Water On and Underthe ground
PrecipitationrainEvaporationliquid converts to a vaporCondensationvapor converts to a liquidRunoffexcess water movinginto rivers, lakesInfiltrationwater soaksinto the soilEvapotranspiration (EvapT)evaporation + transpiration, evaporationfrom water bodies and off a plants
The Hydrologic Cycle Condensationwater vapor cools and converts back to a suspended liquidEvaporationOcean contributes 80% of total watervaporCloud FormationPrecipitationSurfaceRun-offGroundwater
I the HYDROLOGIC CYCLEI will get an A on my exams and quizzes.Discuss with a friend:Draw the hydrologic cycle from memory Include the following:precipitation evaporationcondensation infiltrationsurface run-off groundwater
2. How do each of the above terms relate to one another?
Where has all the water gone ?21%.03%.003%.62%76 %Most fresh water is locked up inice (frozen water)Fresh water %
How Water Affects LandDo you believe that water runs down-hillWhere does it go?????????????????????PrecipitationOverland flowPrecipitationOverland flowStream flowStream ChannelOverland flow + Stream flow = Surface RunoffHow does surface run-off affect streams and produce various land forms?
Transportation of Sediment
Load type of sediment carried by the stream
Gradient the steepness of a stream channel
Discharge the volume water exiting the stream (high or low)
The gradient, load and discharge defines the characterof the stream and stream channel.
how the stream flows what land features are formed
How does gradient influence the transportationof various types of loads?Sediment load types
Steeper Gradienttransport of the bed loadincrease velocityGentle Gradienttransport of suspended and dissolved loads
How much velocity is needed (Discharge)
Transportation of SedimentThe type and characteristics of stream can be described by its competence and capacity. Capacity: represents the maximum load of solid particles a stream can transport
The greater the discharge, the greater capacity Competence: streams ability to carry various sizes of sediment not quantityFlow velocity is the Key: a streams competence increases proportionately to the square of its velocity. If stream velocity doubles then, impact force is 4X greater If stream velocity triples, then impact force is 9X greater If stream velocity quadruples, then impact force is ___ greater16X
I Watching the streamI will get an A on my exams and quizzes.Discuss with a friend:How are gradient, discharge, and load related to stream channels?
2. What are the three types of loads carried by streams?
3. Define the differences between capacity and competence of a stream.
Competence?Moves large amountsof material high volume
Moves big-stuff andhigh impact force bed load materialCapacity?Moves small amounts ofmaterial low volumeCompetence ?Moves small material suspended/dissolved loads
Creating landforms by streamsusing erosion and depositionDEDepositionErosion straight streams meandering streams braided streams
Straight Stream channel
usually occurs over a short distance
high gradient (near headwaters)
takes on the classic V shape profileV shaped valley young stream
Meandering stream channel low gradient erosional / depositional features Point Bars sand depositsMain channelCut banksEDEDWhere is the erosional anddepositional parts of the river?
Braided Stream channel
very low gradient
large load (lots of sediment) causing the stream to move around the sediment and becoming choked
I watching the streamI will get an A on my exams and quizzes.Discuss with a friend:List at least 2-characteristics that define a straight, meandering and braided stream channel system.
Characteristics such as: load capacity, gradient and discharge
Stream deposits what happens to the sediment when the stream looses energy ordecreases gradientTypes of stream deposits floodplains oxbow lakes alluvial fans delta depositsHigh EnergyLow Energy
Floodplain flat area adjacent to a river which is invaded by high river discharge (flooding)floodplainfloodplain
Alluvial Fans fan shaped sediment depositSteep gradientcarrying large sedimentload enters an areathat is flat
Wheres Bakersfield built on an alluvial fanBakersfield
Delta stream deposit stream deposits sediment into a large body of water (ocean)Cross-beddeddeltaic deposits
Nile River in Egypt deposits sediment into the Mediterranean sea Delta means in Greek
FloodMeandering streamsAlluvialfansTypical stream channelcomponents
I Watching the stream depositsI will get an A on my exams and quizzesDiscuss with a friend1. Define the four types of stream deposits
2. Give at least 2 characteristics of each stream deposit type
3. Describe how an oxbow lake forms
Surface Water as a hazardFloods
Floods are NORMAL only when people live in the area they become a hazard
Floods can be predicted using a hydrograph TimeScientists can predict thetime of the water surgeor when the crest will appear (water wave)
Predicting a flood
248121622What if the Isabella Dambreaks? Will Bakersfieldflood????Alluvial fan
I Watching a floodI will get an A on my exams and quizzesDiscuss with a friendWhat is a hydrograph
2. How do scientist predict a flood for a particular area?
How would you explain the flood map for the Bakersfield area
Groundwater distribution and Movement
Factors that influence the storage and movement of groundwaterPorosity: the amount of void spaces available to store waterExpressed as a %10% -20%30%-50%Permeability:the ability for water to move (transmit) through the media
Distribution and Movement of groundwaterSaturated Zone pore spaces completely fullUnsaturated Zone pore spaces not fulltop of water table
I Drinking ground-waterI will get an A on my exams and quizzesDiscuss with a friendDescribe the differences between porosity and permeability2. What does mean? (the symbol)
3. Define the following:Unsaturated zoneSaturated zonePerched aquifer
High Porosity - PermeabilityAquiferLow Porosity - PermeabilityAquitardClayAquifer underpressure (confined)Porosity and Permeability
Movement of GroundwaterAreas of high pressureAreas of Lowpressure
I Groundwater characteristicsI will get an A on my exams and quizzesDiscuss with a friendDescribe the differences between an unconfined and confined aquifers
What is an aquitard?
3. Describe the general flow of groundwater
DrawdownWater WellsProducing a cone of depressionABResidential uses small cone of depression (A)Industrial uses large cone of depression (B)
Pressure SurfaceAbove pressuresurfaceNOT - ArtesianBelow the pressuresurface - ArtesianArtesian well: flowing water from a well not being pumpedconfined conditions (1)pressure forces water up(2)Confined aquifer (1)Aquitard (2)Aquitard (2)
I Watching the streamI will get an A on my exams and quizzesDiscuss with a friendHow would you describe a cone of depression?
2. How can groundwater wells influence other people living in an area?
3. What conditions are necessary to produce an artesian well?
Groundwater ContaminationCecil AveMuffler / Glass shopU-Save GASSanta Monica Example: