Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
This is a teacher's kit filled with lessons and experiments to help students learn the science behind aerosol spray products, how they are made, and how they interact with our environment. Please contact the Consumer Aerosol Product Association: email@example.com, if you have any questions.
CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit for grades 4-9 Teachers Guide Classroom Activities Experiments Student Materials Everything you need to teach about the Earths protective upper ozone layer, CFCs and aerosol products This page is intentionally blank 2 Dear Educator: Thank you for your interest in teaching your students about aerosol technology. The Consumer Aerosol Products Councils (CAPCO) Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit contains all of the materials educators need to teach students about the Earths protective upper ozone layer, CFCs and aerosol products in a fun and active way. Prepared with the guidance of middle school science teachers, the Kit will aid educators in explaining the basic scientific principles of how aerosols work. Some of these principles include suspensions, the behavior of gases under pressure, gases as propellants and the effect of physical changes and chemical reactions. CAPCO is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to correcting the public misconcep- tion that aerosol products contribute to depletion of the Earths upper ozone layer. Because CFCs have been replaced as the propellant in nearly all consumer aerosol products sold in the U.S., Its O.K. to Spray! The CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit includes a teachers guide, classroom activities, student materials and experiments as well as the DVD, Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure by the producers of Beakmans World. These materials are easily integrated into teachers curriculum and can be downloaded free of charge from CAPCOs website, www.nocfcs.org. Feel free to share this kit with other teachers at your school, or to copy the materials. We hope you enjoy the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit and find it a useful addition to your lesson plans. Please help us continue to make this education unit the best it can be by letting us know what you think. You can contact us through our website or by calling (703) 683-1044. We hope you and your class have fun with your aerosol adventure! The Consumer Aerosol Products Council 2007, Consumer Aerosol Products Council (CAPCO) 3 www.nocfcs.org This page is intentionally blank 4 Table of Contents Section 1: Aerosols and CFCs Background About Aerosol Products: History and Facts ................................................................................................11 Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire ....................................................................................................................................12 CFC Quiz: Chlorofluorocarbons: Fact vs. Fiction ..........................................................................................................13 Pre Activity: Scavenger Hunt ..............................................................................................................................................15 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................17 Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection....................................................................................................................................19 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................21 Activity 2: The Gelatin Party............................................................................................................................................24 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................27 Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model ............................................................................................................................31 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................34 Activity 4: The Big Survey ................................................................................................................................................36 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................39 Section 2: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Instruction Guide: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer ............................................................................................47 Ozone Q&A For Instructors................................................................................................................................................48 Student Activities (In-class or take-home): Activity 5: Its Atmospheric! Crossword Puzzle ..........................................................................................................50 Activity 6: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer ........................................................................................................51 Activity 7: Atmosphere & Ozone Rap Poem/Song ..........................................................................................................52 Activity 8: Ozone Depletion Worksheet ..........................................................................................................................53 Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry ......................................................................................................................54 Activity 10: Mock Trial......................................................................................................................................................65 Activity Sheet Answer Keys ..........................................................................................................................................80 Section 3: Lab Time! Lab Blueprint: For Organizing Your Experiment and Exploring Results ........................................................................85 Labs (In-class or take-home): Experiment 1: Testing for Ground-Level Ozone (Easy to Moderate) ..........................................................................87 Experiment 2: Correlating Aerosol Knowledge and Consumer Use (Moderate)......................................................90 Experiment 3: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from the Ground (Moderate to Advanced) ....................................92 Experiment 4: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from Satellite (Moderate to Advanced) ..........................................94 Experiment 5: The Effect of Increased UV Levels in Population Growth (Moderate to Advanced) ........................96 Sample Lab Report ..........................................................................................................................................................98 5 www.nocfcs.org This page is intentionally blank 6 Integrating the Kit into Your Curriculum CAPCO is aware that educators must tailor their curriculum to How it Can Fit into Your Earth or meet State Standards Of Learning (SOLs), determined by grade Environmental Sciences Curriculum and subject area. The CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit If you are investigating such topics as states of matter, atmos- has been designed with your needs in mind and to be easily pheric science, or the environment, the activities in the Kit will integrated into existing teaching structures and methods. It is provide support and reinforcement of existing lesson plans. an excellent complement to basic materials. Some of the activities involve information collection, but others focus on experimentation with what happens when gases are The Kits activities get progressively more challenging as stu- compressed and how a propellant works in an aerosol product. dents master the scientific principles of aerosol technology. The activities are particularly well-suited to incorporate into As a teacher, it is up to you to determine which parts of the Kit Earth or Environmental sciences. you implement and use in your classroom. There are three basic sections: How it Can Fit with Your Social Science Curriculum Section 1: Exercises and activities in the Kit include surveying public The first section will help you determine your students opinion and analyzing data from the survey. Your students can understanding of aerosols, CFCs and the atmosphere. It develop basic surveying skills that they can use in a number of includes lessons and guides for teaching the material as well as different social science contexts later on. homework assignments and activities to introduce students to the basic principles. Cross-Curriculum Possibilities It is also recommended that your class views the video, While engaged in the activities in this package, your students Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure, in this first stage of will have the opportunity to work across the curriculum. In instruction. addition to science, they will be using mathematics (measuring, calculating, estimating, graphing), social studies (surveying Section 2: opinion), language arts (vocabulary, poetry, designing presentations), and graphic arts (structuring visual displays The second section contains fun, hands-on activities that are and layouts). grade-appropriate and that will give your students more in-depth knowledge of what aerosols are and how they work. These activities present numerous exercises to further explore the science of aerosols, and even provide a variety of cross- curriculum options. Section 3: CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit The third section includes labs developed by science teacher for grades 4-9 Michael Baer of South Adams JR/SR High School in Berne, Teachers Guide Classroom Activities Indiana. These experiments allow students who have attained a Experiments solid understanding of the scientific principles of aerosol and Student Materials atmospheric science, to take their knowledge a step further. Everything you need to teach about They can be done at home or in the classroom. A sample lab report is also included in this section. 7 www.nocfcs.org This page is intentionally blank 8 Section 1: Aerosols and CFCs This page is intentionally blank 10 Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Background About Aerosol Products: History: In the early 1970s, U.S. producers of aerosol products and Thousands of communities now include aerosol products in packaging voluntarily phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) both household residential and curbside buy-back and drop-off as the propellant in consumer aerosol products. CFCs were programs. Most aerosol cans are made of steel. Aluminum theorized to cause upper ozone layer depletion so the aerosol aerosol cans and containers are also recyclable. Check with industry was quick to develop alternative propellants including your local recycling coordinator or aluminum collection site for propane, butane, isobutane, nitrogen and nitrous oxide, details about recycling in your area. Many recyclers are not depending upon the product. aware that the U.S. EPA recommends that all aerosol products (including pesticide containers) are recycled once they are In 1978, the U.S. government passed official regulations ban- empty. ning CFC propellants in nearly all consumer aerosol products produced and sold in the United States. An exception was You can help our environment by encouraging your school and made for some unique medical uses such as inhalers. community to accept empty aerosol cans along with other metal containers. The Steel Recycling Institute can provide In 1987, much of the world came together to sign the more information about recycling. Call 1-800-876-7274 or visit Montreal Protocol. Through this international agreement, www.recycle-steel.org. more than 190 countries have agreed to ban the use of CFCs, including their use as propellants in consumer aerosol prod- For more information on recycling in your community visit ucts. Consumers can now be assured that Its O.K. to Spray! www.earth911.org. and consumer aerosol products do not pose a threat to the Earths upper ozone layer. Inhalant Abuse: There are some consumer products (both aerosol and non- As a result of the Montreal Protocol, evidence that the ozone aerosols) that can be abused by huffing. If you would like layer is repairing itself has recently been reported by the more information or educational materials for students or National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1 adults on inhalation abuse, contact The Alliance for Consumer Education at www.inhalant.org. To learn more about the Montreal Protocol and how the upper ozone layer is repairing itself, visit: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/2007stratozoneprogressreport.html Recycling: Aerosol products ARE recyclable, just like any other empty steel container! Given the publics concern about solid waste disposal, the aerosol industry teamed with the steel industry to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans in recycling programs nation- wide. 1 Saiyid, Amena H. Ozone Depletion, Ozone Hole at Early Stage of Recovery, But Progress Still Slow, NOAA Scientists Say. BNA Daily Environmental Report, August, 2006. 11 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire Purpose: To find out what people know about aerosol products. Instructions: Read each statement carefully, then tell us how much you agree or disagree with that statement by checking the box that best fits with your ideas: # STATEMENTS: Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Not Certain 1 Aerosol products such as hairspray and spray deodorants can be bad for the environment 2 Aerosol products are useful 3 Aerosol products harm the upper ozone layer 4 Aerosol containers can be recycled 5 Most of todays aerosol products contain CFCs For more information and fact sheets on aerosol products and aerosols and the environment, visit www.nocfcs.org. 12 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons: FACT vs. FICTION Read each statement and decide if it is Fact or Fiction, then circle the correct answer. 1. Aerosol products made or sold in the United States contain CFCs. FACT or FICTION 2. In the United States, all aerosol products have a No CFC logo. FACT or FICTION 3. Until 1978, some aerosol products did contain CFCs, which were linked to upper ozone layer depletion. FACT or FICTION 4. In 1978, the federal government passed regulations to protect the upper ozone layer and banned CFCs from aerosol products. FACT or FICTION 5. After 1987, many more countries joined the U.S. and chose to protect the upper ozone layer by banning CFCs. FACT or FICTION 6. There was a hole in the upper ozone layer. FACT or FICTION 7. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the upper ozone layer is progressively healing itself. FACT or FICTION 13 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs TEACHERS ANSWER KEY: Read each statement and decide if it is Fact or Fiction, then cir- 4. In 1978, the federal government passed a regulation to cle the correct answer. protect the upper ozone layer and banned CFCs from aerosol products. 1. Aerosol products made or sold in the United States FACT or FICTION contain CFCs. FACT or FICTION Explanation: In the mid-1970s many companies that produced certain Explanation: aerosol products voluntarily removed CFCs after scientific Consumer aerosol products in the United States do not contain research suggested that CFCs were harmful to the upper ozone CFCs, with exception to some unique medical products such as layer. Then in 1978, the EPA and two other federal agencies asthma inhalers. CFCs were used as a propellant in some passed a mandatory ban on CFCs in all consumer aerosol aerosol products manufactured before 1978, but the U.S. products. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned CFC propellants in the U.S. in 1978. 5. After 1987, many more countries joined the U.S. and chose to protect the upper ozone layer by banning CFCs. 2. In the United States, all aerosol products have FACT or FICTION a No CFC logo. FACT or FICTION Explanation: In 1987, countries around the world signed the Montreal Explanation: Protocol and banned CFCs to protect the Earths upper ozone Many aerosol products do have a No CFC logo to serve as a layer. Over 190 countries have signed the Montreal Protocol. reminder to consumers. You can easily find an example of this Other countries are still working towards banning CFCs. to show your students. However, many other product manufac- turers to date have chosen not to put a No CFC logo on the label, primarily for aesthetic reasons. 6. There was a hole in the upper ozone layer. FACT or FICTION 3. Until 1978, some aerosol products did contain Explanation: CFCs, which were linked to upper ozone layer depletion. The term hole is misleading. The upper ozone layer above FACT or FICTION Antarctica experienced significant thinning, but there was never a hole. Explanation: It was not until the 1970s that scientific research theorized that CFCs harm the upper ozone layer. 7. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the upper ozone layer is progressively healing itself. FACT or FICTION Explanation: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has predicted that by 2060 to 2075, the upper ozone layer will be back to the way it was prior to 1980. 14 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Pre-Activity: Scavenger Hunt Aerosol products are used by many people for a wide variety of Prep Time useful purposes. This pre-activity is an investigation that will You may want to conduct your own scavenger hunt before help students see the diversity of products that come in assigning this activity to your students. aerosol containers and their many uses. To do this, they will engage in a Scavenger Hunt to collect information about aerosol products. They will focus on just three different aerosol products, and will collect information on them using a data chart. The information your students collect in this Pre-Activity will be used in Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection. Safety Considerations for the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit PLEASE NOTE: Before your students begin this activity, you will need to complete the Aerosol Store all aerosol products in your classroom where Knowledge Questionnaire to establish what they they will be away from heat and risk of punctures. already know about aerosol products. This will It is best to use cans that deliver personal care form baseline information for comparison when products, such as shaving cream, or food products, they have completed all the activities in this learn- such as whipped cream. Although you may not ing package. The Questionnaire can be found at want to use empty cans, it would be best to find the beginning of this kit. those that only have a little product left in them to avoid the possibility of being accidentally discharged. What do students already know? If you have already shown the Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure video to your students, then it is reasonable to assume that they will have a broader understanding of aerosol products than they did before viewing it. If you have chosen not to show the video prior to this activity (perhaps because you prefer to use it at a later stage), then you can make even fewer assumptions about their prior understanding of aerosol products. Background Aerosol products that your students may find include spray paint, air freshener, cleaners, disinfectants, hair spray, hair mousse, whipped cream, deodorant, bug spray, etc. For the lesson after the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt (Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection), students should bring in their completed Scavenger Hunt Information Chart to share. They will be working with the other members of the class in small groups. They also will be drawing on the aerosol picture poster display around the room for ideas and information for Activity 1. 