 Spring Class hours : Tuesday 2 pm 6 pm Lecture room : International Campus Veritas Hall B320 10th March

  • To Do List for Today

    Present your personal statements and portfolio


    Introduction to User Experience Studies

    Users Mental Model


    Voting the class representative for the summer show 2015

    Studio Setting

    Make each service account

    Warm up with Pinterest workshop

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 2

  • The Last Weeks Homework

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 3

    Make Blog Upload

    Personal Statement

    Upload Portfolio

    1 2 3

    Make a personal blog - Blogger - Wordpress - Tumblr

    Your Blog Post #1 - Length : 1,000 words or less - Who I am, and What I have

    been through - Things that I like - What I like to Learn from the

    course - My dreams

    Your Blog Post #2 - Upload images of your works - Pick your Favorite - Tell us why the work is your


  • Individual Presentation

    Personal Statement Presentation Bullet Points Who I am, and What I have been through

    Things that I like

    What I like to Learn from the course

    My dreams

    Portfolio Presentation Bullet Points Title


    How it reflected the original idea, and how it evolved

    Tools(or Techniques) that I used

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 4


    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 5

  • The components of UX

    User Experience

    User experience is the totality of the effect or effects felt by a user as a

    result of interaction with, and the usage context of, a system, device, or

    product, including the influence of usability, usefulness, and emotional

    impact during interaction, and savoring the memory after interaction.

    Interaction with is broad and embraces seeing, touching, and thinking

    about the system or product, including admiring it and its presentation

    before any physical interaction.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 6

  • The components of UX


    Usability is the pragmatic component of user experience, including effectiveness,

    efficiency, productivity, ease-of-use, learnability, retainability, and the pragmatic aspects

    of user satisfaction.


    Usefulness is the component of user experience to which system functionality gives the

    ability to use the system or product to accomplish the goals of work(or play).


    Functionality is power to do work(or play) seated in the non-user-interface

    computational features and capabilities.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 7

  • The components of UX

    Emotional Impact

    Emotional impact is the affective component of user experience that

    influences user feelings. Emotional impact includes such effects as

    pleasure, fun, joy of use, aesthetics, desirability, pleasure, novelty,

    originality, sensations, coolness, engagement, appeal and can involve

    deeper emotional factors such self-identity, a feeling of contribution to the

    world and pride of ownership.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 8

  • Ubiquitous Interaction

    Desktop, Graphical User Interfaces, and the Web Are Still Here and


    The old-fashioned desktop, laptop, and network-based computing

    systems are alive and well and seem to be everywhere, an expanding

    presence in our lives.

    Word processing, database management, storing and retrieving

    information, spreadsheet management.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 9

  • Ubiquitous Interaction

    The Changing Concept of Computing

    Computer systems are being worn by people and embedded within

    appliances, homes, offices, stereos and entertainment systems, vehicles,

    and roads.

    Computation and interaction are also finding their way into walls, furniture,

    and objects we carry (briefcases, purses, wallets, wrist, watches, PDAs,


    Most of the user-computer interaction attendant to this ubiquitous

    computing in everyday contexts is taking place without keyboards, mice,

    or monitors.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 10

  • Ubiquitous Interaction

    The Changing Concept of Interaction With an obviously enormous market potential, mobile communications are perhaps the fastest

    growing area of ubiquitous computing with personal devices and also represent one of the

    most intense areas of designing for a quality user experience.

    Interaction, however, is doing more than just reappearing in different devices such as we see in Web access via mobile phone. Weiser (1991) said . . . the most profound technologies are

    those that disappear.

    Russell, Streitz, and Winograd (2005) also talk about the disappearing computernot computers that are departing or ceasing to exist, but disappearing in the sense of becoming

    unobtrusive and unremarkable. They use the example of electric motors, which are part of

    many machines we use daily, yet we almost never think about electric motors per se. They talk

    about making computers disappear into the walls and interstices of our living and working


    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 11

  • Ubiquitous Interaction

    The Changing Concept of Interaction

    When this happens, it is sometimes called ambient intelligence, the goal of considerable research and development aimed at the home living

    environment. In the HomeLab of Philips Research in the Netherlands

    (Markopoulos et al., 2005), researchers believe that ambient intelligence

    technology will mediate, permeate, and become an inseparable common

    of our everyday social interactions at work or at leisure.

