- 1. Increased earningpotential andgreaterindependenceAid agencies, NGOsLess likely to marryand governmentsyoung and childrengetting more girls Educatedmore spaced apartinto school by:More education theabolishing feesgirls changeGirls forced to queue for upgreater likelihood worldsproviding toilets to 10 hours a day to collectthat the children(not having them is water from a far off wellwill be immunised,a huge deterrent).denies them of an educationbetter fed andbetter educatedtoo. Water &A matter of human dignity aswell as saving lives -sanitationthousands of under 5s diesave livesfrom cholera, dysentery andTiny loans (known typhoid every dayBeing very smallas microfinance)(often less thanthat buyinexpensive items,Preventing diarrhoeal200$) repayment issuch as mobilediseases reduces malnutritionpossible in a fewmonths, so avoiding phones, enableburdensome debt and entrepreneurs to Wider benefits include fewerturning on its head start a small days off work or school thusthe entrenched view business - eg benefiting the economy boththat poor people areselling, weaving, short term (work) and longcredit risks. baking, bicycleSMART AIDResearchers, term (school).repair, etc.governments, NGOsand health workersSmall loans cooperating to helperadicate killer Sickness can be devastatingImproved earnings mean: produce big diseases like malaria, for the entire family because: children can be sent to school results measles, polio and they must pay for doctors, families eat better and are thereforeAIDS, that can killhospitalisation and healthiermillions each year.medication from their own women earning gain self-esteem andpockets more say in the home & neighbourhood. someone in the family has to stop work to care for the Killer diseasesick relative Success means others can be employed in can run into debt just byon the runspaying for over the counter the business. drugs to combat childhood fevers.New strains of plants developedsuch as the staple crop cassava ledto yields 9X that of older varieties. Important developments include:Research insecticide treated bed nets to prevent drivesmalariadevelopmentimproved vaccines and better access to Helps understand how plant, animal and human diseases spreadthose who need them.
2. Providing incentiveand motivation todrive development Land reformforwardEradicating extreme poverty and hunger - achieved in Thailand, progressing in SouthCreating the means toAfrica & Mexicodevelop education,training, maternalDebthealth and general re-schedulingEg mobile phones are Primary education forhealth (see MDGs)all - achieved Mexico & High cheaper and easiertechnologythan computers atThailand andaccessing informationprogressing in South Africa, Bangladesh &Linked to tied aid Kenyathat is both top down IMFs structuralEg Pergau Dam inand donor controlled readjustmentsMalaysia - UKTOP DOWNgovernment aidCapital programme set up Gender equality and intensive andwithout localempowering women - oftenconsultation. Many achieved in BangladeshTiny loans that can governmentbelieve the 234m aid& Thailand andfacilitate progress butMicro-fundingled package was tied to aprogressing in Southbe easily repaid1b arms deal. Africa & Mexico Reducing by two thirdsMultilateral - IMF, UN Millennium infant mortality -World Bank, etcNarrowing the Development Goalsachieved in Mexico & Thailand Development Gappriorities achieved byBilateral - individualInternational Aidstrategies oppositecountriesOfficialDevelopmentImprovement toAssistance (ODA) maternal health - Achieved in ThailandBoth multi- and bi- Eg Hunger Project - onelateral ODA aid are of several organisationsexamples of top-down BOTTOM UPforging partnerships Combating diseasesdevelopmentLocalwith local communities especially HIV &initiatives in Africa, Asia & Latinmalaria - Achieved in supported by America to mobiliseThailand andNGOsgrassroots people forprogressing in MexicoFairtrade - working self-reliant action aswith small farmerswell as intervening forhelping to make themgender equalitymore economicallyEnsuring environmentalsecure sustainability - achieved in Thailand Trade and progressing inAppropriate to means South Africa & MexicoManaging subsidiesand needsand tariffs to facilitatea level playing field Appropriatetechnology Developing a globalEg tube wells are less partnerships forcostly and moredevelopment -practical than large Progressing in SouthFacilitatingdam schemes atdevelopment in AfricaReducing theproviding clean watereducation,infrastructure, digital dividecommunication, etc 3. Averages 70% ofGDPIn Mozambique it is204% of GDP DebtThere have been at least18 civil andRepayments drain Conflict international conflicts ingovernment income the region since 1990Lack of water supplyprevents farmBarriers toimprovements narrowing theWaterdevelopmentAverages 4% of GDPAquifers over used gap in and is off-set by debtand running dry sub-Saharan Africa AidMost MEDCs do not givethe 0.7% of their GDP12 countries have they promisedexperienced faminesince 1990FoodDeforestation, soil erosion anddesertification are occuring asPer capita foodproduction is falling Resourcesincreasing populations degraderesourcesin the region