15 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Procedure Pulling it All Together Arrange for your students to make an Aerosol Picture Take time at the end of the Pre-Activity for students to share Gallery by bringing in pictures of aerosol products they find in what they found in their Aerosol Scavenger Hunt. You may their homes, in newspaper advertising supplements or in wish to have groups pool their charts so that each group magazines. produces one composite chart. These can be enlarged to poster size (using chart paper or poster board) and shared Students may prefer to take photographs of their can samples with the entire class. rather than draw them. Some may even collaborate to video- tape their scavenger hunts. Ask your students to focus All of the charts, whether individual or group efforts, will need particularly on the type of delivery system the can uses. to be brought to class for Activity 1. A photocopy master of this information chart is included at Stress the point that your students will be using scientific the end of this section. You and your students may think that processes throughout the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol another design would do a better job. You also may want to Adventure Kit. design a chart using a computer program. You may want to ask your students if they can list some of the For the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt, you could ask your things that scientists do when they investigate a problem. students to take the chart home for a few days, or even a weekend, to see what they can find out about aerosol Collect their thoughts and make a whole class list on the products at home or from looking through magazines. board. The Aerosol Picture Gallery: The aerosol drawings and pictures from magazines that students bring in can be put up on posters around the room. Students will need to refer to this display later in Activity 1. For Activity 1, students should bring in their completed Scavenger Hunt Information Chart to share. They will be working with other members of the class in small groups. 16 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Pre-Activity: Scavenger Hunt Getting Started You are going to start your investigation by going on a scav- enger hunt to find examples of different aerosol products. This should be done ahead of time to help you to begin your investigation. You are going to search for examples of aerosol products in your home, in advertisements, in magazines or on coupons. Your teacher will help you to organize and get started. During the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt you will need to look for as many different aerosol products as you can find. You may find some in your home or in advertisements. The Assignment Find three different products using aerosol technology, observe them closely, collect information about each one and record the data on a sheet your teacher will give you. Make a drawing of each product. Be sure to be clear and complete. Remember to bring all your drawings and observation information to class for Activity 1. 17 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt You can use this chart for recording information about the 3 aerosol products You have found, or adapt it to suit your particular needs. Scavenger Hunt Information Chart Items Aerosol X Aerosol 1 Aerosol 2 Aerosol 3 (for example only) Name of Product Whippy Type of Product Whipped cream (food) Metal (steel or alu- Type of can minum? Could you test with a magnet to find out?) Nozzle that gets pushed Delivery method sideways Contents Cream, whipping gas, etc. Advantages Convenient, can direct spray, stays fresh Disadvantages Cant see contents, cap falls off easily, cant be refilled Warnings/cautions Dont puncture, dont burn, keep cool Special notes Can can be recycled Any other items? Lots of information printed on can 18 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection Prep Time This activity is designed to introduce your students to aerosols Make a collection of aerosol products that your students can as a topic of investigation. To do this, they will use the informa- use for this activity. It would help to enlist the aid of other tion on aerosol products that they collected in the Pre- faculty to contribute to the class collection. Activity, The Aerosol Picture Gallery in the room and a collection of aerosol products that you will provide. Your Procedure students may have a good sense of the variety of aerosol products available for the home market. They may not, 1. You may want to take some time prior to this activity to ask however, know that aerosol products are used in medicine, your students if they know of any types of specialized aerosol industry, art and a number of other areas. products. Some used in dentistry, for example, have a numbing effect on tissues. This spray lets the dentist work on a patient This activity is geared towards younger students, and teachers without pain to the gum tissue. of grades 7-9 may want to go directly to Activity 3. Certain kinds of art media, such as chalks, get fixed onto Your students will first be working in small collaborative paper with an aerosol product. This keeps the chalk from groups, and then as a whole class, to determine the key points rubbing off later. about aerosols: the variety of aerosol products, different ways in which they are used and the advantages and disadvantages of using them. After finding some key points, each group will Give your students time to think before they begin the activity. specialize in one aspect of aerosols, using the information they Then, list on the board any specialized aerosol products they collect to produce a poster displaying their findings. may know about. Teaching Objectives: 2. You will be asking each group to design and make a poster To raise awareness of the different varieties of which will inform others about their aerosol specialty. Let your aerosol products students use their charts and posters as review guides. To establish groundwork for further discussion Making the posters will help the students to collect Skills: information and focus on just one aspect of aerosol products. Each student group then can become the experts in that Investigation, classification, discussion, creative area. They can be consulted by other groups as they build up a thinking, organization complete picture of aerosol products. Materials: Pre-Activity Scavenger Hunt sheet (page 30) Various aerosol can products from household Poster board The Aerosol Picture Gallery created during the Pre-Activity 19 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Pulling it All Together Some ideas for the core concepts for these Take time at the end of the activity to help your students pull posters might include: together all their discoveries about aerosol products into a list Uses: clean ovens, hold hair in place, disinfect of Key Facts About Aerosol Products. wounds, cover a surface with paint, eliminate odors, etc. NOTE: This may be done using a chalkboard chart. Can materials: steel, aluminum You may also create a chart to hand out to each student. Components: upright nozzles, press-down valves, valves with a directional attachment, etc. Delivery forms: mist, streams, foams, gels, etc. Safety Considerations Contents: read labels for this information For This Activity Store all aerosol products in your classroom where Advantages: delivers product precisely, provides large they will be away from heat and risk of punctures. amount of product in a small storage space, delivers It is best to use cans that deliver personal care ready-to-use product, can be recycled, doesnt spill, does products, such as shaving cream or food products, not require contact with skin to apply (e.g., disinfectant), such as whipped cream. Although you may not is air- tight, tamper-resistant, and can sit on a shelf for a want to use empty cans, it would be best to find long time those that only have a little product left in them to avoid the possibility of being accidentally dis- Disadvantages: cant see contents, requires special charged. handling, actuator on some products can get clogged, needs to stay away from sources of heat, etc. Warnings and cautions: container cant be punctured as it is under pressure, must be kept away from direct heat sources 3. The poster display: The posters can be put up around the room and students can go on a tour to see what each of the groups has discovered. Each touring group should take notes on any new information they see displayed about aerosol prod- ucts so that everyone has a common knowledge base. 4. Each group should be asked to make a short presentation about their poster. 20 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection There are many things about aerosol products that you might With your teachers help, post up all the aerosol product not have noticed before. Like many things we use and see drawings to make up the Aerosol Picture Gallery. Also, every day, there is much more to them than meets the eye. organize a display table for The Aerosol Collection. Only when we observe them closely and ask questions do we begin to understand more about them. In this activity, you and your group are going to become investigators finding out about one important area of aerosols. Your teacher will divide you into groups, and each group will look at a certain aspect of aerosol products. Finally, all the information will be shared and, together with your teacher, you will make a list of Key Facts About Aerosol Products. Step 1 Everyone should have helped to collect data about aerosol products ahead of time. You also will have looked for examples of them in your home or in advertisements, magazines or coupons, and drawn pictures of them. These drawings now should be ready for display so that others can examine them. Safety Warning In addition, your teacher will have collected and brought in some actual aerosol products for The Aerosol Collection. Do not activate any of the aerosol cans, even if they seem to be empty, unless your teacher asks you to do so. 21 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Different types of buttons and nozzles, and why Step 2 we need them Information about contents written on the cans Advantages of using aerosol products Disadvantages of using aerosol products Warnings and cautions and their reasons Directions for use Together with your teacher, decide which group is going to specialize in which area (or areas). Once this is decided, your group must try to find out as much as it can about its specialist area by: With your group, take some time to study the Aerosol Picture Observing real cans and drawings carefully Gallery and your Scavenger Hunt Chart. Keep these ques- tions in mind while you are doing this: Noting all the ideas you have about your specialist area(s) based on your observations What do all aerosol products seem to have in common? Agreeing on the most likely reasons for the can What differences do aerosols have? being the way it is What different kinds of products come in aerosol cans? Now discuss these questions in your group. Make a note of the things you have observed about each question. Record this information on the chart your teacher has given you. Step 3 Now your group is going to specialize in one area of aerosol products. Here are some sample areas. If you can think of any others, add them to this list. Different shapes of cans Range of different aerosol products Materials from which aerosol products are made 22 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Step 4 Step 6 Now your group is going to make a poster showing what you With your teachers help, you are going to review all the things have discovered about your aerosol specialty. You first must about aerosol products that you have discovered from your decide the best way to do this so that others can easily see and investigations. understand. Be prepared to explain your poster to others. Because each group specialized in a different aerosol area, you need to be sure that you understand what other groups have done. This is your chance to ask any questions about other groups areas. If you are not clear about something, ask the specialists for clarification. Step 7 Finally, your teacher will help you create a list called: Key Facts About Aerosol Products. Step 5 Each group can now pin up its poster for everyone else to see and discuss. It may be helpful if each group, in turn, gives a short presenta- tion to explain the reasons for the information group members have included in the poster. Organize a space This list will be the ideas you found during your investigation. where the posters can As you learn more about aerosol products and the science be left on display for behind them, you may need to revise, change or add to this later reference. list. Keep this list for future reference (or make your own copy). What other questions can you ask about aerosol products? 23 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Activity 2: The Gelatin Party This activity will show your students how a gas can expand. It also will let your students investigate the difference in volume Teaching Objectives: between the contents of an aerosol product and the discharged To introduce the concept of pressure and amount. Using whipped cream, your students will work propellants in aerosol cans collaboratively to measure the discharged product as it is sprayed out of the can. To give students a better understanding of how volume and pressure work together They will then record this amount and compare it, mathematically, to the cans volume. (Directions for finding To establish the use of metric units in the cans volume by water displacement are given.) collecting data This will help them see the effects of putting the cans contents Skills: under pressure. When the pressure drops, as it does outside the can, the volume of the contents increases. The discharged Investigation, measuring, collecting data whipped cream can be put to good use by having a gelatin party as the closing event for this activity. Materials: Your students may already have wondered at some time how so much whipped cream can come out of an aerosol can. If they have read the label, they will know that the contents are under pressure. Most of them, however, will not have any real understanding of what under pressure means. This activity will help them get a mathematical sense of the difference in volume between the contents in the can of whipped cream and the contents when it comes out of the can. You will build on this knowledge using later activities in this package that will help students understand expansion and Whipped cream in aerosol can contraction of gases in aerosol cans. 4-5 10-oz beakers or graduated cylinders Background The gas inside aerosol products, the propellant, which is Stack of clear 10-oz cups dissolved in the other ingredients, pushes the product out of the can. Computer or calculator There are two types of propellants used in aerosol products: Paper towels compressed gases, which are present only in a gaseous form, and liquefied propellants, which are gases at room temperature 2 boxes of gelatin (optional) and pressure, and liquid under higher pressure. The majority of consumer aerosol products use liquefied propellants, most of which are naturally occurring hydrocarbons such as propane and butane. Propellants are under pressure inside the aerosol 24 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party can; outside the aerosol can, the pressure is less. In nature, as Prep Time can be seen with air masses in the atmosphere, gases move 1. You will need to arrange for a room outside of the science from areas of high pressure to lower pressure. In an aerosol lab for this activity as your students will both be handling and product, when the valve is opened, the product moves through eating food. the dip tube and out of the can. When it comes out into the air, the gas expands. 2. You also need to send home a permission slip just in case Aerosol Fact you have any students who cant have sucrose (table sugar) or lactose. The gelatin desserts will need to be made and chilled CFCs have been banned in the U.S. for consumer in advance. If the cost of the whipped cream is a problem, you aerosol products since 1978. An exception has been could do this activity as a demonstration, but still have the made for some unique medical uses such as inhalers. gelatin party for the whole class. Your students may think that some aerosol products 3. The whipped cream and gelatin will need to be chilled (deodorant, for example) seem to have less product than other until your students are ready to use them. packaging forms (i.e., stick). This may be because there appears to be empty space inside the can. In most aerosol 4. Your students will spray whipped cream into clean 10-oz products, a small amount of space is needed to enable the plastic cups. To make this job easier, each of the students in a product to work. This space contains the gaseous propellant particular group will have a specific job: one will be in charge and prevents rupture or distortion of the can. of spraying, one will measure volume, one will record, and one will collect and take back the materials. Metric measuring Demonstration Option devices for students to copy and cut out are provided in the back of this activity. If your budget is limited, or you are concerned about creating a mess in the classroom, you may want to do the activity as a demonstration for the whole class. In Determining the Volume of a Can this case, you can ask two student groups to do the One way to determine the volume of a can is to see spraying and measuring for the whole class. how much water the can displaces. These are the steps you should use: Two groups will give enough data for comparison, but will keep the expense and mess to a minimum (and Step 1. Fill a large container with water all the way to you will still have enough whipped cream for the the top party). Step 2. Put the water-filled container in a pan to hold the overflow which will spill over the top when you The propellants in whipped cream are compressed gases and put the aerosol can in the water are used to push product out of the can and to provide an aeration effect, i.e., whipped cream. You can simulate the Step 3. Place the whipped cream can completely action of the gas in whipped cream by whipping a pint of heavy under the water cream for your students. This will give them some sense of how much the addition of a gas can inflate a product. Step 4. Measure the volume of the overflow water now in the pan by putting it in a measuring cup 25 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Procedure Your students can compare this calculated value with their measured value from the experiment. A typical can of whipped 1. Students will do a displacement exercise to find the volume cream has a discharged volume that is about 1.5 times greater of the whipped cream can. They will then use their calculators than the undercharged volume of the can. to figure out how much greater the discharged volume of whipped cream is than the volume of the can. They can do this by dividing the discharged volume by the estimated can vol- 5. To whip heavy cream, place it in a chilled stainless steel bowl. Beat it at high speed with an electric mixer until it is still. ume. The value they get will tell them how many times the vol- Be sure to measure the volume before and after you whip the ume of the contents expanded when it was discharged. air into it. When the students are finished with the spraying and measur- ing, it would be a great time to have them put their whipped Pulling it All Together cream onto gelatin for a class party. Ask students to post their results for the before and after can volume on a chalkboard data chart. They also can list the val- 2. Advise your students that it would be a good idea to get ues that they calculated for how many times the volume some sense of the volume that their cups hold (in metric units) increased from inside the can to outside. before they start spraying whipped cream. They can tape the measuring strip (provided at the end of this section) to the Ask your students to look for agreement and disagreement side of a 10-oz. clear plastic cup. among the values. If you find some that are way off, ask stu- dents to look for the causes of this. It may have been a meas- urement error, or a calculation problem. The top and bottom diameters, and the height of the side for the appropriate type of cup have been provided on the photo- See if your students can come up with logical reasons for why copy page. If you have graduated cylinders available, then your the volumes inside and outside are so different. What inflates students can use these to verify the metric volumes at certain the whipped cream so much? heights on their 10-oz cups. This will ensure that they have the measuring strip taped in the correct position. If you have chosen to whip the heavy cream as a demonstra- tion for your students, they will be able to see what the incor- The cream wont deflate immediately, but it has a tendency not poration of air into the cream can do for its volume. to keep its full volume for very long. If they have figured out how much the cups hold in advance, that will make the meas- uring process much smoother. 3. To provide another illustration of what happens when a gas Safety Considerations For This Activity mixed with a product expands, you can whip a pint of heavy Since your students will be working with and tast- cream into a metal bowl with a mixer. Be sure to record the ing food products, you will need to conduct this creams volume, both before and after it is whipped. As you activity outside the science classroom. You may beat air into the cream, its volume increases greatly. want to move to the cafeteria, a regular classroom or the Home Economics lab. Be sure that all mate- 4. Some of your students may be able to figure out the dis- rials used for containing and eating the food are charge volume by reading the cans label carefully. Using the clean. part of the label where serving size information is provided, it is possible to figure out the discharged volume by multiplying the serving size volume by the number of servings per can. Two tablespoons are equivalent to one fluid ounce. 26 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Activity 2: The Gelatin Party Make a Prediction Most aerosol cans seem to squirt out a lot of stuff. Its as if the product you get is much more than the can appears to contain. In this activity, you will be working with your group to investi- Before you begin investigating, gate the difference between the volume inside a can of discuss what you think the likely whipped cream and the volume of the whipped cream when it result will be, based on your is sprayed. knowledge of aerosols. How many cups do you think the squirted out whipped cream is Step 1 most likely to fill up? Now make your PREDICTION Collect all the materials for your group: and record it like this: My prediction is that the aerosol will deliver: aerosol can of whipped cream (unused) _______ cups, or spoons (one for every person) _______ fluid ounces, or stack of 10-oz clear plastic cups (about 10) _______ cubic centimeters metric volume measuring strip cups of gelatin (one for every person) Also record the reasons for your prediction: paper towels container large enough to hold the whipped cream can The reasons for my prediction are: pan to hold water overflow volume measure (such as a graduated cylinder or measuring cup) ___________________________________________ (Your teacher will arrange for either a large ___________________________________________ ice cooler or refrigerator to be available.) ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 27 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Step 2 Step 4 This activity moves quickly, once you start spraying and meas- You can estimate the volume inside the can this way: uring whipped cream. You will need to divide the work so that: one person is the sprayer one is the measurer one is the recorder one is the materials manager (gets and takes back 1. Fill the large container materials) with water all the way to the top. 2. Place the water-filled container into a pan that will hold any overflow. 3. Hold the whipped cream can completely under the water. 4. Measure the volume of the overflow from the container by pouring it into a measuring cup. Step 3 Once all the materials are assembled and the recorder is ready, set up a row of cups and begin squirting the whipped cream in, cup by cup. It is important that each cup is filled to the same level each time. The recorder needs to be ready to write down the volume right away, before the whipped cream deflates. 28 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Step 5 Compare the estimated volume of the can with the discharged whipped cream volume. What is the difference? How many times greater is the discharged volume than the can volume? ( You can find this out by dividing the discharged vol- ume by the can volume.) THINGS TO THINK ABOUT Were your results close to what you predicted? How far off were you? What do you think has to happen for the can volume to expand that much? Watch your teacher demonstrate how cream is whipped. What is there about this process that can help you understand what is happening in the can? 29 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party 30 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Activity 3: Your students may have seen the effects of a gas under pres- sure when they shake up a soda bottle before opening it. The The Foaming Bottle Model contents of the bottle rush out when opened. This activity will let your students investigate the science of The gas that inflates whipped cream from an aerosol can is how aerosol propellants work and help them understand how under pressure inside the can; outside the can the pressure is the can works to deliver the product. less. When the valve on the aerosol opens, the gas carries the product through the dip tube and out of the can. The gas Your students will be generating carbon dioxide gas in plastic expands when it comes out into the air. 16-oz bottles to propel their product (dish detergent) out of the bottle. The model works on the principle that a gas will It is important that you make the distinction to your students move from an area of high pressure (inside the bottle) to an that the ingredients inside aerosol products are specially area of lower pressure (outside the bottle). matched to be chemically compatible. In other words, they dont react to form other products. The ingredients that the Teaching Objectives: students are using for their model, vinegar and baking soda, do react to form a new product, carbon dioxide. In this respect, To show how gases move from areas where they the foaming bottle model does not show the chemical compati- are under high pressure to areas where they are bility of aerosol ingredients. under lower pressure Demonstration Option To review the concept of pressure and propellants If you are concerned about creating a mess, or in aerosol cans about your students investigating gases under pressure, you could do this activity as a demon- Skills: stration. Investigation, classification, discussion, data collection Prep Time Materials: 1. You will need to collect 16-oz plastic soda bottles and large Baking soda cafeteria trays prior to this activity. Each group of students will Vinegar need to have a bottle and a tray covered with a paper towel to 16-oz plastic bottles work on. If you dont have sinks in your classroom, you will Cafeteria trays or cookie sheets need to move somewhere where water is readily available for Dish detergent cleaning up after each use. Safety goggles 2. Make sure that your baking soda has not been sitting around the classroom too long, or you may not get the results Background you want. Your students probably will have heard the rush of gas as it escapes from an aerosol can. They will know by this time that 3. Students should wear safety splash goggles for this activity. the contents of the can are under pressure. When the valve on While all they are generating is carbon dioxide gas and soap the can is pressed, a pathway is opened to the outside air suds, soap in the eyes is a distinct possibility without protec- where the pressure is less. The propellant rushes out, taking tion. the other contents of the can with it. 4. Provide plenty of paper towels for this activity. 31 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Procedure NOTE: It is up to you whether you want your stu- dents to actually try their methods of putting 1. Your students will first collect all of the needed materials and their gas under greater pressure. The safest cover a tray with paper towels. method is for you to mix the vinegar and baking soda in a demonstration bottle, briefly capping the bottle as the reaction occurs. 2. They will then put a bottle in the middle of the tray, and put the soap and vinegar into the bottle. 7. Your students could increase the pressure of the gas inside Note: The soap is added to the baking soda and their bottles by putting their hands over the bottles as the reac- vinegar mixture for a couple of reasons: it acts as tion occurs, then removing their hands. Be sure everyone is the product carried out of the container by the wearing goggles throughout this activity. gas, and it makes the reaction results easier to observe. Any household dish detergent will work fine. Liquid hand soap, however, will not give Safety Considerations for this Activity good results. Do not let your students put a cork or stopper into the end of the bottle, as it could fly out and hurt 3. Allow your students a chance to make their predictions and someone. record their reasons for them. Students must wear chemical splash goggles for 4. Add the baking soda to the bottle. When baking soda and this activity to keep soap suds out of their eyes. It vinegar are combined, they react to form a salt, water, and car- is also important to remind students to clean up bon dioxide gas. The reaction happens as soon as the chemi- any spills immediately, as soap suds are very slip- cals are combined, so warn your students to be ready! pery on the floor. This gas, when shaken with the soap, makes the soap foam. The foam will escape out of the bottle and onto the tray. Pulling it All Together Remind your students to use senses other than sight to make Ask your students to share their observations of the foaming observations during this investigation. Hearing and touch will bottle model at the end of the class period. If you choose to both come into play when observing the baking soda and vine- allow the students to put their gas under greater pressure, also gar reaction. ask them to share their methods for doing this. 5. You will need to set up a demonstration to show your stu- Ask your students to reflect on the foaming bottle as a model dents what happens when you shake the bottle. By doing this of what happens inside an aerosol can. as a demonstration, the soap suds are reduced and contained, and you can use the opportunity to question your students How is the foaming bottle a good model? (It shows how gases about what they think might happen, and what might be a bet- move from areas of high pressure to lower pressure. It also ter way of going about the task. shows how the gas can carry a product out of the container.) How could the foaming bottle be a better model? (It could con- 6. When the students have finished making their first foaming tain chemical compatible ingredients. It also could have a valve bottle, they will have a chance to brainstorm suggestions for to control the rate at which the product is delivered.) how they could put a gas under greater pressure before it escapes, and then try the activity again. How is the propellant in aerosol products kept from escaping from the can? 32 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Another reminder for your students is that in aerosol products there is no chemical reaction taking place. This experiment does involve a chemical reaction in the making of carbon diox- ide. At this point, draw your students attention to the fact that the gas under pressure moved rapidly to where the pressure was less (outside the bottle). Ask them to draw a parallel between this and what happens in aerosol products. Using the DVD You may want to use the video Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure at this point to illustrate or emphasize some of the concepts that your students have been investigating. Refer to minutes 3:20 through 6:30 in the videotape to show how aerosol products work. 33 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model You will be working with a group of your classmates to make Step 2 and test a model of what happens when a gas moves from a place where it is under high pressure to where it is under lower pressure. This is what happens with aerosol products. In It is important that your team is organized for this investiga- aerosol products, the gas inside (the propellant) is under such tion. It will take several pairs of hands to do this activity, so high pressure when the cans valve is opened, the propellant you will need to divide up the work so that: rushes out to where the pressure is lower, taking the product with it. You will be using a chemical reaction to make the gas in one person measures your model. This reaction is not what happens inside a real the vinegar, baking aerosol, but it is an easy way to demonstrate how a gas behaves soda and dish under pressure. detergent one person adds the Step 1 ingredients to the bottle Collect all the materials for your group: one person shakes the bottle 16-oz plastic soda bottle without cap liquid dish detergent one person records observations and results large tray funnel tablespoon measure Step 3 baking soda vinegar Everyone in the group paper towels needs to put on goggles safety goggles first. Cover your tray with paper towels and put the bottle in the middle of the tray. Once all the materials are assembled and the recorder is ready, two tablespoons of dish detergent and three tablespoons of vinegar should be put into the bottle. (The funnel will help with this.) Rinse and dry the funnel. 34 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Step 4 Step 6 Put 2 tablespoons of baking soda Look over your recorded observations. Share what your group into the funnel, but keep your fin- has found with other groups in your class. ger over the end. Carefully put the funnel into the bottle and See what ideas other groups have had for increasing the pres- shake the baking soda into the sure of the gas inside the bottle. (This is carbon dioxide gas bottle. Put your finger over the that you were making. Carbon dioxide is the same gas that bottle and shake, then put it gives carbonated beverages their fizz, and is one of the gases down in the center of the tray. used as a propellant in a small percentage of aerosol products.) Did anyone in your class have any ideas for how to release the Safety Warning gas and the other ingredients with a valve? Do not place a cap on the bottle. Things to Think About Watch what happens to the contents. Were your results close to what you predicted? If Record your observations. not, how can you account for the difference? Step 5 How is the foaming bottle investigation like the release of a product from an aerosol? How is it dif- ferent? When you finish, talk over with your group members how it might be possible to increase the pressure of the gas inside the What could you do to make the foaming bottle bottle. Discuss your ideas with your teacher. Rinse out the bot- more like what really happens with aerosol prod- tle and try the investigation again. Your teacher will do a ucts? Is it possible with the materials you have? demonstration later to show what happens when the pressure of the gas is increased. What part of the foaming bottle was the propel- Prediction Point lant? What was the product? How did the differ- ence in pressure inside and outside the bottle What do you think will happen to the bottles cause the propellant to work? Discuss some of contents when the gas in it is under greater these ideas with other people in your group. pressure? Record your predictions and your reasons for them. 35 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Activity 4: The Big Survey In this activity, your students will be pulling together what they Teaching Objectives: have learned so far about aerosol products to construct a sur- To introduce the concept of social sciences in vey to discover what other people know and believe about order to understand public opinion aerosol products. Many people still mistakenly hold the belief that aerosol products destroy the Earths upper ozone layer. To develop an understanding of surveys and their role in the sciences Before the activity, your students will have worked with you to choose their target audience for the survey. Each of them will To build writing skills used for scientific have been responsible for identifying five people from that documents audience to survey. Skills: Your students will draw on a number of resources for back- ground information to use in constructing their survey. Other Creativity, data collection, investigation, sources are the DVD and your students findings from the classification, evaluation, discussion, presenting activities. Although your students will work in small groups for results some of this activity, the survey that is finally produced will be a whole-class effort. Each of your students will give the survey Materials: to members of the identified target audience. The data from Data chart the completed surveys will be pulled together, analyzed, and Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire compared to the students own knowledge and beliefs. Background Prep Time Your students have probably completed surveys at one time or 1. Give your students enough notice that they will need to give another, or have seen survey forms in magazines or newspa- the survey to five people outside your class. pers. What they may not have done is design and conduct a survey. When designing a survey, it is important to be clear on the type and quality of information that you want to collect. 