Zimbabwe, Botswana, Angola
Zimbabwe, Botswana, Angola
Zimbabwe Almost all of Zimbabwes people are black Africans, and belong to the Shona people.Their political history has been troubled and violent.By AD 1000, the Shona people had built Great Zimbabwe, which means house of stone. Smaller Shona trading empires succeeded Great Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe ContBritish Settlers named the area Rhodesia around 1890. Civil wars occurred through the 1970s due to racial tension and colonization.A peace treaty in 1979 established Rhodesias independence.The country was renamed Zimbabwe the following year. Since independence, Robert Mugabe has ruled Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe ContEnglish is the official language of Zimbabwe.Most people are subsistence farmers.Most people follow traditional African religions or combine them with Christianity.
Zimbabwe ContIn Zimbabwe, the president is elected to a six year term.Robert Mugabe, the current president, has been accused of jailing opponents and rigging elections to keep power. Most of the countrys income comes from large farms, which export beef, cotton, sugar, and tobacco.
BotswanaBotswana is a landlocked country. Much of the country is located in the Kalahari desert, and the surrounding regions are dry.Although the country is poor, it is a success!For the past 40 years, Botswana has maintained peace, economic growth, and a democratic government.
Botswana: HistoryBotswana was first settled by the San. The Tswana people migrated to the area, and by the 1700s, had developed stone-walled villages and towns.The British came to the aid of the Tswana people during the 1880s, protecting the people from rival African tribes. Britain governed until the 1960s, but did little to develop the country.
Botswana: HistoryBotswana gained independence in 1966.
Seretse Khama was elected the first president.
Botswana relied on Britain for the first 5 years , then the discovery if diamonds gave them the funds to improve their infrastructure and build other industries.
Botswana: Life and CultureEnglish is the official language of Botswana.More than half of the population lives in cities.People adopted Christianity and Western dress in the late 1800s.
Botswana shares a problem with other African countries: HIV/AIDS
2 out of 5 adults are affected, and has been a medical and social tragedy for the country.Botswana: Government and EconomicsKhama held office until his death in 1980, and his vice-president replaced him.
The country has a multiparty system, but Khamas Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence.
The National Assembly selects the president. Botswana: Government and Economics Between the late 1960s and the 1990s, Botswana enjoyed rapid economic growth. The countrys main industries are mining and farming.Exports include: beef, diamomds, copper, nickel, skins, and textiles. It must import food.
Angola: HistoryPortugal colonized Angola in the 1500s, and sent African slaves to Brazil.Angolans demanded independence in the 1950s.Three rebel groups won independence for Angola in 1975, but then a civil war erupted between them.The winning group formed a Marxist government.A Marxist government is one that supports the philosophy of communism.In 1992, the government finally rejected Marxist ties, and allowed multiparty elections.
Angola: HistoryThe other two rebel groups continued fighting until the death of one of the leaders in 2002.
This ended 27 years of civil war!
Angola: CultureThere are 40 native languages in Angola, but Portuguese is the official langauge.
9 out of 10 Angolans are Christians.
Music and art are very important to the people.
Angola: Government and EconomicsThe first elections since 1992 were held in 2008.
The MPLA (The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) party won the election.
A new constitution was adopted in 2010.
Angola: Government and EconomicsThe lengthy war destroyed the economy of Angola.50% of the population are subsistence farmers, and the country imports half its food. Oil accounts for 90% of Angolas exports.The country is rich in natural resources such as gold, diamonds, forests, and fish, but profiting from these resources will require a long period of peace, and a strong government.