War and revolution in Europe during the age of empires
PowerPoint Presentation As kings and queens became stronger and stronger, individuals began to defend their RIGHTS and demand more freedom. War and revolution in the Age…
As kings and queens became stronger and stronger, individuals began to defend their RIGHTS and demand more freedom.
War and revolution in the Age of Empires
After 1492, countries FOUGHT each other for control of empires.
Then, the Catholic Church SPLIT, leading to more war.
By 1600, Europe ruled a large part of the world, especially the Americas
Who would be the strongest country in Europe:
Spain, France, or England?
At first, Spain was the strongest country in Europe.
The Spanish peninsula
The Spanish empire included land inâ¦
At the center of the Spanish web was Charles_ V (5th), a deeply Catholic ruler in Catholic Europe. Under him, Spain grew rich from SILVER and sugar. His son, Philip II, further expanded the Spanish empire.
Spainâs power did not last longâ¦.
After 1520 many Europeans left Catholic Church and started a new religion: Protestantism.
Protestants were Christians who opposed the power of the Catholic Church. There were many types of Protestants: Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians, Anglicans, Quakers, Shakers, Pilgrims, Puritans, and more.
They believed that only faith in God could lead to salvation (going to heaven).
They believed that the Bible is source of truth about God.
Individuals must make their own choices about right and wrong.
John Calvin, 1509-1564
What did Protestants believe?
They did NOT believe that...
following the Churchâs rules could help get you into heaven.
Catholic priests had special powers or deserved special privileges.
The change from Catholicism to Protestantism was called the Reformation.
The Reformation started in the German states of central Europe (G) and spread to Switzerland, the Netherlands, England, and Scandinavia. The blue countries are Protestant.
After the Reformation,
War broke out everywhere WITHIN countries, and BETWEEN Catholic countries and Protestant countries. Two wars struck directly at Spanish power.
1. Protestants in the Netherlands broke away from Spain and formed the Dutch Republic (also called Holland) in the late 1500s. Spain and the Netherlands were at war for almost 80 years. In 1648, the Netherlands finally became independent.
Queen Elizabeth worried that Catholics were trying to take over England. She had her sister, a Catholic, beheaded.
England sided with the Netherlands against Catholic Spain
England wanted to take Spanish land in the New World. England wanted to cash in on sugar and silver.
2. Another war broke out between Protestant England and Catholic Spain.
Three reasons why they fought:
Spain sent a large navy (Armada) against England in 1588. Englandâs navy destroyed the Spanish Armada (on the right) in one of the great naval battles in world history.
Spain lost most of its power in the 1600s.
France and England now competed to be the strongest country.
They were very different sorts of countries.
Louis XIV (14th) wanted to expand the borders of France into the Netherland and Spain.
He claimed all his power came from God and called himself the Sun King.
France was becoming the strongest land empire in the 1600 and 1700s.
Louisâ palace at Versailles (VER-SIGH) was the largest and most beauti-ful in Europe. It was a symbol of Louis XIVâs power as the âsun king.â
After defeating Spain, England was the greatest sea empire and its control of North America, India, and the sugar islands of the
Queen Elizabeth. Notice the scene outside the window. It shows the Spanish Armada attacking England, then being destroyed. What is the object on which Elizabethâs hand is resting?
Unlike Louis XIV, Elizabeth could not do anything she wanted. She had to respect the power of Parliament, a group of elected lawmakers.
After Elizabeth, English kings tried to increase their power, which stirred up a revolutionâ a change in the type of government.
In the 1630s, King Charles I needed money to fight a war, but Parliament refused to help him out. When he tried to rule without Parliament, angry lawmakers cut off his head.
In the 1680s, King James II tried to make England Catholic again and raise taxes without Parliamentâs approval. Angry English people refused. They said they were born with rights that kings could not take away. They believed individuals have a right to say what they want, believe what they want, and protect their own property.
In 1688, England had a âGlorious Revolution.â From now on, kings and queens had to share power with Parliament. Their power came NOT from GOD (as in other countries) but from the PEOPLE.
In the 1700s, England and France were different sorts of country, and they went to war. Both wanted to control the sugar islands of the Caribbean, as well as land in North America and India.
War broke out between England & France in Europe. Countries lined up with either England or France.
War spread to Asia and the Caribbean and became a âworld war.â The fighting in North America was known as the Frencgh and Indian War. The British won, and the French lost most of their land in North America.
Before 1763: With the French After 1763: without the French
After decades of fightingâ¦
England and France were broke, Wars are expensive, and both countries were in debt.
The British tried to raise money by taxing its colonies in America.
They taxed sugar, tea, paper, and other products bought from Britain.
Americans werenât very happy.
Angry colonists threw tea off this British ship to protest the taxes.
Americans wanted to make their own decisions.
Americans such as Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Tom Paine did not like kings. ANY kings. They believed individuals are born with rights to free speech, property, liberty, and religion. Even people in the colonies of America had rights. It wasnât enough to limit the power of kings. They wanted to create a new government without kings, or republic. Creating a new type of government required a revolution.
In 1775, war broke out with British soldiers in the little towns of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts
In 1776, America declared its independence from Britain
In 1781, Americans defeated the British and began forming their own country. They wanted to govern themselves without a king.
In 1787, they wrote a Constitution creating a new government based on these new ideas.
A revolution is a change in government.
â¦so Americans had a Revolution
Kings and queens who said they got their power from God (monarchy)
People who are free to choose their own leaders (democracy)
Special privileges for the wealthy and the Catholic Church
Equal rights for every individual
A revolution is a change of government. What kind of change?
The king wanted to tax the people, but NO ONE would pay.
Revolution broke out in 1789, and the king lost power (and his head).
The French revolution led to a violent war WITHIN France and between France and countries that still had kings and queens.
A few years after the American Revolution, the French had their own revolution
Britain and France lost empires in North America.
The desire for revolution spread, so Spainâs colonies in the Americas became independent too.
Demands for individual freedom led the British and Americans to end the slave trade.
The slaves of the sugar island of Haiti had a revolution and began to govern themselves!
As a result of revolutionsâ¦.
Toussaint LâOuverture led a slave on the sugar island of Haiti, a French colony. He became the first black leader of the former French colony.