2. The class as a whole will need to decide which audience Your students first will be brainstorming, and then prioritizing they would like to survey about aerosols They may choose to the key points on which they may want to survey their audi- work with parents, another class in their school, members of ence. You may want to have some copies of commercial survey the community, teachers or other audiences. forms available for your students to use as models. They may want to focus in on the types of responses that are expected 3. Your students can use the Aerosol Knowledge from the survey subjects. Questionnaire for ideas. 36 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Using the DVD 4. The data then will be collated and organized into a data You may want to use portions of the DVD to review chart. You will need to decide if a graph is the best way of some of the key ideas connected with aerosol showing patterns and relationships in the data. Allow students products. Some of the more controversial issues to post their results and see what they found. A whole-class related to aerosol products and the environment sharing session may also be effective. are dealt with in the video. This may help students clarify their own ideas about what they want to 5. Ask students to post or otherwise share their results from discover through their survey. Refer to minutes the survey. Look to see how the data naturally group them- 6:30 through 10:30 in the videotape to address selves. You may want to use percentages to show relationships, these issues. and then turn these into a bar graph. Procedure If you choose not to have students design their own survey 1. After pulling together their resources, your students will questionnaire, they can use the one provided at the end of this make a list of the five most important things they think that the activity. general public should understand about aerosol products. There are a variety of types of survey questions that your stu- dents could use. The important point to remember is that all of 2. Through sharing, the class will come up with a list of no the final questions for the survey will need to follow the same more than 10 items. They will divide this list so that each group format for the data to be easy to compare. gets one item to work on. Each group will write a survey ques- tion on their item, using the format that the class has agreed Some of the question forms include: upon. Likert scale: usually a five point scale Help your students to focus not just on one aspect of aerosol ( for example, 5 = Strongly Agree to 1 = strongly products, but a combination of attitudes, stereotypes and gen- Disagree) eral knowledge. Some of the items on the lists that your stu- True/False or Yes/No responses dents may come up with include: Open-ended or fill-in-the-blank responses Multiple choice responses Wide variety of spray products and forms How the cans work The survey questions that have respondents either checking or Special delivery of products through aerosols circling their answers are easiest to score but limit the variety History of CFCs and the ozone layer of responses. Open-ended questions can provide a great deal Recyclability of cans of information on an item, but take a much longer time to Removal of CFCs analyze. Warnings on the label Delivery of a controlled dose Since your students are probably beginners in survey design, Advantages of an air-tight container encourage them to choose a simple type of question for this survey. Encourage your students to be creative as they brainstorm the important points about aerosol products. You will need to make copies of the students survey forms. If you have a student who is adept in word processing or desktop 3. After reviewing the items, you will need to print out copies publishing, enlist his or her services to lay out the survey so of the survey for your students to distribute and collect. that it is attractive, easy to read and easily completed. 37 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey When the data are all collated from the survey, make up a whole-class chart with your students to display what they found. They will be comparing these data with what they them- selves thought about aerosol products during the Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire. Pulling it All Together When your students have completed their survey analysis, take time to let them complete the Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire. When they have completed that, re-distribute their questionnaire results from the beginning of the program. Let them compare what they knew and believed then with their current knowledge and attitudes. Then ask your students to compare their answers with their survey results. How similar are the survey results to their answers before com- pleting the activities in this kit? How similar are the results to their answers after completing the activities? What would your students suggest be done about educating the public about aerosol products? Give them time to brain- storm to see what they think would work best. By analysis your students will be able to get some sense of any change in their knowledge of and attitudes about aerosol products. Take time with your students to look back over the experience. Did your students enjoy learning this way? What other topics would they like to investigate in a collaborative fashion? What other questions do they have about aerosol products that have not yet been answered? How could they find out these answers? 38 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Activity 4: The Big Survey We live in a world that is changing fast. Because of rapid com- Step 2 munications (Internet, cable television, cell phones, etc.), we get to hear about important discoveries, issues and news in a Before you design your survey, you need to be sure that you way which our grandparents could not have imagined when yourself understand the issues. To help you with this, please they were young. But, because we get so much information, visit the CAPCO website www.nocfcs.org, which has back- we tend to only remember those things that really concern us ground information on aerosol products and their relationship at the time. We do not always update our knowledge, and with the environment. this can mean that we continue to believe what we originally learned, even though it may no longer be true. Read this over in your group and make notes of any important points that you think people should understand about You will be working with a group of your classmates to find out aerosols. what people know and believe about aerosol products: how they work and their relationship with the environment. You will It also will be helpful to refer to any resource materials in your be conducting a survey to find out. classroom, or school library, on aerosol products and how they work. Step 1 Step 3 The first thing you will need to do is to choose your target sample (the group, or groups, of people you are going to sur- With your group, discuss what you think are the five most vey). Once you decide, each of you will be responsible for important things that the general public should understand identifying five subjects (people) from that group to be sur- about aerosol products. veyed. You can share your list with another group to get some more Sample Groups ideas. Target sample groups might include: other students parents Step 4 people from your community a combination of these groups With your teachers help, hold a whole-class sharing session. other groups (e.g., people aged 20-40) One person should be nominated as recorder. His or her job will be to make a list of the most important points about aerosol products that you all agree would be helpful for the public to understand. Discuss these and come up with an agreed-upon list of no more than 10 points. These points will become the basis of your survey. 39 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Step 5 Survey Checklist What type of answers will you end up with? (e.g. Designing a survey, especially the forms that you use for it, is Yes/No, a number like 1, 2 or 3, a pre-set choice more complicated than many people think. You will need to of answers that people choose from, a written spend some time thinking this out. You may have to try differ- reply, etc.) ent ideas to see which works best before deciding on the actu- al version you will use. How will the answers be recorded? Will the person you are surveying (the subject) write this With your teacher, decide which format of survey question will down, or will you do it? draw the information you need from the public. Ask your teacher for help with this. It is important that the data you col- Are the questions clear? Is there a risk of misun- lect be in a format that can be analyzed easily. derstanding? NOTE: By the end of STEP 5, you should have decid- Is the list of questions reasonable for someone to ed on the format you are going to use for your survey questions. answer comfortably? Is it too long or too short for this? Do you need to test it (pilot it) first? Would using a computer be helpful? Step 6 Only when you are sure that you have everything in order will your survey form be ready to go. Now that you have agreed on a question format, you will need to formulate each question to fit that format. Your teacher will divide up the work so that each group is writing a survey ques- tion for a particular point about aerosol products. Step 7 Share these questions with the class, so that you end up with Your teacher will help you find a convenient way to make the entire survey being written on the board. Now, do a whole- copies of your survey questions for your group to use. Before class edit until you and your teacher are confident that your you conduct the survey, discuss with your group what results questions will get you the answers in the form you need for you think you will get from the survey. Record these predic- analyzing. tions to look at again later. Now you should be ready to survey the people that you identified at the beginning of this activity. NOTE: Remember to think about how you will be analyzing the questions when the survey is com- Your teacher will set a time period for getting the survey com- pleted. This SURVEY CHECKLIST should help. pleted. Lastly, do not forget to thank people for their help with the survey. Prediction Point What do you think the results of the survey will be? (Think about this and write down your prediction.) Why do you think you will get these results? (Think about the reasons for your prediction and write them down.) 40 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Different Ways to Show Data As percentages In a bar graph In a pie chart In pictures As a set of statements Things to Think About * What were the most common misunder- standings about aerosol products? Why do you think people felt that way? What do you think needs to happen for people Step 8 to have a better understanding of how aerosol products work and how they affect the environment? When you have collected your surveys and brought them back Do you think your survey was fair, or did it to class, you can begin to analyze the results. You should have have a positive or negative slant? decided on the best way to do this ahead of time (when you were designing your survey questions and format). Your method must be efficient and accurate. You have to combine Communicating to Others all the separate survey answers into one overall collection of When surveys are conducted, people who data. contribute are usually very interested in the results. They like to see how their responses A data chart is probably the best way of doing this. compare with other peoples responses. Discuss how you think it best to provide them Step 9 with feedback. What is a good way to commu- nicate the results so that others can see and understand them easily? Once the data have been gathered into an overall form, you What format will be best? can analyze them to see what they are saying. Here are some things to look for: How can the results best be passed on to others? Can you see any patterns and relationships? Are there any unusual or odd results? Is there anything that surprises you? Why? How do these results compare with your earlier predictions? Would it help to show the data in another form (to see it more clearly, or to show it to other people)? 41 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Step 10 Reflecting on the Whole Program Before you finish this program, spend a little time thinking If you completed Activities 1 and 2, you will remember that about all you have done. Have a discussion with your group, you were asked to use this chart to write down what you knew the class and your teacher about it. Here are some questions to about aerosol products. help, but try to think of others: Now you have a chance to do the same thing again. This time What did I learn, and how do I know I learned it? you will have the benefit of using all the things you have learned. Your teacher will, once again, supply you with the How do I feel about the way we worked (working in same chart. small groups, whole-class discussions, investigating, sharing ideas and results, designing, displaying ways of Step 11 showing information, solving problems, working with my teacher, managing the time, etc.)? Now compare your two charts and see how your knowledge, How do you think this program could be improved? ideas and views have developed since the beginning of the pro- gram. Your teacher will collect both charts from you and will discuss these views with the class. Professionals in both physical and social sciences, who conduct research, usually make their findings known to others. That is how the worlds knowledge grows and becomes widely known. In this program, YOU have been a scientist. The ways in which you have worked, and the questions you have investigated have followed the scientific processes. In this way, everyone can contribute to a better understanding of the world we live in. 42 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire Purpose: To find out what people know about aerosol products. Instructions: Read each statement carefully, then tell us how much you agree or disagree with that state- ment by checking the box that best fits with your ideas: # STATEMENTS: Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Not Certain 1 Aerosol products such as hairspray and spray deodorants can be bad for the environment 2 Aerosol products are useful 3 Aerosol products harm the upper ozone layer 4 Aerosol containers can be recycled 5 Most of todays aerosol products contain CFCs 43 www.nocfcs.org This page is intentionally blank 44 www.nocfcs.org Section 2: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer This page is intentionally blank 46 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Section 2: OUR ATMOSPHERE AND THE OZONE LAYER Instructors Guide: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer (this document) After reading Ozone Q&A for Instructors, lead students through questions, using one or more of the activities below to demon- strate the lesson. The answer keys for Activities 5, 6 & 8 can be found at the end of Section 2. Student Activity Sheets Activity 5 Its Atmospheric! Crossword Puzzle Student Materials Activity 6 Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Student Materials Activity 7 Atmosphere Rap Poem/Song Student Materials Activity 8 Ozone Depletion Worksheet Student Materials Activity 9 Whole Body Ozone Chemistry (Teachers Guide for Activity) Activity 10 Mock Trial (Teachers Guide and Student Materials) Activity Answer Keys For Activities 5, 6, & 8 47 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Ozone Q & A for Instructors Questions for the Classroom 1. What is the atmosphere? 2. What is the ozone layer and why is it important to us? A very thin layer wrapped around the Earth. It is a naturally occurring concentration of ozone Two gases make up most of the atmosphere: N2 (78%) molecules (O3) in the stratosphere. and O2 (21%). Trace gases make up the remainder. Ozone is blue in color and has a strong odor. Made up of 4 layers: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Ozone filters ultraviolet (UV ) radiation from the Sun. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Too much UV exposure can lead to skin cancer, atmosphere. This is where weather occurs. cataracts, weakened immune systems and reduced crop yield. The stratosphere is the second lowest layer. It is very stable, so jets often fly in the stratosphere. This is also Activity Option: where the protective ozone layer is located. Have students color and label Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer, the print- The mesosphere is above the stratosphere. This is able picture of the atmosphere and its layers. where most meteors burn up as they enter the atmosphere. If you look at the Earth in a photograph from space, you can often see the mesosphere as a 3. Is there a problem with the ozone layer? dark blue line around the planet. There is too little ozone in the stratosphere because The thermosphere is above the mesosphere. The air is naturally occurring and man-made chemicals have very thin in the thermosphere and temperatures can caused ozone to break down in the stratosphere. be as high as 1500 degrees Celsius. This is called ozone depletion. Scientists have been monitoring ozone layer condi- tions, particularly over Antarctica and have measured both seasonal and long-term thinning and thickening of the ozone layer. For more information on ozone depletion, visit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys web- site at www.epa.gov/ozone/science/index.html 4. What harms the ozone layer? CFCs or (chlorofluorocarbons) harm the Earths upper ozone layer. Also, other compounds containing chlorine: methyl chloroform (a solvent), carbon tetrachloride (an industrial chemical), and compounds containing bromine: halons (fire-extinguishing 48 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Ozone Q & A for Instructors agents), and methyl bromide (produce and soil Since CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances are fumigant). slow to move into the stratosphere, it will take a long time for the ozone layer to recover fully. All of these ozone-depleting substances are very stable, which is why they were used in certain However, because of the actions of the international products and processes. They rise slowly to the community, the ozone layer is healing itself and is on stratosphere; strong UV radiation breaks them down, its way to full recovery. In fact, the EPAs damaging the protective ozone layer. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection report, published in April 2007 in honor of the 20th Activity Option: Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol, predicts that the Whole Body Ozone Chemistry or Ozone Earths upper ozone layer will be completely repaired Depletion Worksheet. by 2060 to 2075: See the report on the U.S. Environmental 5. Why did we start using CFCs? Protection Agencys website at Do we still use CFCs? http://www.epa.gov/ozone/2007stratozonepro- gressreport.html CFCs were popular because they are stable, non-flam- mable and low in toxicity. In the past, CFCs were used Activities Options: as refrigerants, solvents and as propellents in aerosol products. Its Atmospheric! crossword puzzle Watch Another Awesome Aerosol In the 1970s, researchers speculated that the chlorine Adventure video in CFCs could be hurting the ozone layer. As a result Students can write an atmosphere/ozone of this research, the United States Government layer poem/rap song banned CFCs as propellants in aerosol products in 1978 except for their use in some medical applications such as asthma inhalers. And, even these essential 7. Do aerosol products sold in the United use products are being switched to non-CFC States contain CFCs if they do not have a alternatives. No CFC logo? Aerosol cans now use chemicals that do not deplete Many aerosol products do not have a No CFC logo the ozone layer. to remind consumers that they are safe for the environment. In 1987, many countries came together to develop and sign the Montreal Protocol, an international Many product manufacturers to date have chosen agreement to phase out use of CFCs and other not to put a No CFC logo on the label, primarily for ozone-depleting substances. aesthetic reasons. Today, more than 190 countries have signed the treaty. Consumer aerosol products in the U.S. are CFC- free. 6. Is the ozone layer healthy today? Because of international bans against CFCs and other ozone- depleting substances, there are fewer and fewer of these produced. 49 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 5: Its Atmospheric! Crossword Puzzle ACTIVITY #5: Its Atmospheric! Crossword Puzzle Across A2 The Earths protective ozone layer is thinnest above this continent D5 The ozone layer will heal itself in approximately 50 years, making our efforts at protecting the ozone layer an "environmental ______" F7 The ozone layer protects Earth because it ________ ultraviolet radiation from the Sun I5 This type of can once used CFCs, but is now safe for the ozone layer K10 A very thin layer wrapped around the Earth L1 The process by which the ozone layer becomes thinner is called "ozone ________" M10 The layer of the atmosphere in which weather occurs 011 In September of 2007, the Montreal Protocol will celebrate its _____anniversary. Q6 An ozone molecule is made up of this S2 The color of ozone Down A10 These man-made chemicals harm the Earth's protective ozone layer D3 This international treaty was adopted in 1987 to eliminate CFC production worldwide. D5 Too much ultraviolet radiation can cause this disease in humans D19 This element in CFCs depletes the ozone layer F8 This is the motto of the CAPCO F13 The layer of the atmosphere where Earth's protective ozone layer is located 50 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 6: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer ACTIVITY #6: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Instructions Identify layers of the atmosphere and write in on blank lines Color layers of the atmosphere Draw line that identifies ozone layer Draw clouds in the layer of the atmosphere in which weather occurs Draw an airplane in the layer in which most commercial air travel occurs Draw a meteor shower in the appropriate layer 51 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 7: Atmosphere & Ozone Poem/Rap Song ACTIVITY #7: Atmosphere & Ozone Layer Poem/Rap Instructions In the space provided below, write a poem or rap about the atmosphere and/or Earths upper ozone layer based on what you learned in class. 52 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 8: Ozone Depletion Worksheet ACTIVITY #8: Ozone Depletion Worksheet UV Light UV Light CFCs Ozone Layer Stratosphere CFCs Instructions Using the illustration, label the following steps in ozone depletion (not in order): Chlorine and Oxygen Bond CFCs Take Years to Reach Stratosphere Less Oxygen is Available to Form Ozone; Results: Thinner Ozone Layer Chlorine is Split from CFC More UV Light Reaches Earth UV Light Breaks Down CFCs 53 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Activity #9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Instructions Print out attached letters representing atoms. Youll need 3 Chlorine (CL), 1 Carbon (C), 1 Fluorine (F) and the remainder of the class can use Oxygen (O). Follow the activity instructions (attached). 54 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry cl 55 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry 56 C www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry 57 F www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry O 58 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Alignment to National Standards National Science Education Standards In this activity, students will play the roles of various atoms and molecules to help them better understand the formation and Physical Science, Properties and Changes of Properties destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. in Matter, Grades 5 to 8: Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form Background new substances (compounds) with different character- Ozone, a molecule containing three oxygen atoms, is made istic properties. In chemical reactions, the total mass is when UV light breaks the bonds of oxygen molecules contain- conserved. Substances often are placed in categories ing two oxygen atoms in the stratosphere. The single oxygen or groups if they react in similar ways; metals are an atom is highly reactive and bonds with another oxygen mole- example of such a group. cule creating ozone. By having students play the roles of vari- ous atoms and molecules, ideas of basic chemistry in the Physical Science, Chemical Reactions, Grades 9 to 12: atmosphere are made more concrete. For example, pairs of Light can initiate many important chemical reactions students can represent diatomic oxygen while a trio is required such as photosynthesis and the evolution of urban for ozone. This illustrates chemical reactions involved in the smog. photochemistry of ozone production and destruction, along with a catalyst that affects the rate of the reaction. Physical Science, Chemical Reactions, Grades 9 to 12: Radical reactions control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the Learning Goals atmosphere, the burning and processing of fossil 1. Students will understand how ozone is formed in the fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions. Earths stratosphere and will be able to explain the importance of stratospheric ozone. Benchmarks for Science Literacy, Project 2061, AAAS 2. Students will be able to explain how ozone is destroyed in the stratosphere. The Physical Setting, Structure of Matter, Grades 6 to 8: All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too 3. Students will understand that some chemicals can small to see directly through a microscope. The atoms speed up the breakdown of ozone in the atmosphere. of any element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements. Atoms may stick together in well- 4. Students will be able to explain why chloro- defined molecules or may be packed together in large fluorocarbons are destructive to the ozone layer. arrays. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances. The Physical Setting, Structure of Matter, Grades 9 to 12: The rate of reactions among atoms and molecules depends on how often they encounter one another, which is affected by the concentration, pressure, and temperature of the reacting materials. Some atoms and molecules are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of others. 59 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Grade Level/Time Part 1: Grade level: Modeling Oxygen in the Earths Atmosphere 6 to 9 (Note: Care must be taken with the younger grades to make the atomic concepts simple and clear. You may wish to 1. Let 5 or 6 pairs of students represent oxygen eliminate the more complex CFC reactions, for example.) molecules. Each student should construct a sign using a piece of paper, writing a large O on it and attaching Time: a string to go around their neck, indicating that they Allow a minimum of 30 minutes to run the students through are oxygen atoms. each simulation and discuss the meaning of each. 2. Students in each pair should hold hands to simulate Materials the bonding between the atoms of oxygen in each molecule. Have these pairs of students move about in a cleared area in the classroom to simulate molecular 8 1/2 by 11 inch sheets of paper or cardboard motion. It is appropriate for them to bounce off a wall Hole punch or collide with each other as they move about. After Magic markers moving about for a minute or so, stop to discuss what String has been demonstrated. Flashlight Clear red and blue plastic sheets to cover flashlight lens String (optional) Procedure Note: As written, this activity requires that students hold hands. Younger students may not have any problems with this, however, the self-consciousness of adolescents may hinder the spontaneous movement and physical contact required for this activity. If you think this will be problematic in your classroom, cut 12-inch lengths of string for the students to hold to make the bonds. This activity should be done one step at a time, being sure the Questions and Observations students understand the analogy. Otherwise the analogy may be confusing or more difficult to understand than the concepts 1. How are the moving pairs of students similar to what being illustrated. It is essential to stop and discuss after each occurs in the air in the room? (Oxygen in the air exists section. as two atoms to each molecule, and, like all air mole- cules, oxygen is constantly in motion.) 2. How is it different? (Obviously the pair of students is much larger than one oxygen molecule. In addition, air has other gasesnitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases.) 60 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry 3. What could be done to make the analogy better? 3. Let pairs of students representing oxygen begin their (Some suggestions might include having other motion as before. When the student with the flashlight students act as nitrogen atoms, carbon dioxide shines the light on a pair of students, the bond molecules, etc. To make it more realistic, how many between them breaks, and students let go of their nitrogen molecules (N2) should be used for each partner. oxygen molecule (O2)? About four, since air contains about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen.) 4. As the motion continues, these single atoms of oxygen move around until they bump into a pair of oxygen 4. What is oxygen called if it has two atoms per mole- atoms. Each of the single oxygen atoms combines with cule? (Diatomic oxygen also known as molecular the pair they bump into, forming a group of three oxygen. A single O atom is known as atomic oxygen.) oxygen atoms. These three students hold hands, representing a molecule of ozone. Part 2: Questions and Observations Simulating the Formation of Ozone in the Stratosphere 1. How is this simulation similar to the way ozone is formed in the stratosphere? (UV light breaks the 1. Repeat the steps under modeling the Earths oxygen, bonds on oxygen molecules, and the free oxygen but this time darken or dim the lights in the room. atom combines with other oxygen molecules to produce ozone.) 2. Add a student who, with a flashlight, simulates solar radiation. Place a clear blue plastic sheet over the lens 2. What is oxygen with three atoms per molecule called? of the flashlight to represent the ultraviolet, short (ozone) wavelengths that are involved in the breakup of diatomic oxygen. 3. How many molecules of ozone can be formed by the breakup of one molecule of diatomic oxygen by ultra- violet light? (2) 4. Why is ozone formed this way in the stratosphere and not in the air near the Earths surface? (Much more ultraviolet light exists in the stratosphere than near the Earths surface.) Part 3: Demonstrating How Ozone Breaks Down in the Stratosphere 1. Have several groups of three students, each represent- ing ozone, move about the room. Pairs of students representing diatomic oxygen can be added as a touch of realism. 61 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry 2. This time the lens of the flashlight should be covered Graphic of the molecular structure of common CFCs with clear red plastic to represent UV light of a longer wavelength. 3. When this light is used to illuminate an ozone molecule, the ozone breaks up to form a diatomic molecule (a pair of students) and an oxygen atom (single student). 4. This process is repeated by shining the light on a second ozone molecule, producing another pair of oxygen atoms and another single oxygen atom. 5. The two single oxygen atoms should then combine to form a pair of atoms, or a molecule of diatomic oxygen. Questions and Observations Questions and Observations 1. How many molecules of diatomic oxygen are formed from the breakup of two molecules of ozone? (3) 1. The CFCs are inert, that is, they do not react with other materials under most conditions. How can this 2. How is the breakup of ozone in the stratosphere be demonstrated using groups of students to repre- similar to its formation there? (Both the formation and sent atoms of different elements? (The CFCs can move breakup of ozone involve UV light, but different wave around together, but students should lock elbows, lengths.) showing that the bonds of these molecules do not break apart easily.) Part 4: An Example of a Chemical that Speeds up the 2. The CFCs that enter the atmosphere at the Earths Breakdown of Ozone surface have found their way into the stratosphere. How can this be demonstrated using students to play Of all the chemicals involved in the breakdown of stratospheric the role of various gases in the air? (The CFCs can ozone, none have received more attention than the chlorofluo- gradually move from the place designated in the rocarbons, or CFCs. The two most common are CFC-11 (CFel3) classroom as the Earths surface to the place and CFC-12 (CCl2F2). These compounds can be modeled by designated as the stratosphere. More ozone molecules letting students represent atoms of carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), should be in the stratosphere. The student with the and fluorine (F). For example, a molecule of CFC-11 would be flashlight representing UV light should be in the place composed of one student representing a carbon atom, another designated as the stratosphere.) representing a fluorine atom, and three students representing three chlorine atoms. The students should hold hands to demonstrate how atoms are bonded in a molecule. 62 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Part 5: Questions and Observations The Role of Chlorine in the Breakdown of Ozone in the Stratosphere 1. What is a catalyst? (A chemical that promotes a chemical reaction but is not used up in the reaction.) UV light breaks down CFCs in the stratosphere, releasing chlo- rine atoms. This can be demonstrated by having a student with 2. Does the chlorine act as a catalyst in this reaction? a flashlight shine a light on a group of students representing a ( Yes) molecule of CFC-11 or CFC-12. Let one student representing a freed chlorine atom move amidst groups of students represent- 3. Why is the involvement of chlorine in the breakdown ing ozone. The chlorine is involved in the breakdown of ozone of ozone called a chain reaction? (Chlorine can cause as follows: the breakdown of many ozone molecules and the chlorine is not altered or destroyed.) Cl + O3 > ClO +O2 ClO + O > Cl + O2 Assessment Ideas 1. A student representing chlorine pulls an oxygen atom Because this is a complex, multi-step simulation, it away from an ozone molecule to form chloride oxide would be difficult for the teacher to informally observe (ClO). or question each student during the activities. We sug- gest instead that students keep a log of the discussion 2. The two students representing ClO react with an questions and answers as they go. This log can be oxygen atom. turned in and evaluated by the teacher. 3. The two students representing oxygen combine to Draw an unlabeled set of simple ball and stick form an oxygen molecule. molecular pictures on overheads illustrating each of the activities done by the students. Have students 4. The student representing chlorine is then free to copy the overhead drawings and label each molecule attack another molecule of oxygen. and process. 5. Repeat these steps several times to show the chain Provide gumdrops or clay and toothpicks for students reaction. to build the molecular models. 63 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 9:Whole Body Ozone Chemistry Modifications for Alternative Learners The kinesthetic nature of the lesson will be easily followed by English Language Limited students, but the connection to the molecular processes may be difficult. Use overhead illustrations liberally to connect the student activities to the processes, rather than relying only on voice. Students with physical limitations could be given gum- drops or clay and toothpicks to simulate molecular models. 64 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Learning Goals Mock Trial 1. Students will gain a greater understanding of one of This activity brings the judicial system to life in your classroom the three branches of government, the United States as students take part in a mock trial. Using information from Judicial System, and learn the preparation, procedures the CAPCO website, www.nocfcs.org and the U.S. and rules involved in a court case. Environmental Protection Agencys website, www.epa.gov/ozone/science/index.html, students will research 2. Students will learn how to conduct and apply and prepare written statements and act out a court case involv- research, and use deduction to form convincing ing CFCs, the environment and aerosol spray cans. While learn- arguments. ing about these important issues, this activity gives students an understanding of the American Justice System, making the 3. Students will learn about aerosol cans, and the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit applicable to Social dangers of CFCs and ozone depletion. Studies as well as Science standards. Students will actively learn the different steps, procedures and rules of a trial, gain experi- Grade Level/Time ence speaking in front of their peers and learn how to form Grade level: convincing arguments. 