Team Initiated Problem Solving Model (TIPS)
Team Initiated Problem Solving Model (TIPS)What is Data Literacy?
Data literacy relates specifically to how to find, evaluate, and use data to inform instruction as well as having the knowledge to gather, analyze, and graphically convey data to support decision-making.2Data DiscussionType of DataUseExamplesAchievement
To determine the level of student achievement in a content areaPerformance assessments, written exams, quizzes
To describe information about the school communityEnrollment, gender, ethnicity, economic status, attendance, school suspensions, etc.
To make informed decisions about future program and curriculum choicesPrograms, instructional strategies, classroom practices
To pay attention to the opinions and ideas of the community (students, parents, staff, others)Questionnaires, interviews, surveys, observations
Discussion: How do these types of data inform your comprehensive school counseling programs?Participants should use the data handout or table to discuss the various types of data and how they are used (or could be used) in comprehensive school counseling programs.
Table groups should be prepared to share out at least one example for each type of data. 3Serving All is a ProcessAs your school/district works to develop high performing characteristics, you will need to think about the difference between current characteristics along with strategies to assist your school in reaching your goals. Using a problem-solving model can assist schools/districts in identifying those differences and creating, implementing, and evaluating plans to improve outcomes. A problem-solving process can help schools and districts address differences and answer DuFours questions 2, 3, & 4: How will we know if they have learned it? How will we respond when they don't learn it?How will we respond when they already know it and must move farther?
4Responsiveness to InstructionNC DPI has identifiedRtI as a research-based school improvement model and provides support to district and school implementation through professional development, technical assistance, and coaching.
Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) is a multi-tiered framework which promotes school improvement through engaging, high quality instruction.
5Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelCollect & UseDataDevelop HypothesisDiscuss & SelectSolutions
Develop &ImplementAction Plan
Evaluate &ReviseAction Plan
Problem SolvingMeeting FoundationsIdentify Problems(Define & Clarify)
InstructionCurriculumEnvironmentLearnerHow can we apply the RTI Team Initiated Problem Solving Model?
The TIPS Model includes multiple components. While the TIPS process was designed to improve team decision-making about school-wide problems, the steps of the process are just as effective when used informally by a teacher problem-solving in the classroom.
The TIPS process is grounded by Meeting Foundations which include structures and processes to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of team operations.
Data-based decision-making is integral to the TIPS process, and so is located in the center of the graphic. At each stage of the problem solving process, the teams use of data is critical to inform decision-making.
The first step of the TIPS process is to identify and clearly define the problem. Teams are encouraged to identify as much information about the problem as possible (what, when, where, who, why)
The next step is to use this information about the problem to develop a hypothesis, or why the team thinks the problem exists.
The hypothesis is used to begin generating solutions. Teams should look for solutions that will reduce or eliminate the problem, while addressing the reason the problem exists.
Once the team has selected the solutions they believe will be most effective, the team will develop an action plan to put those solutions in place, including details for how the solutions will be implemented.
After the action plan has been implemented for several weeks, the team meets again to evaluate the action plan and revise as necessary, based on the data collected during the implementation of the plan.
2/6/2014Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 20086Problems & Problem SolvingProblem: Difference between expected/desired outcome and current outcomeProblem identification: Finding a difference & determining if it is significant enough to require action nowProblem solving: Figuring out how to eliminate or reduce difference (Newton et al, 2009)Sometimes use of the word problem carries a negative connotation. Problem-solving is not an inherently negative process as defined here. Basically, you cant solve a problem unless there is a discrepancy between what is happening and what you want.2/6/2014Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 20087Problem-Solving, Data, & Decision-MakingDecision making is aided by access to dataProviding instruction on a problem-solving model (TIPS) will result in problem solving that is ThoroughLogicalEfficientEffectiveStructure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency and effectiveness
(Newton et al, 2009)
Each step of the problem-solving process is improved by the use of data. Creating systematic procedures for data-based decision-making is important to guarantee development of the most effective solutions and improve the efficiency of group decision-making.2/6/2014Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 20088The Problem-Solving MantraDo we have a problem? What is the precise nature of our problem? Why does the problem exist, & what can we do about it? What are the actual elements of our plan? Is our plan being implemented, and is it working? What is the goal?
(Newton et al, 2009) Do we have a problem? (identify)What is the precise nature of our problem? (define, clarify, confirm/disconfirm inferences)Why does the problem exist, & what can we do about it? (hypothesis & solution)What are the actual elements of our plan? (Action Plan)Is our plan being implemented, & is it working? (evaluate & revise plan)What is the goal? (What will it look like when there is not a problem?)
An instructional example:Identify Problem: A teacher identifies that some of her students did not perform well on a classroom reading formative assessment. Her first step would be to more clearly define the problem using the data from the assessment: how many students did not meet the performance goal? How far off the target were they? What, if any, are the commonalities between the questions the students missed?
Develop Hypothesis: Once the problem is well defined, the teacher would begin to develop a hypothesis about the reason. Looking at the data (both from the current assessment and other data collected), what are the underlying skill or performance deficits creating the students difficulties? Is the problem a lack of decoding skills, fluency, comprehension, etc? Do all of the students in the group have the same needs?
Discuss & Select Solutions: Based on the data & hypothesis, the teacher would brainstorm possible solutions to address the needs of the students, then select a solution to try based on the intensity & frequency of the students needs.
Develop & Implement Action Plan: Once a solution is selected, the teacher would develop a plan to put the solution in place. When will the solution happen? Who will do it? What materials/tools will be needed? What data will be collected? How will you know if the solution worked?
Evaluate & Revise Action Plan: Once the solution has been implemented, the data is examined to see if the problem is solved, or if plan needs to be revised an re-implemented.