    In these embedded systems, of course, the computer only seems to disappear. The computer is still there somewhere and in some form, and

    the challenge is to design the interaction so that the computer remains

    invisible or unobtrusive and interaction appears to be with the artifacts,

    such as the walls, directly. So, with embedded computing, certainly the

    need for a quality user experience does not disappear. Imagine embedded

    computing with a design that leads to poor usability; users will be clueless

    and will not have even the familiar menus and icons to find their way!

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 12

  • SKIN : Emotional Sensing(2008)

    IID_UX Prototyping 13


    Lecture #2

  • Intimacy 2.0 (2011)

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 14

    Interactive fashion by Studio Roosegaarde


  • From Usability to User Experience

    The Traditional Concept of Usability

    Usability is that aspect of HCI devoted to ensuring that humancomputer

    interaction is, among other things, effective, efficient, and satisfying for

    the user. So usability includes characteristics such as ease of use,

    productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, learnability, retainability, and user

    satisfaction (ISO 9241-11, 1997).

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 15

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Misconceptions about Usability

    First, usability is not what some people used to call dummy proofing.

    Usability is not equivalent to being user-friendly.

    To many not familiar with the field, doing usability is sometimes thought

    of as equivalent to usability testing.

    Finally, another popular misconception about usability has to do with

    visual appeal.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 16

  • From Usability to User Experience

    The Expanding Concept of Quality in Our Designs

    The field of interaction design has grown slowly, and our concept of what constitutes

    quality in our designs has expanded from an engineering focus on user performance

    under the aegis of usability into what is now widely known as user experience.

    Thomas and McCredie (2002) call for new usability to account for new design

    requirements such as ambience or attention.

    At a CHI 2007 Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting (Huh et al., 2007), the discussion

    focused on investigating a variety of approaches (beyond usability) such as user

    experience, aesthetic interaction, ambiguity, slow technology, and various ways to

    understand the social, cultural, and other contextual aspects of our world.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 17

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Is Not Emotional Impact What We Have Been Calling User Satisfaction?

    Some say the emphasis on these emotional factors is nothing newafter

    all, user satisfaction, a traditional subjective measure of usability, has

    always been a part of the concept of traditional usability shared by most

    people, including the ISO 9241-11 standard definition.

    Technology and design have evolved from being just productivity-

    enhancing tools to more personal, social, and intimate facets of our lives.

    Accordingly, we need a much broader definition of what constitutes

    quality in our designs and quality in the user experience those designs


    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 18

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Functionality is Important, but a Quality User

    Experience Can Be Even More So

    The iPod, iPhone, and iPad are products that

    represent cool high technology with excellent

    functionality but are also examples that show

    the market is now not just about the featuresit

    is about careful design for a quality user

    experience as a gateway to that functionality.

    To users, the interaction experience is the


    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 19

    First Apple store opened in the Netherlands on 3rd March 2012. It has an amazing spiral staircase, a trademark like those in all other Apple stores.

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So

    Hassenzahl and Roto (2007) state the case for the difference between the functional view

    of usability and the phenomenological view of emotional impact. People have and use

    technical products because they have things to do; they need to make phone calls,

    write documents, shop on-line, or search for information.

    Hazzenzahl and Roto call these do goals, appropriately evaluated by the usability and

    usefulness measures of their pragmatic quality. Human users also have emotional and

    psychological needs, including needs involving self-identity, relatedness to others, and

    being satisfied with life.

    These are be goals, appropriately evaluated by the emotional impact and

    phenomenological measures of their hedonic quality.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 20

  • From Usability to User Experience

    A Good User Experience Does Not

    Necessarily Mean High-Tech or Cool

    The best user experience requires a

    balance of functionality, usability, aesthetics,

    branding, identity, and so on. (eg. Microsoft

    Vista Package)

    In addition to user experience not just being

    cool, it also is not just about technology for

    technologys sake. (eg. University

    Conference Call system)

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 21

    Figure 1-1 A new Microsoft software packaging design

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Design beyond Just Technology

    Design is about creating artifacts to satisfy a

    usage need in a language that can facilitate a

    dialog between the creator of the artifact and

    the user. That artifact can be anything from a

    computer system to an everyday object such

    as a door knob.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 22

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Components of a User Experience The newer concept of user experience still embodies all these implications of usability.

    How much joy of use would one get from a cool and neat-looking iPad design that was

    very clumsy and awkward to use? Clearly there is an intertwining in that some of the joy

    of use can come from extremely good ease of use.

    The most basic reason for considering joy of use is the humanistic view that enjoyment is fundamental to life. (Hassenzahl, M., Beu, A., & Burmester, M. (2001). Engineering joy.

    IEEE Software, 18(1), pp. 7076.)

