Integrating Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism
Using Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism
Plagiarismwhen a writer represents ideas from a source as his or her own ideas, either intentionally or unintentionally. Rooted in copyright and intellectual property laws.Plagiarism
Consider these scenarios (all plagiarism):
Plagiarism (cont.)I sometimes copy a friends work.I sometimes copy and paste text from an electronic source without giving credit to the author.I sometimes use images, clip art, videos, etc. from websites without giving credit to the creator.I use information from a source, but I change a few words.
TemptingEasy and fastCutting & pastingPoor note takingImproper quotationsPoor paraphrasing or summarizingIncorrect citationsWhy Does Plagiarism Happen?
IntentionalBuying an essay on the internet and putting your name on itPutting your name on an essay someone wrote for youCopying and pasting information into your essay without documenting itResults in more serious consequences
UnintentionalPoor paraphrasingIncorrect documentationQuoting excessivelyCan result in less severe consequences, but they can vary depending on the severityIntentional and Unintentional Plagiarism
Using another writers exact words without using quotation marks around those wordsParaphrasing or quoting a writers words without citing them*Stating another persons ideas without citing the source*
*By citing the source, you should cite it BOTH in the works cited page as well as in the essay itself (with in-text citations)Some Common Forms of Unintentional Plagiarism
Reasons to avoid plagiarismUnethicalLost learning opportunityDecreases your credibility as a writerCan result in serious consequences:Lower grade on the assignment (maybe even a zero)Lower grade in the classIt might even go on your permanent record, depending on the severity
Always give credit when using information from a sourceWhen taking notes, write exact words from the source in quotation marksIf youre using direct quotes, be sure to use quotation marks around the exact words from the source and include a citation at the end of the sentenceParaphrase and summarize effectivelyCheck your passages against the original sourceWhen in doubt, cite!
How Do I Avoid Plagiarism?
Must be identical to the original (using a narrow segment of the source)Must be inside quotation marks (to signal that the words are not your own)Must be attributed to the authorLimit your use of quotationsNo more than 25% of the essay should be direct quotations.Paraphrase as much as you can.
ParaphrasingPuts a passage from source material in your own wordsMust also be attributed to the authorUsually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightlySummarizingPuts the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s)Must attribute summarized ideas to the authorSignificantly shorter than the original Takes a broad overview of the source material
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Provide support for claims or add credibilityGive examples of several points of view on a subjectHighlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the originalDistance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your ownExpand the breadth or depth of your writing
Why use Paraphrases, Summary, and Quotes?
In order to paraphrase properly, the passage needs to be changed significantly from the original source:1. Change the words from the originalMore than a couple of words need to change2. Change the order of the words from the original3. Change the sentence structure from the original It should be written in your own voiceProper Paraphrasing
Read your sources multiple times until you understand them fullyDont look at your source while you are trying to summarize or paraphraseAfter you finish writing your summary or paraphrase, go back and look at the source and determine if what you have written is too close to the original
Strategies for Effective Paraphrasing
Effective or Ineffective Paraphrase?ORIGINAL: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.PASSAGE IN ESSAY: The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.
Acceptable or Unacceptable Paraphrase?IneffectiveWhy?The writer only changed around a few words and phrases or changed the order of the originals sentencesThe writer failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or factsThis is an example of plagiarism.
Effective or Ineffective Paraphrase?ORIGINAL: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.
PASSAGE IN ESSAY:Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall River was one of these hubs "which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade" (Williams 1).
Acceptable or Unacceptable Paraphrase?EffectiveWhy?The writer records the information in the original passage accurately. The writer gives credit for the ideas in this passage. The writer indicated which part is taken directly from the source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number.