4 to 9 (Note: This material should be adjusted by the teacher to fit the ability of the students. For example, legal jargon, spe- Background cific objection rules, and re-cross and re-direct examination Though your students will be familiar with certain aspects of could be eliminated for younger grades). the courts, such as judges, lawyers and common legal jargon, this activity is a great way for students to learn the true format Time: of a court case while using current classroom materials. There Trial: 30 minutes are many different ways to incorporate the CAPCO Classroom Trial preparation: Can be done in-class or as a homework Aerosol Adventure Kit into a mock trial format. Some sugges- assignment. tions include: Materials Accusing a chlorine atom of breaking up an oxygen Judges robe and gavel. couple (molecule) and thus, creating bad ozone and endangering others. Chairs and desks for attorneys, judge, jury, witnesses, experts and bailiff. Putting an aerosol can from the 1960s on trial for endangering the ozone. Bringing a country that hasnt signed the Montreal Protocol to court for endangering the rest of the world. Witnesses and experts can include doctors discussing the health effects of ozone depletion, concerned citizens, or scien- tists explaining the role of chlorine in ozone depletion. Whatever the topic, each trial should include a judge, bailiff, jury, defendant, defense attorneys, prosecutors (criminal case) or plaintiffs (civil case), witnesses and experts. 65 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Prep Time 1. To participate in this activity, students should be 2. After roles have been distributed, students assigned as taught about the rule of law in limited governments, attorneys write briefs that summarize the question at and the proceedings and players in a court case before hand and concisely argue their given position. they are assigned their roles. Witnesses and experts should create written statements that contain all the information they will be Roles for a class of 25 could be distributed in the providing in their testimony at the trial. following way: 1 judge 3. To make the trial more realistic, attain a gavel and robe 7 jury members for the judge and a badge for the bailiff. 1 defendant 3 defense attorneys 4. A classroom should be transformed into a trial room 3 prosecutors by setting it up in the following format: 1 bailiff 2 witnesses 2 experts 5 members of the press 66 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Procedure 6. OPTIONAL: *Please Note: These procedures were created for a Redirect Examination: The prosecution attorney who did the middle school Mock Trial program and can be sim- first direct examination can ask the witness three follow-up plified (by excluding numbers 6 and 7) or made questions at this time to explain any damaging admissions. more challenging by including proper rules relat- ing to evidence and questioning. Facts not brought up previously cannot be introduced. 7. OPTIONAL: 1. Opening Court: When the judge enters the room, the Re-cross Examination: The defense attorney in the first cross- bailiff opens the court by saying All Rise. The Superior examination can ask the witness three questions. Again, new Court for the State of ____________ is now open information cannot be introduced at this time. and in session, with the Honorable Judge ______ presiding. All persons having due cause of action here- 8. Direct examination by the Defense: After the in, draw near and give attention according to law. You prosecution has presented all of its witnesses, the may be seated. defense may present its witnesses, following the same 2. Call of the Calendar: Judge will announce the name of format as number 4. the first case and ask if the parties are ready: The first matter on todays docket is ___________. Is the 9. Cross-examination by Prosecution: Follows same prosecution ready? (Plaintiff s attorney responds: format as number 5. Ready, your honor). Is the defense ready? 10.OPTIONAL: (Defenses attorney responds: Ready, your honor). You may proceed. Redirect Examination by defense: Follows same format as number 6. 3. Opening Statements: Time allotted based on time available for the Mock Trial. The prosecution side is 11. OPTIONAL: first, followed by the defense. An attorney from each Re-cross examination by prosecution: Follows same format as side introduces his or her team and client, and out number 7. lines the case as they plan to present it, highlighting key testimony, and describing the compensation 12. Closing Arguments: The defense, followed by the requested. prosecution, summarizes the case in a way more favor- able to their positions, referring to testimony that 4. Direct Examination by Prosecution: Prosecution calls supports their case. The attorney on each side giving the teams first witness: Your Honor, I would like to the closing arguments should not be the one who call to the stand. The bailiff then approaches the delivered the opening statements. witness or expert and asks, Do you solemnly swear or affirm that the testimony you may give in the cause 13. Jury Deliberation and Verdict: For a guilty verdict in a now pending before this court should be the truth, criminal case, the jury must decide that the evidence the whole truth and nothing but the truth according against the defendant shows guilt, beyond a reason- to the Mock Trial Rules? The witness takes the oath able doubt. For a guilty verdict in a civil case, the jury by saying, I do. Attorney will ask the witness must decide that the evidence against the defendant narrative questions to provide facts for the court. shows that he or she is more likely than not to have 5. Cross-examination by Defense: Defense attorney asks committed the crime. witnesses questions based on the information he or *This format was adapted from the Middle School Mock Trial she previously spoke about. These questions are Program-2004 from the Connecticut Consortium for Law & meant to show weaknesses of the witnesss previous Citizenship Education, Inc. and the Connecticut Bar Association. testimony, discredit the witnesss credibility, or show bias in his or her statements. 67 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Pulling it All Together: Beyond the scope of direct, cross or redirect: Mock Trial Rules Objection. Counsel is asking the witness about matters not raised in the direct examination. 1. Evidence: Hearsay: Must be relevant to the case. Objection. Counsels question calls for hearsay. Must not be about how honest or dishonest a person has been in the past. This issue can only be Improper opinion: allowed if that person testifies. Objection. Counsel is asking the witness to give an expert opinion, and this witness has not been qualified as an 2. Hearsay: expert. Any evidence of a statement made out of court by someone other than the witness testifying in order to prove the truth. Invention of facts: Your Honor, we object on the basis that the opposing Hearsay is not allowed. counsels question seeks evidence outside the records of this case. 3. Opinion Testimony: Non-expert witnesses may not give opinions that require spe- Lack of personal knowledge: cial knowledge beyond that of ordinary people. Objection your Honor. The witness has no personal knowledge to answer that question. 4. Leading: Asking the witness or expert yes or no questions. Only allowed during cross and re-cross examination. If any of these rules are violated by one team, the other team may make an objection. Examples of Objections: Irrelevant Evidence: Objection. This testimony is irrelevant. Leading question: Objection. Counsel is leading the witness. Improper character testimony: Objection. This is testimony about character that doesnt relate to truthfulness or untruthfulness. 68 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: meant to show weaknesses of the witnesss previous testimony, discredit the witnesss credibility, or show Mock Trial bias in his or her statements. OPTIONAL Redirect Examination: Procedure The prosecution attorney who did the first direct examination can ask the witness three follow-up questions at this time to Opening Court: When the judge enters the room, the explain any damaging admissions. Facts not previously brought bailiff opens the court by saying All Rise. The up cannot be introduced. Superior Court for the State of ______ is now open and in session, with the Honorable Judge ______ OPTIONAL Re-Cross Examination: presiding. All persons having due cause of action The defense attorney in the first cross-examination can ask the herein, draw near and give attention according to law. witness three questions. Again, new information cannot be You may be seated. introduced at this time. Call of the Calendar: The judge will announce the Direct Examination by Defense: After the prosecution name of the first case and ask if the parties are ready: attorneys have presented all of their witnesses, the The first matter on todays docket is __________. defense may present their witnesses, following the Is the prosecution ready? (Plaintiff s attorney same format as number 4. responds: Ready, your honor). Is the defense ready? (defenses attorney responds: Ready, your Cross-examination by Prosecution: Follows same honor). You may proceed. format as number 5. Opening Statements: Time allotted based on time OPTIONAL Redirect Examination by Defense: available for the mock trial. The prosecution side is Following same format as number 6. first, followed by the defense. An attorney from each side introduces his or her team and client, and out- OPTIONAL Re-cross examination by Prosecution: lines the case as they plan to present it, highlighting Following same format as number 7. key testimony and describing the compensation requested. Closing Arguments: The defense, followed by the prosecution, summarizes the case in a way more favor- Direct Examination by Prosecution: Prosecution calls able to their positions, referring to testimony that sup- the teams first witness: Your Honor, I would like to ports their case. The attorney on each side giving the call________ to the stand. The bailiff then closing arguments should not be the one who approaches the witness or expert and asks, Do you delivered the opening statements. solemnly swear or affirm that the testimony you may give in the cause now pending before this Court Jury Deliberation and Verdict: For a guilty verdict in a should be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but criminal case, the jury must decide that the evidence the truth according to the Mock Trial Rules? The wit- against the defendant shows guilt, beyond a reason- ness takes the oath by saying, I do. Attorney will ask able doubt. For a guilty verdict in a civil case, the the witness narrative questions to provide facts for jury must decide that the evidence against the the court. defendant shows that he or she is more likely than not to have committed the crime. Cross Examination by Defense: Defense attorney asks witnesses questions based on the information he or she previously spoke about. These questions are 69 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: BAILIFF Role: Assist the judge in conducting the trial by opening the court, swearing in witnesses and experts, maintaining order and serving as timekeeper. Procedure 1. Opening the Court at the Beginning of a Trial: When the judge enters the room, the bailiff opens the court by saying: All Rise. The Superior Court for the State of is now open and in session, with the Honorable Judge______________ presiding. All persons having due cause of action herein, draw near and give attention according to law. You may be seated. 2. Swearing in Witnesses and Experts: After an attorney calls a witness or expert to the stand, the bailiff approaches the witness or expert and asks: Do you solemnly swear or affirm that the testimony you may give in the cause now pending before this Court should be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth according to the Mock Trial Rules? The witness or expert takes the oath by saying, I do. 3. Maintaining Order: If the judge decides to evict an individual from the courtroom, the bailiff should escort that person out of the room. 4. Keeping Time: The bailiff should have a stopwatch and keep a record of the time used by each side on an official time sheet. The bailiff should signal to each side two times before their time is up at whatever intervals the time limit set by the teacher calls for. 70 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: ATTORNEY Role: Control the presentation of evidence at a trial and argue the merits of his or her side of the case. 1. Research the case by reviewing the case materials supplied and plan the teams strategy for presenting evidence. 2. Help witnesses and experts study their roles and prepare testimony. 3. Deliver opening and closing statements, and question witnesses and experts during direct and cross examination. 4. Introduce evidence and question witnesses during direct and cross examination to bring out the full story. Attorneys do NOT supply information about the case themselves. To do this, attorneys must be familiar with the written statements the witnesses and experts have prepared. Procedure 1. Opening Statements: The prosecution goes first, followed by the defense. One attorney from each side will introduce his or her team and client, and outline the case as they plan to present it, highlighting key testimony and describing the relief requested. 2. Direct Examination: First made by the prosecution. Prosecution calls the teams first witness: Your Honor, I would like to call ____________ to the stand. TYPE OF QUESTION: Neutral Questions: Open-ended questions that dont suggest the answer and usually invite the witness or expert to give a narrative response. EXAMPLE: What are aerosol products? 3. Cross examination: After the prosecution team questions their witnesses and experts, the defense attorney cross examines the witness. During cross examination, attorneys want to show the weaknesses of the previous testimony, discredit a witness or experts credibility, or show bias in his or her statements. TYPE OF QUESTION: Leading Question: Suggests to the witness or expert the answer desired by the attorney and usually has only yes or no answers that dont allow a narrative response. Can only be used in cross-examination. 71 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Attorneys can only ask questions that relate to matters brought up during the direct examination or to matters relating to the wit- ness or experts credibility or believability. EXAMPLES: Isnt it true that CFCs are no longer used in consumer aerosol products? 4. OPTIONAL Redirect Examination: The prosecution attorney who did the first direct examination can ask the witness three follow-up questions at this time to explain any damaging admissions. Facts not previously brought up cannot be discussed. 5. OPTIONAL Re-cross examination: The defense attorney in the first cross-examination can ask the witness three questions. New information cannot be introduced at this time. 6. Direct Examination by Defense: After the prosecution attorneys have presented all of their witnesses, the defense may present their witnesses, following the same format as the prosecution. Cross -examination by prosecution. OPTIONAL Redirect Examination by the defense OPTIONAL Re-cross Examination by the prosecution. Closing Arguments: The defense, followed by the prosecution, summarizes the case in a way more favorable to their positions, referring to testimony that supports their case. The attorney on each side giving the closing arguments shouldnt be those who delivered the opening statements. Rules 1. Evidence: Must be relevant to the case. Must not be about how honest or dishonest a person has been in the past, unless that person testifies. When presented, three steps must be taken: 1. The witness must identify the object or document 2. Evidence must be shown to the opposing counsel. 3. Evidence must be offered into evidence. Hearsay: Any evidence of a statement made out of court by someone other than the witness testifying in order to prove the truth. Hearsay is not allowed. 72 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Opinion Testimony: Non-expert witnesses may not give opinions that require special knowledge beyond that of ordinary people. Opinion Testimony by Experts: Only people who are shown to be experts can give opinions that require special knowledge. To show the court how the person is an expert, the attorney must first ask the expert about his or her qualification. Leading: Asking the witness or expert yes or no questions. Only allowed during cross and re-cross examination. *If any of these rules are violated, the opposing counsel can object. The Judge decides if the objection is sustained (the witness doesnt have to answer the question for which the objection was made) or overruled (the witness must answer the question for which the objection was made). Examples of Objections: Irrelevant Evidence: Objection. This testimony is irrelevant. Leading Question: Objection. Counsel is leading the witness. Improper Character Testimony: Objection. This is testimony about character that doesnt relate to truthfulness or untruthfulness. Beyond the Scope of Direct, Cross or Redirect: Objection. Counsel is asking the witness about matters not raised in the direct examination. Hearsay: Objection. Counsels question calls for hearsay. Improper Opinion: Objection. Counsel is asking the witness to give an expert opinion, and this witness has not been qualified as an expert. Invention of Facts: Your Honor, we object on the basis that the opposing counsels question seeks evidence outside the records of this case. Lack of Personal Knowledge: Objection your Honor. The witness has no personal knowledge to answer that question. 73 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: WITNESS Role: To tell the court the facts of the case. 1. Witnesses are to submit their written testimony to the judge before the trial begins. If you are a witness, this statement includes recollections of the event/s or individual/s in question. If at any time the witness forgets any content of his or her statement, the questioning attorney can present it to the witness to silently read over. The attorneys for whom you are a witness should help prepare and familiarize you with your role. 2. Witnesses may not sit with the attorneys during the trial. Rules: To avoid an objection by the opposing counsel that could discredit the witness, there are some things that a witness should try to avoid in an answer: Lack of Personal Knowledge: A witness shouldnt testify on any matter in which he or she has no personal knowledge. Opinion Testimony by Non-experts: Witnesses may not give opinions that require special knowledge. Character Evaluation: Witnesses cannot testify about how honest or dishonest a person has been in the past, unless that person is testifying. Hearsay occurs when a witness testifies about statements they heard by someone out of court to prove the truth of the matter asserted in the statement. Hearsay isnt allowed. 