World Geography 3200/3202 Unit 5 Secondary and Tertiary Industries
Outcome 5.8: Understanding Site and Situational Factors When Deciding Where to Locate an Industry. Site Factors Refers to the specific characteristics of the location. Example: Land Is there sufficient land to build? Is the land flat with good drainage? Is there room for expansion? What other site factors can you think of which may influence the location of an industry? (Write answer in note book) Situation Factors- Refers to how the location is situated in reference to other locations or how it is related to other locations Example: Distance from market Is the location close to the market? Are there well developed linkages to transport the product? What other situational factors can you think of which may influence the location of an industry? (Write answer in note book) Outcome 5.9 and 5.10: Resource Oriented Industries (weight loss during processing) and Market Oriented Industries (weight gain during process) Resource Oriented- Refers to those industries which must locate next to the resource. These include those industries which have a great deal of wastage during processing and therefore there is a sufficient weight loss during processing which means after processing the product is of less weight and more value. This results in higher profits. Can you think of another type of resource oriented industry? (Write answer in note book) Market Oriented- Refers to those industries which must locate next to the market. These include those industries which have a great deal of weight gain during processing and therefore after processing the product weigh but are of no greater value. Therefore, it is more economical to locate next to the market. Example: Soft drink industry Can you think of another type of market oriented industry? (Write answer in note book) Answer: # 14, 15, 16, and 17 on pages 226 and 227
Outcome 5.11: Understanding the Agglomerating Tendency Agglomerating Tendency- Refers to the mutual benefits industries or companies receive when they locate next to each other. Example: remember all of the industries which locate next to the automobile manufacturing industry. (Tire manufacturing, paint manufacturing, seatbelt manufacturing, etc.) What are some other examples of industries which would locate next to an automobile manufacturing industry? (Write answer in note book) This tendency applies to the service industry. For example, it is very common for gas stations to locate next to each other or retail clothing stores. What benefits is received when companies such as this locate next to each other? (Write answer in note book) Outcome 5.12: Characteristics of a Labour Force Which Make it Attractive to Industry. A number of factors regarding labour might make it attractive for an industry to locate in a specific region. For example, an area might provide for a workforce of young, motivated, skilled individuals.
(A) Identify at least two other characteristics of labour which might make it attractive to industry (Write your answer in your notebook.)
(B) Read Human Based Cost Factors on page 224 of your text and explain how developed and less developed countries differ in regard to how their labour characteristics may attract industry. (Write answer in you notebook)
(C) Read Case Study on page 229 and answer #20 on page 230. (Write your answer in your notebook)
Outcome 5.13: Understanding How Government Interventions may attract the location of an Industry in on Respect, but How Government Regulations or Policies could deter an Industry from locating in the area. Read the right side of page 226 to answer this outcome (Write your answer in your notebook) Outcome 5.14: Analyzing the Distribution or Highly Industrialized Areas of the World. Refer to figure 13.6 on page 223 to complete the following:
(A) Identify four (4) highly industrialized areas of the world. (B) Identify three (3) agricultural low income areas of the world (Write your answer in your notebook)
Outcome 5.15 and 5.17: Understanding the Role f Stakeholders in the Face of an Environmental Threat Posed by an Industrial Activity and Identify the Actions Needed to Avert Environmental Threats Posed by Industry. Students should understand there are literally hundreds of environmental lobby groups (Greenpeace, Canadian Coalition Again Acid Rain, Friends of the Earth, etc.) who Attempt to Persuade Government and Industry to listen to and follow their Concerns in an Effort to Deal with What they Feel are Imminent Environmental Threats Related to the Industry. These Lobby Groups attempt to achieve the following:
(A) Increase Public Awareness of the Environmental Threat Posed by A Particular Industry. (In an attempt to stop it from opening)
(B) Lobby Government to Ensure the Industry Carries out An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Before it is allowed to operate)
(C) Pressure Government to Ensure there is Constant Monitoring of the Industry. (If it is allowed to open)
(D) Ensure there is an Active Emergency Measures Plan on the Part of Industry. (After us has opened)
Outcome 5.16: Analyzing and Relating Areas of Environmental Risk with the Location of Major Industrialized Areas. Complete #32 on pages 238 and 239. (Write your answer in your notebook) Outcome 5.18: Understanding Social and Moral Issues Associated With Manufacturing Operations. Read Case Study on pages 235 and 236 to answer the following questions. (Write your answer in your notebook)
(A) Why is Child Labour a Global Concern? (B) How Does Child Labour Prevent a Less Developed Country From Becoming More Economically
Developed? Outcome 5.19 Tertiary Activities Refers to any worker who is providing a service for individual consumers, industry or government. Examples:
Outcome 5.21 Public Tertiary Activities Versus Private Tertiary Activities Public tertiary activities are those services provided by government employees. This category of tertiary activities make up the largest share of the service sector. Examples: Private tertiary activities are those services provided by non-government agencies. Examples: Outcome 5.20 Four Categories of Tertiary Activities (1) Distributive Services Getting products from the manufacturer to the consumer Examples: (A) Wholesale business buy large amounts of products from manufacturers and sell smaller quantities to retailers. (B) Retail stores in turn sell these products to consumers (2) Financial Services Involves providing capital ($) to manufacturing companies and individual consumers. Examples: (A) Banking institutions provide loans (B) Insurance companies provide coverage for financial losses (3) Personal Services Food services, entertainment, legal assistance and a wide range of other institutions provide personal services for manufacturing and consumers. Examples: movie theatres, hair salons, etc. (4) Government Services Any service provided by a government employee. Thus, this in the only category which provides a public service. Examples: teachers, doctors, nurses, etc. Outcome 5.22 A Special Type of Tertiary Activity - the Quaternary Industry Like the tertiary sector, this sector is service based. However, it is kept separate from the tertiary sector because it involves the use of high technology to either produce, retrieve, store, or distribute information. Examples: (A)Mechanical Engineer developing the next engine for a leading automotive company