Quotationthe exact words from a source, indicated by surrounding those words with double quotation marksWritten EXACTLY as it appears in the sourceAlways surrounded by double quotation marksShould be introduced and/or weaved into your own sentence, not just dropped into the essay (also called a dumped quote)ALWAYS cite at the end of the sentence with a direct quoteDirect Quotations
Weak integration of a quote:Minorities may feel pressured to alter a way of life to which they have become accustomed. "Moreover, the behavior, lifestyle, and values of minority students are likely to be substantially different from those of whites" (Jones and Farrell 212). Weaving Quotes Into Your Own Sentence
Strong integration of a quote:Minorities may feel pressured to alter a way of life to which they have become accustomed because their "behavior, lifestyle, and values . . . are likely to be substantially different from those of whites" (Jones and Farrell 212).Weaving Quotes Into Your Own Sentence
Weak integration of a quote:The administration at the University of Missouri believes that with a constant recruitment of minority students over the next couple of years, the ratio of minorities to white students will become much more equal. "All students grow by meeting people unlike themselves" (Brown A1). The administration at the University of Missouri hopes that this is true for its university.Weaving Quotes Into Your Own Sentence
Strong integration of a quote:The administration at the University of Missouri believes that with a constant recruitment of minority students over the next couple of years, the ratio of minorities to white students will become more equal, thereby allowing "students [to] grow by meeting people unlike themselves" (Brown A1).Weaving Quotes Into Your Own Sentence
If you change something in a quote, indicate it by using brackets [ ]"He [William Dean Howells] was 'fierce to shut out' of his study the voices and faces of his family in 'pursuit of the end' which he 'sought gropingly, blindly and with very little hope but with an intense ambition, and a courage that gave way under no burden, before no obstacles'" (Kirk and Kirk 16).Direct QuotesFormatting & Punctuation
You can leave words out of a quote, but you have to show itUse the ellipsis ( . . . ), three spaced periods, to show deleted portions of a quoteYou only use this if you leave out words in the MIDDLE of a quoteYou dont need it at the beginning or end of a quote
ExampleOriginal : Human improvement is a fact of life, not because of the state eugenics committee, but because of consumer demand (Kevlev 75).
Quote with words left out: Human improvement is a fact of life . . . because of consumer demand (Kevlev 75).
Direct QuotesFormatting & Punctuation
If you leave more than a whole sentence out of a direct quote, use an ellipsis with four spaced periods (. . . .)Direct QuotesFormatting & Punctuation
Quotes within a quoteDouble quotation marks always go on the outsideIf you need to use quotation marks within the quote, switch to single quotation marksIf you need to embed any more quotes, you just alternate: double quotes, single quotes, double quotes, single quotes, etc.ExampleDaryl writes, I was happy when Mica told me she was wildly delighted and plunging in with every brain cell firing in her new job (36).Direct QuotesFormatting & Punctuation
Use the name of an author and a comment on his/her credentialsDo this the first time you use information from that source. There is no need to do this every time you paraphrase, summarize, or quote from that source. How do your readers know that the source you have used is reliable, credible, and trustworthy, unless you tell them?ExampleDr. Matthew Benjamin, head of the Department of Osteoporosis Research at the University of Ottawa, warns that the most commonly prescribed medications also have potentially dangerous side effects that have not been adequately studied (15).
Best Practices for Direct Quotes
Model Signal Phrases:
Researchers Long and McKinzie claim
As Paul Rudnick notes
Melinda Stuart, mother of a child killed by a drunk driver, points out
,writes Michelle Moore,
*Note: Limit the use of said. See pages 396-399 of the Prentice Hall Reference Guide for more examples.
Use Signal PhrasesVerbs in Signal Phrases:
acknowledgesarguesagreesassertsbelieves claimscomments confirmscontends declaresdenies disputesemphasizes endorsesgrants illustratesimplies notesobserves points outreasons refutessuggests writes
Dont leave your poor quotes alone at the party. Introduce them!
Direct quotes should support your claims, not take the place of your claimsAlways follow a direct quote with your own explanationAdd your own analysis after the quote How does the quote connect with the other ideas in the paragraph?What is most important for readers to notice about the quote? How does the quote support your ideas?
Best Practices for Direct Quotes