74 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: EXPERT Role: To tell the court the facts of the case. 1. Experts are to submit their written testimony to the judge before the trial begins. An experts testimony will include his or her knowledge of the subject at hand. If at any time the expert forgets any content of his or her statement, the questioning attorney can present it to the expert to silently read over. The attorneys for whom you are an expert for should help pre pare and familiarize you with your role. Rules: To avoid an objection by the opposing counsel that could discredit the expert, there are some things that an expert should try to avoid in an answer: 1. Lack of personal knowledge: an expert shouldnt testify on any matter in which he or she has no personal knowledge. 2. Character evaluation: experts cannot testify about how honest or dishonest a person has been unless that person testifies. 3. Hearsay occurs when a witness testifies about statements they heard by someone out of court to prove the truth of the matter asserted in the statement. Hearsay isnt allowed. 75 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: JURY MEMBER Role: Listen carefully to what witnesses say and decide if the facts that are presented prove the defendant is guilty or not guilty. Procedure: When listening to witnesses testify you should: 1. Determine whether or not they are telling the truth. 2. Decide if what they say is important to the case. 3. Decide if they are accurate in the information they give. 4. Compare testimony of witnesses to determine whether or not the facts fit together. 5. Discuss with fellow jurors and make a decision based on the testimony of the witnesses. For a guilty verdict in a criminal case, the jury must decide that the evidence against the defendant shows guilt, beyond a reasonable doubt. For a guilty verdict in a civil case, the jury must decide that the evidence against the defendant shows that he or she is more likely than not to have committed the crime. 76 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: HEAD JUROR Role: 1. To listen carefully to what witnesses say and decide if the facts presented prove the defendant is guilty or not guilty of the accusation. 2. Lead the discussion of the jury. 3. Conduct secret ballots. 4. Announce the verdict before the court or to the judge. Procedure: When listening to witnesses testify you should: 1. Determine whether or not they are telling the truth. 2. Decide if what they say is important to the case. 3. Decide if they are accurate in the information they give. 4. Compare testimony of witness to determine whether or not the facts fit together. 5. Discuss with fellow jurors and make a decision based on the testimony of the witnesses. For a guilty verdict in a criminal case, the jury must decide that the evidence against the defendant shows guilt, beyond a reasonable doubt. For a guilty verdict in a civil case, the jury must decide that the evidence against the defendant shows that he or she is more likely than not to have committed the crime. 77 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial ACTIVITY #10: Mock Trial Character: JUDGE Role: Keep order in the court, prevent chaos, explain the appropriate rules to the jury and follow and enforce the law. Procedure: 1. The judge must be familiar with courtroom procedures before the trial begins. 2. Call of the Calendar: Judge will announce the name of the first case and ask if the parties are ready: The first matter on todays docket is ______. Is the prosecution ready? (Plaintiff s attorney responds: Ready, your honor). Is the defense ready? Defenses attorney responds: Ready, your honor). You may proceed. 3. During the trial, the judge will make decisions on whether objections are sustained (the witness doesnt have to answer the question for which the objection was made) or overruled (the witness must answer the question for which the objection was made). Rules 1. Evidence: Must be relevant to the case. Must not be about how honest or dishonest a person has been in the past, unless that person testifies. 2. Hearsay: Any evidence of a statement made out of court by someone other than the witness testifying in order to prove the truth. Hearsay is not allowed. 3. Opinion Testimony: Non-expert witnesses may not give opinions that require special knowledge beyond that of ordinary people. 4. Leading: Asking the witness or expert yes or no questions Only allowed during cross and re-cross examination. 78 www.nocfcs.org Student Materials Activity 10: Mock Trial Examples of Objections: 1. Irrelevant Evidence: Objection. This testimony is irrelevant. 2. Leading Question: Objection. Counsel is leading the witness. 3. Improper Character Testimony: Objection. This is testimony about character that doesnt relate to truthfulness or untruthfulness. 4. Beyond the Scope of Direct, Cross or redirect: Objection. Counsel is asking the witness about matters not raised in the direct examination. 5. Hearsay: Objection. Counsels question calls for hearsay. 6. Improper Opinion: Objection. Counsel is asking the witness to give an expert opinion, and this witness has not been qualified as an expert. 7. Invention of Facts: Your Honor, we object on the basis that the opposing counsels question seeks evidence outside the records of this case. 8. Lack of Personal Knowledge: Objection your Honor. The witness has no personal knowledge to answer that question. 79 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity #5: teachers Answer Key TEACHERS ANSWER KEY ACTIVITY #5: Its Atmospheric! Crossword Puzzle I E T H Across A2 The Earths protective ozone layer is thinnest above this continent D5 The ozone layer will heal itself in approximately 50 years, making our efforts at protecting the ozone layer an "environmental ______" F7 The ozone layer protects Earth because it ________ ultraviolet radiation from the Sun I5 This type of can once used CFCs, but is now safe for the ozone layer K10 A very thin layer wrapped around the Earth L1 The process by which the ozone layer becomes thinner is called "ozone ________" M10 The layer of the atmosphere in which weather occurs 011 In September of 2007, the Montreal Protocol will celebrate its _____anniversary. Q6 An ozone molecule is made up of this S2 The color of ozone Down A10 These man-made chemicals harm the Earth's protective ozone layer D3 This international treaty was adopted in 1987 to eliminate CFC production worldwide. D5 Too much ultraviolet radiation can cause this disease in humans D19 This element in CFCs depletes the ozone layer F8 This is the motto of the CAPCO F13 The layer of the atmosphere where Earth's protective ozone layer is located 80 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity #6: teachers Answer Key TEACHERS ANSWER KEYACTIVITY #6: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Ozone Layer Instructions Identify layers of the atmosphere and write in on blank lines Color layers of the atmosphere Draw line that identifies ozone layer Draw clouds in the layer of the atmosphere in which weather occurs Draw an airplane in the layer in which most commercial air travel occurs Draw a meteor shower in the appropriate layer 81 www.nocfcs.org Teaching Materials Activity #8: teachers Answer Key TEACHERS ANSWER KEY ACTIVITY #8: Ozone Depletion Worksheet UV Light UV Light CI-O Bond CFCs Results: Ozone Layer Thinner Ozone Layer Stratosphere CFCs Instructions Using the Illustration, Label the Following Steps in Ozone Depletion (not in order): Chlorine and Oxygen Bond CFCs Take Years to Reach Stratosphere Less Oxygen is Available to Form Ozone; Results: Thinner Ozone Layer Chlorine is Split from CFC More UV Light Reaches Earth UV Light Breaks Down CFCs 82 www.nocfcs.org Section 3: Lab Time! This page is intentionally blank www.nocfcs.org 84 Student Materials Lab Blueprint Section 3: Lab Time! Lab Blueprint: Confused about all those science terms like scientific method, independent variables, controls, hypothesis, etc.? 1. Solve a problem by carrying out the 2. Write a report to describe what you did in Step 1 scientific method: and what you discovered: a. State the problem. a. Reports are meant to present information accurately What is the question you are asking or problem you and objectively. want to solve? b. Reports are easier to read if they are organized into b. Learn more about your project. sections. Use the library or the Internet to gather information about the topic that will help you make an educated c. Generally, reports should be typed on plain white guess. paper in easy-to-read fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, and should not include unnecessary c. Make an educated guess to answer your question. colorful designs. Based on the information you have gathered, come up with a hypothesis, i.e. an educated guess: d. Be sure to follow any guidelines your teacher may have given you. e.g. Finish the sentence: Reports often have nine standard sections: If (these conditions) happen, then (this) will result.Or in more scientific terms, If (cause), then (effect). a. Title: The question you asked or the problem you solved (see sample pages). Include your name, the d. Experiment! Test to see if your hypothesis is correct. date, and any other information requested by your Use the ideas given in this kit as suggestions. teacher. Feel free to modify (but check with a parent first!) Always remember: SAFETY FIRST! b. Table of Contents: A list of the sections included in your report. e. Conclusion: What have you learned? Does your hypothesis seem right or wrong? c. Introduction: A brief summary stating what you were Remember, if your hypothesis seems to be wrong, trying to find, how you proceeded, and what you thats O.K.! You may just need to change your found. hypothesis and carry out your experiment again to test it. d. Background Information: Describe the research you conducted and what you learned prior to doing the experiment. Only include information that is relevant to your question. www.nocfcs.org 85 Student Materials Lab Blueprint e. Hypothesis: State your hypothesis and explain why you thought this was the answer to your question. What have you learned that caused you to suggest this hypothesis? f. Materials: Describe the specific materials you used for your experiment. g. Procedures: Explain, step by step, how you carried out your experiment. Be sure to explain why you did each step. h. Results: Describe what you found. Use metric units to measure. Tables, charts, and graphs are often best used to describe your findings. i) Conclusion: Do you think your hypothesis is still the answer to the question? Or, do you think your hypoth- - esis is incorrect? What did you learn? What might you do differently next time? 3. Make a display to show what you did and what you learned: a. Your display should be well-organized. b. Your display should show clearly what question/s you were trying to find an answer to, how you did it, and what answers you found. www.nocfcs.org 86 Student Materials Testing for Ground-Level Ozone Experiment 1: Testing for Ground-Level Ozone Difficulty: Easy to Moderate Background The Earths upper ozone layer acts like sunscreen, or a shield Ozone gas was discovered in 1839 by Christian Schoenbein. He that protects organisms on Earth from dangerous ultraviolet demonstrated that ozone is a natural component of the lower radiation (UV rays) given off by the Sun. When certain chemi- atmosphere (the troposphere) and developed a way to meas- cals are continually released into the atmosphere, their reac- ure the amount of ozone using a mixture of starch, potassium tion with the upper ozone layer is destructive. For example, iodide and water spread on filter paper. Called Schoenbein chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used prior to the 1970s as paper, it changes color when ozone is present because ozone propellants in some aerosol products, caused significant causes iodide to oxidize into iodine (l2) in the reaction: damage to the Earths upper ozone layer, reducing protection on Earth from harmful UV rays. 2Kl + O3 + H2O 2KOH + O2 + I2 The Earths upper ozone layer, located in the stratosphere, is The iodine reacts with the starch, staining the paper a shade of often confused with the Earths ground-level ozone layer, con- purple. The intensity of the blue/purple color measures the tained in the troposphere. High concentration of ozone in the amount of ozone present in the air: the darker the color, the stratosphere is good because it increases protection from the more ozone that is present. Suns UV rays. However, ozone in the troposphere is often called bad ozone because it is a component of smog. [Note: In areas of high humidity, this activity may not be conclusive.] Vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, gasoline vapors and chemical solvents react when mixed with strong sunlight and Learning Goals bad weather to create bad ozone, which pollutes the air. For 1. The student will understand the presence of ozone humans, this leads to respiratory health problems including gas in our atmosphere. bronchitis, heart disease, emphysema, and asthmas. In addi- tion, high concentrations of bad ozone damage plant life by 2. The student will be able to use Schoenbein paper to interfering with the ability of plants to produce and store food, demonstrate variations in the amount of ozone making them more susceptible to disease, insects, pollutants present in the troposphere, and to discover that the and harsh weather. amount of ozone can vary from day to day and from place to place. In the 1970s, consumer aerosol products became associated with the hole in the ozone layer because they used CFCs as 3. The student will be able to explain Schoenbein paper propellants. Because CFCs damage the Earths upper ozone detection of ozone as an oxidation reaction caused by layer, they were banned as propellants in the U.S. in 1978. Most the ozone in the surrounding air. countries around the world soon followed the U.S. and also banned the use of CFCs as propellants in most consumer 4. The student will be able to draw conclusions about aerosol products. Recent studies have shown that the upper cause and effect of varying ozone levels in the air ozone layer has made significant progress in repairing itself as a based on test results. result of regulation. www.nocfcs.org 87 Student Materials Testing for Ground-Level Ozone Materials for Making Schoenbein Paper 5. Allow the paper to dry thoroughly. The WARM setting on a kitchen oven works well, but keep the Potassium iodide (available from a science laboratory Schoenbein paper out of direct sunlight at all times. or science supply catalog) Distilled water 6. Cut the filter paper into 1-inch wide strips and store Spray bottle filled with distilled water them in a sealable plastic storage bag out of direct Filter paper (coffee filter paper may be used) sunlight until used. Heat source (preferably an electric hot plate or an electric range) Corn starch Procedure for Ozone Testing Using Glass (not metal) stirring rod Schoenbein Paper Small brush, such as an artists paintbrush 1. In the area to be tested for the presence of ozone, 250 ml beaker or similar glass or Pyrex container spray a strip of the test filter paper with distilled water Glass or Pyrex plate and hang it at a data collection site out of direct sun Clean computer paper (for drying filter paper) light. Make certain the strip can hang freely. Sealable plastic storage bags or food containers Appropriately-detailed maps of the area to be [Note: The xerographic process in most copy investigated machines uses electrostatic charging of a cylinder. The accompanying ionization creates ozone in Procedure for Preparing Schoenbein Paper adjacent air, so a room containing a copy machine makes a good location for this experiment.] (For safety, prepare under adult supervision!) 2. Expose the paper for approximately eight hours. Note 1. In a 250 ml beaker, add approximately 1 1/4 teaspoons where each strip was hung. of corn starch to 100 ml of distilled water. 3. After exposure, seal the strip in an airtight container if 2. Heat the mixture, stirring it constantly until the the results will not be recorded immediately. mixture thickens and becomes clearer. 4. To observe and record test results, spray the paper 3. Remove the beaker from the heat source and add 1/4 with distilled water and observe the color. teaspoon of potassium iodide, stirring well. Allow this solution to cool before proceeding to the next step. [Note: Because relative humidity affects results, Schoenbein paper should not be left outside dur- 4. With a piece of filter paper laid on the glass plate, ing periods of high humidity.] carefully brush the paste evenly onto the filter paper. Turn the filter paper over and do the same on the other side. Immediately wash your hands of any potassium iodide solution as it may irritate sensitive skin. www.nocfcs.org 88 Student Materials Testing for Ground-Level Ozone Discussion 3. Construct an ozone concentration map of your town or area by testing a variety of sites and then plotting 1. Were there any changes in the color of the relative ozone concentrations on a local map. Try to Schoenbein paper? identify the sources of relatively high concentrations. How does this concentration map change hourly, [Note: Paper color may not be uniform and will daily, or weekly? Is there a noticeable change on vary depending on the amount of oxidation.] particular days of the week? Why? 2. Might there be an explanation for the causes of color variation? For example, sites near heavy traffic areas will show greater color change due to oxidants and nitrous oxides from car exhaust. 3. Was the relative humidity for your test day high or low? The student can determine this experimentally, or consult local weather data. [Note: Since water is a reactant in the oxidation reaction on the Schoenbein paper, humidity will affect the reaction. Sites near lakes or streams may show greater change.] 