    As a result, we have expanded the scope of user experience to include:

    effects experienced due to usability factors

    effects experienced due to usefulness factors

    effects experienced due to emotional impact factors

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 23

  • From Usability to User Experience

    User Experience Is (Mostly) Felt Internally by the User

    User experience, as the words imply, is the totality of the effect or effects

    felt (experienced) internally by a user as a result of interaction with, and

    the usage context of, a system, device, or product.

    Here, we give the terms interaction and usage very broad

    interpretations, as we will explain, including seeing, touching, and

    thinking about the system or product, including admiring it and its

    presentation before any physical interaction, the influence of usability,

    usefulness, and emotional impact during physical interaction, and

    savoring the memory after interaction.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 24

  • From Usability to User Experience

    User Experience Cannot Be Designed

    A user experience cannot be designed, only experienced. You are not

    designing or engineering or developing good usability or designing or

    engineering or developing a good user experience.

    There is no usability or user experience inside the design; they are

    relative to the user. Usability occurs within, or is revealed within, the

    context of a particular usage by a particular user. The same design but

    used in a different contextdifferent usage and/or a different user

    could lead to a different user experience, including a different level of, or

    kind of, usability.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 25

  • From Usability to User Experience

    User Experience Cannot Be Designed We illustrate this concept with a non-computer example, the

    experience of enjoying Belgian chocolates. Because the designer

    and producer of the chocolates may have put the finest ingredients

    and best traditional processes into the making of this product, it is

    not surprising that they claim in their advertising a fine chocolate

    experience built into their confections.

    However, by the reasoning in the previous paragraph, the user experience resides within the consumer, not in the chocolates. That

    chocolate experience includes anticipating the pleasure, beholding

    the dark beauty, smelling the wonderful aromas, the deliberate and

    sensual consumption (the most important part), the lingering bouquet

    and after-taste, and, finally, pleasurable memories.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 26

  • From Usability to User Experience

    User Experience Cannot Be Designed

    When this semantic detail is not observed and the chocolate

    is marketed with claims such as We have created your

    heavenly chocolate experience, everyone still understands.

    Similarly, no one but the most ardent stickler protests when

    BMW claims BMW has designed and built your joy! In this

    book, however, we wish to be technically correct and

    consistent so we would have them say, We have created

    sweet treats to ensure your heavenly chocolate experience

    or BMW has built an automobile designed to produce your

    ultimate driving experience.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 27

  • From Usability to User Experience

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 28

    Figure 1-2 User experience occurs within interaction and usage context

  • Users Mental Models : The Very Ideas


    Stephen J. Payne, Users Mental Models : The Very Ideas in John M.

    Carroll, (2003) HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks : Toward a

    Multidisciplinary Science, CA : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 135-156.

    IID_UX Prototyping 29 Lecture #2

  • Design Philosophy

    Herb Simon:

    Engineers are not the only professional designers. Everyone

    designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing

    situations into preferred ones.

    The intellectual activity that produces material artefacts is no different

    fundamentally from the one that prescribes remedies for a sick patient or the one

    that devises a new sales plan for a company or a social welfare policy for a state.

    Herbert A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, 1969 (p.129 of 1981 MIT press 2nd


    IID_UX Prototyping 30 Lecture #2

  • Intro

    IID_UX Prototyping 31

    Figure 1 (adapted from Norman (1988) p. 16): The problem of ensuring that the user's mental model corresponds to the designer's model arises because the designer does not talk directly with the user. The designer can only talk to the user through the "system image" - the designer's materialised mental model. The system image is, like a text, open to interpretation.

    Lecture #2

  • Users

    Mental Models Users knowledge about the system they use.

    Bounded Rationality (Simon, 1955) People often have to act too quickly to allow full consideration of all their relevant

    knowledge they do the best they can to achieve their goals according to the

    knowledge they can bring to mind, and the inferences that knowledge supports, in the

    time allowed.

    Bounded rationality : rationality that is bounded by the environmental constraints on their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on

    their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on

    their ability to process relevant information.

    IID_UX Prototyping 32 Lecture #2

  • Mental Models

    Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture : Mental Models as


    Bounded Rationality : the general limits of the human information-processing

    system the constrains on attention, retrieval, and processing.

    Human information-processing architecture : theories of the structure of the


    Contents of the mind : what do people believe about an aspect of the world,

    what is the relation between these beliefs and reality, and how do the beliefs

    affect their behavior?