(B) Chemical engineer developing the next drug for cancer treatment (C) Computer Analyst working with the GNP figures for Switzerland
Outcome 5.23 Factors Affecting the Location of a Tertiary Activity (1) Type of Service - In essence, services are strategically located either to service the people if they are a public service or as a means to experience an economic return if they are a private service. For example, hospitals tend to be regionally located to service a geographic area, whereas hotels/motels tend to be located where the operators will realize an economic return. Examples: (list another example) (2) Service Price/Distance from the Consumer - Some services must be located within a reasonable distance of the customer, especially if the service is a private service. The reason for this is that the further away a service location is from a customer, the costlier the service will be in terms of both time and money spent traveling to access the service. Example: # 9 on page 244 (Student must complete) Remember that population size has a major influence on the location of a tertiary service and more importantly the number of the same service offered. For example, a small city may only be able to support five restaurants or law offices, whereas as larger town should be able to support many more of the same type of tertiary service. Outcome 5.24 Factors that Affect the Location of a Quaternary Activity Students should read pages 249-250. (1) Access to Capital/Infrastructure - the country must have the ability to access the finances/money and technological equipment to successfully and actively participate in the quaternary industry. (2) Access to Skilled Labour Force - the country must have the ability to access highly educated and/or technologically trained individuals who can work in the quaternary industry. Outcome 5.25 Factors that Account for Patterns in World Trade for a Selected Commodity Students should read pages 274-275 and analyze the maps on pages 276-277. (1) Shipment by Water - 90% of all world goods are shipped by water because water is the most economical method to move large quantities of goods over long distances. This is because shipment by water has very low line-haul or variable costs compared to other modes of transport. (2) Regional Share of World Trade - If more than one country trades in a product (ie: wheat/fish), their relative share of the world market will be based upon the costs of their inputs (ie; wages, equipment, line-haul costs, etc). (3) Regionalization in World Trade - countries buy from and trade sell to countries that are geographically closest to them. This ensures that transportation costs are minimized. The exception to this pattern exists when we look at specific commodities which must be bought from distance countries;
for example, Canada cannot get all of the tea it needs in the Western Hemisphere so it imports it from the distant countries of India, China and Sri Lanka. (4) Level of Economic Development - the more developed a country becomes, the more world trade it will secure. Economic development feeds trade and more trade feeds economic development. Outcome 5.26 Factors that Account for Patterns in Mass Communication Students should read pages 293-294 As we have discussed on several occasions, patterns in Mass Communication are affected by the following: (1) knowledge and technological ability (2) Access to capital (money and equipment) (3) Access to research and development Students must complete #16 on page 294 Outcome 5.27 Understanding How Mass Communication can Affect the Location of a Work Place Students must understand the concepts of telecommuting or teleworking (working at home instead of at a specific company workplace. Other examples related to this outcome: (1) many multi-national companies provide services to one country by operating in another country. For example, many U.S. insurance companies offer their products to U.S. citizens but the service may be processed in Scotland. (2) Medical Services is such now that a doctor in Los Angeles can actually use computer aided robotic equipment to operate on an patient in Florida. (3) Education is such now that distance education makes having to attend a physical site unnecessary. Outcome 5.28 and 5.30 Economic Importance of the Tertiary and Quaternary Sector Students should read page 245 (The Bermuda Experience) (1) Diversifies the economy- allow for more individuals to move out of the primary and secondary sectors which is beneficial to a countries economy. As well the tertiary industry creates needed employment opportunities for the individuals by diversifying their skills in less developed countries which lack a well-developed manufacturing sector. As stated on page 250, the development of the tertiary industry in less develop countries will allow those countries that opportunities to leap-frog from the primary industries to the tertiary industries since they have little secondary sector development. This is presently evident in the Barbados and India through the exportation of information.
(2) Contributes to countries GDP- these sectors produce over 70% of the GDP in many countries. (remember these sectors deal with value added service and high technology skills, especially with the quaternary sector in the more developed countries of the world) (3) Improved standards of living- this is especially true for the tertiary industry of tourism in less developed countries such as Bermuda because its economy is so dependent on the tourist trade. (typically of many tropically destinations) (4) Growth simulates more growth- as the country benefits from the increase growth of the tertiary and quaternary industries, the growth feeds off itself. By this we mean that as the economy grows and the standard of living improves, domestic citizens within that country tend to spend more money which in turn allows the economy to grow. Question: what trend can you determine from each graph on page 246? A) Graph 1 B) Graph 2- Outcome 5.29 issues which affect the viability of the tertiary industry 1) Population size/location 2) Type of service and price 3) Quality As we discussed with the hairstyling example (number 9 on page 244) the tertiary service must be accessible and demanded by sufficient number of individuals to make it viable. Outcome 5.31 factors which affect the growth of the quaternary industry Students should read page 251 (how less developed countries are positioned to benefit from the information technology boom) 1) Lower wages- this gives less developed countries a competitive edge 2) Reducing cost of infrastructure- information technology is constantly improving at steadily
decreasing costs. As a result, it may be more advantageous for quaternary industries to set up new systems in less developed counties as opposed to upgrading older infrastructure in many parts of the developed world.
What must less developed countries do to achieve this goal? 1) Develop long term goals- they must make realistic plans to address how they will work towards
developing the quaternary sector 2) Government investment- governments of these countries must develop education and training
programs of its citizens to meet the needs of the information technology companies. 3) Develop partnerships with telecommunication com...