4. Besides location and humidity, what effect might time of day, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, clouds, rain, or even the season have on the amount of ozone present in the air? The student can collect this data experimentally, or consult local weather data. Extensions 1. Contact a local air quality control board and request data for your test week and compare your readings to theirs. What might explain any differences? Are there any correlations? Collect daily ozone data for a week and graph the concentrations. This data can be plot- ted on a graph using parts per billion (ppb) on the vertical axis and the days on the horizontal axis. 2. Make a color chart of Schoenbein paper shades to ozone ppb provided by local air quality control data collected in the same site. This may assist you in inter- preting your ground ozone level data. www.nocfcs.org 89 Student Materials Correlating Aerosol Knowledge and Consumer Use Experiment 2: Correlating Aerosol Knowledge and Consumer Use Difficulty: Moderate Background 4. The student will determine if there is a correlation The Earths upper ozone layer acts like sunscreen, or a shield between aerosol product use, and knowledge of that protects organisms on Earth from the dangerous ultravio- atmosphere and aerosol product concerns. let radiation (UV rays) given off by the Sun. When certain chemicals are continually released into the atmosphere, their Materials reaction with the upper ozone layer is destructive. For exam- CAPCO website quiz Check your gray matter ple, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used prior to the 1970s and You can find this quiz on CAPCOs website: 70s as propellants in some aerosol products, caused significant http://nocfcs.org/kids/quiz.htm (20 questions on damage to the Earths upper ozone layer, reducing protection atmosphere, aerosol, and general content knowledge), on Earth from harmful UV rays. or a similar quiz covering the same content in preferred evaluation format (paper quiz, online, etc.) Fortunately, in light of this concern, many studies were con- Graphing materials ducted in the 1970s to learn more about protecting the Earths upper ozone layer. As a result of increased awareness and con- Procedure cern, in 1978 the US banned CFC-producing agents and similar chemicals from most consumer aerosol products to help pro- 1. Determine what specified products will be included in tect the Earths upper ozone layer from further damage caused the survey and use the same products for each survey by CFCs. Many other countries were quick to follow the US. administered. They should be products that are readily available in both aerosol and non-aerosol The consumer aerosol products industry also addressed this pump spray delivery, such as hairsprays, deodorants, ban by switching to non-CFC aerosol propellants that do not colognes, perfumes, cleaners, etc. harm the Earths upper ozone layer. However, many consumers continue to avoid aerosol products, holding to the belief that 2. For each household, give the quiz assessment to the consumer aerosol products still damage the Earths upper same member of each household; for example, the ozone layer. female head of the household. Allow exactly the same amount of time for each quiz to be taken. Learning Goals [Note: Another valid method might be to give the 1. The student will understand that consumer aerosol quiz to all members of the household above a cer- products no longer harm the Earths upper ozone tain age, and average those scores into a layer. Household Average Score, rather than surveying just one member of the household.] 2. The student will develop and use an assessment quiz based on general atmosphere and aerosol knowledge. 3. Inventory the total number of aerosol vs. non-aerosol spray products as previously specified. This inventory 3. The student will survey consumers to see how widely may be house-wide, or the student may elect to they use products with aerosol versus non-aerosol inventory only a select room (kitchen, bathroom, etc.) pump spray delivery. for each household. www.nocfcs.org 90 Student Materials Correlating Aerosol Knowledge and Consumer Use Discussion 1. What was your original hypothesis regarding knowledge and number (or %) of aerosol delivery? One possible hypothesis might expect that the higher the knowledge score, the more aerosol products (or higher % of aerosol delivery products) found in that household. Extensions 2. From the data collected, make a scattergram (correlation graph) or line(s) graph plotting the quiz score on one axis and the number of products on the other axis. On this graph, the student may plot aerosol product data in one color, and non- aerosol spray data in another color as a two-line line graph. The student may elect to plot the aerosol vs. non-aerosol data as a percentage, i.e. what percent of spray products inventoried in each household is aerosol in form. Scattergram (correlation) Scattergram (correlation) showing positive correlation showing no correlation G G G G G GG G GGG G G G GG GG G GG G G GG G Higher quiz scores Higher quiz scores GG G G G G GG G GG GGG G G G G G G G G Higher # or % aerosol use Higher # or % aerosol use Single-Line graph Double-Line (comparison) graph Higher quiz scores Higher quiz scores Higher # or % aerosol use Higher # or % aerosol use www.nocfcs.org 91 Student Materials Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from the Ground Experiment 3: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from the Ground Difficulty: Moderate to Advanced Background Materials The Earths upper ozone layer acts like a sunscreen, or a shield Computer with Internet access that protects organisms on Earth from the dangerous ultravio- Graphing materials or graphing software let radiation (UV rays) given off by the Sun. Prior to the 1970s, consumer aerosol products in the U.S. used chlorofluorocar- Procedure bons (CFCs) as propellants. CFCs rise to the Earths upper 1. In order to track atmospheric ozone from the ground, ozone layer and react with the ozone. The effect is destructive the student must often first determine the specific and reduces the upper ozone layers ability to absorb the Suns latitude and longitude of the site. This information is UV rays. Scientists and environmentalists were concerned that available on maps, GPS units, or from various geo- the use of aerosol products might result in an increase in UV science websites such as : rays reaching lower levels of our atmosphere. Consequently, http://www.naffis.com/maphacks/latandlon.html. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned the use of CFC propellants in 1978. 2. Many atmospheric ozone tracking measuring stations are operated by U.S. governmental agencies, such as Scientists on the ground can determine the presence and the EPA and the National Aeronautics and Space amount of ozone in the atmosphere by measuring the amount Administration (NASA). The EPAs AIRNow site allows of UV radiation being absorbed by the atmosphere. They can people to monitor atmospheric ozone from a variety then calculate how much ozone must be present in order to of ground stations, using data obtained from its web- absorb that amount of UV radiation. Ozone presence is typical- site: http://airnow.gov. The student may use this site ly measured in Dobson units (DU), with one Dobson unit to rack various ozone-related weather and environ- equivalent to a 0.1 mm layer of ozone (at 0 0 C and 1 atmos- mental conditions. This site provides locations of phere of pressure). This represents how thick the ozone layer Ozone Monitoring Stations, current and archived would be if it were located at the Earths surface at 320 F. Air Quality Index, and Daily UV Index health Measurements are typically taken at 12:00 noon local time from standards. about 350 ozone recording stations worldwide. The data is often publicly accessible from a variety of online databases. Discussion 1. How does the daily ozone profile compare with daily Learning Goals weather? The student might track the ozone level 1. The student will learn how scientists and environmen- (Dobson units, parts-per-million, etc.) and compare it talists measure atmospheric ozone from the ground. to the daily high temperature to see if there is a correlation (i.e. does high ozone level cause higher- 2. The student will learn the role atmospheric ozone than-average temperature? Or might it result from plays in affecting weather. the higher than normal temperatures?). 3. The student will learn to use relevant data to 2. How does the daily ozone profile compare with determine what factors will produce impact changes seasonal changes? The student might track the level in the ozone layer. seasonally and see if there appears to be regular seasonal changes. www.nocfcs.org 92 Student Materials Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from the Ground 3. Does a catastrophic event (such as volcanic eruption, earthquake, hurricane, etc.) seem to have any effect on atmospheric ozone level? The student might check the archives to see if data collected shortly after such an event might produce a noticeable impact on the ozone level. 4. Does the ground measure atmospheric ozone level correlate to that measured from satellite? What might cause any differences? 5.. Does the atmospheric ozone level measured from ground seem to change in industrial areas after the CFC ban in 1978? (Remember such an impact might not be instantaneous). www.nocfcs.org 93 Student Materials Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from Satellite Experiment 4: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from Satellite Difficulty: Moderate to Advanced Background Learning Goals The ozone layer protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet 1. The student will learn how scientists and environmen- (UV ) Sun rays, similar to the way sunscreen protects humans talists measure atmospheric ozone from satellites. from sunburns. Prior to 1978, some consumer aerosol products used chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants. Since 2. The student will learn the role atmospheric ozone CFCs negatively react with the Earths upper ozone layer by plays in affecting weather. reducing its ability to absorb the Suns UV radiation, scientists and environmentalists were concerned that use of aerosol 3. The student will learn to use relevant data to deter- products might result in an increase in UV rays reaching lower mine what factors may impact changes in the ozone levels of the Earths atmosphere. Consequently, the layer. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned the use of CFC propellants in 1978. Materials Computer with Internet access Scientists using satellites can determine the presence and the Graphing materials or graphing software amount of ozone in the atmosphere by measuring the amount of UV radiation being absorbed by the atmosphere. They, then, Procedure calculate how much ozone must be present in order to absorb 1. Using the NASA website, http://gsfc.nasa.gov/, or that amount of UV radiation. Satellite data is essentially the another Internet website, find the satellite data for the same as that recorded from ground instruments, but it views Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) program. the measurements from outer space, collected from above the ozone layer. Ozone presence is typically measured in Dobson 2. Determine which of these NASA satellites were in use units (DU), with one Dobson unit equivalent to a 0.1 mm layer during the desired time period: of ozone (at 00 C and 1 atmosphere of pressure); this repre- sents how thick the ozone layer would be if it were located at NIMBUS-7 METEOR-3 the Earths surface at 320 F. Earth Probe OMI/Aura Measurements are from a variety of satellites, each recording specific data from a specific location and for a specified time EXAMPLE: period. Satellite data may be publicly available online from the What was the ozone reading above Chicago, IL various agencies that manage the satellites. For example: on Jan 1st, 1979? NOAA Satellite Information Service; National [NOTE: Make sure you use data from the correct Environmental Satellite Data and Information (NES satellite, knowing the date of operation; in this DIS): www.nesdis.noaa.gov/. case, it would be the NIMBUS-7 satellite] Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison: www.SSEC.wisc.edu/data/. NASAs Global Hydrology and Climate Center: www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/GOES/. www.nocfcs.org 94 Student Materials Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from Satellite 3. Go to the TOMS homepage and search for Nimbus-7 Discussion data. 1. How does the daily ozone profile compare with daily weather? The student might track ozone level 4. Click on the Ozone over Selected Locations link. (Dobson units, parts-per-million, etc.) and compare it to the daily high temperature to see if there is a corre- 5. Scroll to Chicago, IL and select it. lation (i.e. Does high ozone level cause higher-than- average temperature? Or, might it result from the 6. Scroll down date data to Day 001 of 1979 (which higher-than-normal temperatures?). would be Jan 1st of 1979, etc.). 2. Does the daily ozone profile compare with seasonal 7. Follow the table row to the column headed OZONE, changes? The student might track the ozone level measured in Dobson units. seasonally and see if there appears to be regular seasonal changes. 8. Other dates or cities can be selected in the same manner. 3. Does a catastrophic event (such as volcanic eruption, earthquake, hurricane, etc.) seem to have ANS: The ozone reading above Chicago any effect on the atmospheric ozone level? The on 1/1/79 was 321.7 Du student might check the archives to see if data collected shortly after such an event might produce a noticeable impact on the ozone level. 4. Does the satellite-measured atmospheric ozone level correlate to that measured from ground-level? What might cause any differences? 5. Does the atmospheric ozone level measured from satellite seem to change in industrial areas after the CFC ban in 1978? (Remember such an impact might not be instantaneous). www.nocfcs.org 95 Student Materials The Effect of Increased UV Levels on Population Growth Experiment 5: The Effect of Increased UV Levels on Population Growth Difficulty: Moderate to Advanced (Adult supervision is recommended.) Background Procedure The Earths upper ozone layer acts like a sunscreen, or a shield 1. Determine what specified organism is to be used and that protects organisms on Earth from the dangerous ultravio- prepare a culture of the organism according to the let radiation (UV rays) given off by the Sun. If certain chemicals suppliers directions. such as aerosol propellants used prior to the 1970s were continually released into the atmosphere, they would deplete 2. Prepare two sample cultures under identical the upper ozone layer and less protection would remain to conditions (control). Then expose one of the samples screen out harmful radiations. to continuous UV light so that it illuminates only the test sample (variable). Each day at the same time-say, UV light is known to degrade certain substances and to stimu- at 12 hour intervals-make certain to stir the sample to late certain biochemical reactions. This activity will allow the be sure that it is uniformly mixed. Then, take a repre student to investigate the impact of increased levels of UV radi- sentative sample and count the living organisms you ation on the growth of various organism populations. see in each sample: Learning Goals a. Paramecium may usually be counted 1. The student will understand the relationship between the directly under a microscope without ozone layer and increased UV levels. extensive staining. 2. The student will determine if there is a correlation between b. Yeasts may require straining, and then increased UV levels and the growth of various organism popu- counting under a microscope to see how lations. many living yeast cells are in a given volume. Materials c. Brine shrimp can typically be counted UV light and clamp-type lamp under hand magnification. Culture of Paramecium, bakers yeast, brine shrimp or another safe microorganism Magnifier or microscope as appropriate Graph paper (may be used to assist counting populations by counting a sample population in a small area and then calculating to compute the entire population) (Adult supervision and selection of microorganism is strongly recommended.) www.nocfcs.org 96 Student Materials The Effect of Increased UV Levels on Population Growth Discussion Extensions 1. What was your original hypothesis of how UV expo- 1. A similar investigation may be done using hydrilia or sure affects population growth? Was there a other similar aquatic plants (often available in correlation? aquarium supply stores). Place equal samples of the plant in identical water samples and seal them in 2. Do you think the UV exposure killed the organisms, transparent plastic storage bags or storage containers. or simply slowed down their ability to reproduce? Expose the containers and plants to different amounts Could there have been other factors responsible for of UV light in an otherwise ambient room light (or try causing any noted effects? it in the dark!), and test the water for dissolved oxy gen (reflecting photosynthesis levels resulting from 3. Make a line graph from the data collected, plotting the plant growth) using a Hack Dissolved Oxygen kit (this population on the vertical axis and the number of or similar kits are available from aquarium supply or hours (or days) of UV exposure on the horizontal axis. swimming pool/water testing supply stores). Graph the percentage of dissolved oxygen on the vertical axis 4. If increased UV exposure will affect population growth, and the UV exposure time on the horizontal axis. then what might be the impact on life of a hole in the Interpret as described above. ozone layer? www.nocfcs.org 97 Student Materials Sample Lab Report SAMPLE LAB REPORT NOTE: This is a sample that you can use as a format for writing YOUR project report. Follow the format, but substitute YOUR data and information. Identifying Common Minerals [NAME] Submitted: [DATE] PURPOSE: To identify unknown minerals using their physical properties and a classification key. HYPOTHESIS: If I run tests to determine the physical properties of a mineral and apply those properties to a dichotomous key, then I will be able to identify five different unknown mineral samples. [NOTE: cause & effect] PROCEDURE: First, I recorded the colors of the mineral samples. Next, I ran a streak test on each sample by scratching each against a white porcelain tile to see if it produced a colored powder. Then.. [NOTE: Some teachers allow this to be presented in list form.] DATA: As I collected my data, I wrote it into my lab book on the table provided or on my own data and calculations sheet. This sheet is attached to this report. A table (if any) may look something like this: color mass (g) vol (ml) streak hardness luster cleavage/fracture orange 11.50 2.3 white 6 non-metal/dull fracture golden 4.95 4.95 rust 3.5 metal/gold cubic clvg. purple 7.6 3.1 none 7 non-metal/ glassy shell-frac. CALCULATIONS (if any): To compute density, I took the mass divided by the volume for each mineral. For example, for mineral #1, I took 11.50g/2.3 ml = 5.0 g/ml. This is also a specific gravity (SG) of 5.0 (with no label). I did the same thing for my other minerals (mineral #2 and min- eral #3). www.nocfcs.org 98 Student Materials Lab time! DISCUSSION: Identify what you investigated and list the results. Talk about at least two of the physical properties that you found for each mineral. What tests that you ran caused some difficulty or problems? Where could you possibly have made errors that could give you poor or incorrect results? Compare what you found with the descriptions given in the lab book or other sources. Use percent error (if appropriate): %E = theoretical experimental/theoretical x 100 This shows how close your results were to an accept- ed value; usually a 5%-10% error or less is acceptable. For example, for mineral #1, my SG was 5.0 and, theoretically, for the same mineral it should have been 2.7 (from a reference book). So, my % error is: [2.7 - 5.0]/2.7 x 100 = 85% error CONCLUSION: Summarize your results. List each with two specific properties. www.nocfcs.org 99