    IID_UX Prototyping 33 Lecture #2

  • Cognitive Architecture

    IID_UX Prototyping 34

    A model of the user based on an information processing metaphor

    Lecture #2

  • Mental Models

    Idea 2. Models vs. Methods : Mental Models as Problem Spaces Mental models of machines can provide a problem space that allows more

    elaborate encoding of remembered methods, and in which novice or expert

    problem solvers can search for new methods to achieve tasks.

    Stepping through a sequence of states in some mental models of a machine, is often called mental simulation in the mental-models literature, and the kind

    of model that allows simulation is often called surrogate

    Reasoning is performed by sequential application of completely domain-specific rules and thus is knowledge bounded rather than architecture


    IID_UX Prototyping 35 Lecture #2

  • Her - Alien Child / Hologram sequences

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 36


  • Mental Models

    Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions : Mental Models as Homeomorphisms

    Mental models are a special kind of representation, sometimes called an

    analog representation one that shares the structure of the world it



    The spoon is to the left of the fork spoon fork

    The knife is to the left of the spoon knife spoon fork

    Such a model allows deductive inferences to be read off

    IID_UX Prototyping 37 Lecture #2

  • Swankolab

    IID_UX Prototyping 38 Lecture #2

  • Mental Models

    Idea 4. Models of Representations : Mental Models Can Be Derived

    from Language, Perception, or Imagination

    Mental models can be constructed by processing language, but the same

    models might also, in principle, have been constructed through

    interaction with and perception of the world. Therefore a mental model

    provides a way of mapping language to perception.

    IID_UX Prototyping 39 Lecture #2

  • Interactive landscape 'Dune 4.2'

    IID_UX Prototyping 40


    Lecture #2

  • Mental Models

    Idea 5. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts

    The yoked state space hypothesis(Payne, Squibb, & Howes, 1990)

    To construct a conceptual model of a device, the user must conceptualize the

    device's representation of the task domain. This knowledge can be

    represented by three components: a device-based problem space, which

    specifies the ontology of the device in terms of the objects that can be

    manipulated and their interrelations, plus the operators that perform the

    manipulations; a goal space, which represents the objects in terms of which

    user's goals are expressed; and a semantic mapping, which determines

    how goal space objects are represented in the device space.

    IID_UX Prototyping 41 Lecture #2

  • Social Networking Space

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 42

  • Mental Models

    Idea 6. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External


    If structure-sharing is taken to be an important property of mental models,

    then a mental model derived from text shares the structure of the situation,

    not of the text.

    However, it is not clear that this distinction extends to mental models

    derived from reading other representational artifacts, such as maps, or


    IID_UX Prototyping 43 Lecture #2

  • Wishing wall by Varvara Guljajeva and Mar Canet

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 44


  • Next Week Reading List

    Download From YSCEC > User Experience Prototyping > Books &

    Papers > Week 03 Reading

    Gaver, W., Dunne, A., & Pacenti, E. (1999). "Cultural Probes," Interactions

    6(1), pp21-29.

    Gaver, W., Boucher, A., Pennington, S. and Walker, B., (2004). Cultural

    Probes and the value of uncertainty. Interactions, Volume XI.5, pp. 53-56.

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 45

  • Homework

    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 46

    Complete Studio Assignments

    Finish Video in a time


    Readings And Critiques


    Presenters for Each Paper)

    1 2 3

    Pinterest - Set up your


    - Make the initiall boards

    - Upload requited images

    Your Blog Post #3 - Title Digital Memento - Edit it in the length of 2-3

    mins - Share the vimeo(or youtube)

    link on your blog

    Your Blog Post #4 - Summarize the papers - Add your critiques for each


    Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 15th March

  • Contacts



    Class Blog


    Lecture #2 IID_UX Prototyping 47

    Lecture 2Introduction to User Experience PrototypingTo Do List for TodayThe Last Weeks HomeworkIndividual PresentationIntroductionThe components of UXThe components of UXThe components of UXUbiquitous InteractionUbiquitous InteractionUbiquitous InteractionUbiquitous InteractionSKIN : Emotional Sensing(2008)Intimacy 2.0 (2011)From Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceFrom Usability to User ExperienceUsers Mental Models : The Very IdeasDesign PhilosophyIntroUsersMental ModelsCognitive ArchitectureMental ModelsHer - Alien Child / Hologram sequencesMental ModelsSwankolabMental ModelsInteractive landscape 'Dune 4.2'Mental ModelsSocial Networking SpaceMental ModelsWishing wall by Varvara Guljajeva and Mar CanetNext Week Reading ListHomeworkContacts