Aspects of Editing Creative Planning shots Scripting Shooting video Technical Shooting video Recording sound Editing using software
Video Editing Before (Linear) BBC Editing circa 1960s
Video Editing Now Non-Linear Able to add special effects Able to edit portions of a picture Able to edit sound and video separately
Products Many products out there Looking at 3 major products Final Cut Pro (Mac) Adobe Premiere (PC) Other product comparison Wikipedia Article
Products Cost from FREE Windows Movie Maker, iMovie (on new Macs) To Over $1,000 Final Cut Studio Sophistication from basic for the at home user to high end for the broadcast professional.
Final Cut Pro
Factors to Consider Before Purchase What are you taping? Class review sessions Guest speakers Instructional video Who will be the audience? Internal External What format do you want to produce to? DVD Streaming Download
Considerations Version of the Software We have Vegas 4, 5, 6 Also a Vegas +DVDVegas +DVD Final Cut Pro no longer sold individually, must buy Final Cut Studio. Cost of add-ons? Adobe Premiere $299.00 for educational discount Adobe After Effects, $799.00
Considerations Ability to Import HD formats Output Options: Streaming Web, Quicktime, Windows Media, DVD,.mpg, HD formats, etc
Hardware Compatibility Check each Website Lists of compatibility include: Cameras DVD Burners Analog Converters Both Adobe and Sony list items that are Full Support and Partial Support
What to look for in a video editor Ease of use? Try downloading a trial version of the software, or use the software somewhere first. Software should be self-explanatory. Features Be aware of included features such as sound effects, transitions, etc. Some software packages require additional purchases to get the extras.
Example Adobe Premiere uses a program called After Effects for special effects. This software costs EXTRA Final Cut Pro Studio uses the program Motion to create special effects. Motion is now packaged with Final Cut Pro. Along with Soundtrack Pro and other add-ons. BUT, Final Cut Studio costs much more
What to look for? Help & Tutorials Adobe Premiere Tutorial DVDs included Extra manuals to purchase e-seminars Final Cut Studio Tutorial DVDs included Self paced learning Apple Pro Training Certification
-Garbage in, garbage out. -You can't make bricks without straw. -You can make a fine silk purse out of a pigs ear. -But- -Bad workers always blame their tools.
PXL 2000 (Fisher Price) Portions of the film Slackers were filmed with a PXL 2000
Stages of Filmmaking The filmmaking production cycle consists of five main stages: 1.Development 2.Preproduction 3.Production 4.Post-production 5.Distribution
1. Development Idea Script Authorization (Green Light)
2. Preproduction Classically, acquiring the people and things required for making a film Directors Actors Equipment- Cameras, Sound Equipment, Lighting, Green screens, etc Storyboarding- before you shoot a scene, you need to think about exactly how it needs to come together, including how it will be edited.
3. Production Actual acting and filming Video Editing affected by, and affects Camera location and movement Audio characteristics Order of shooting Effects desired
Once the video is shot, editing begins. Typical Editing Workflow Review each shot, plan captures or imports. Capture desired sections. Assemble and refine sequence. Add transitions and effects. Add titles. Mix audio. Export.
Capture: Moving the video footage off the tape and onto the computer. Not all editing software is compatible with all cameras. You may want to capture with one program but edit with another.
Capture: Quality data transfer typically requires a Firewire (iLink) connection. The type of files created are dependent upon the software. Different file types serve different purposes. Batch logging and capture can save drive space.
File types For quality production, always use a lossless video encoding method. A MUST for intermediate editing stages
File Size An hour of output may require many hours of video for input. A non-compressed High Definition.avi can easily take up 20 GB or more per hour. To save drive space, if quality is not much of an issue, use a lossy, high compression video format. A.wmv, seemingly perfect to the naked eye can take up 1/30 th the space of an.avi. But always remember GIGO. Basic Video Editing- removing excess, adding titles, making it exportable Assemble and Refine Shots
Film Editing 1920s: rise of editing as film technique Early cinema often consists of one shot films Hollywood films contain between 1,000-3,000 shots Editing as coordination of one shot with another Elimination of unwanted footage
Film Editing Strong influence of Soviet Montage School Attempt to build film based upon certain editing devices Create narrative via shots Eisensteinfilm as construction of editing Initially opposed continuity editing Used temporal discontinuities Used temporal expansion Created new relationships between time and space via editing
Film Editing Organization of desired shots Joined via specific techniques Fade-outgradually darkens end of a shot to black Fade-ingradually lightens a shot from black Dissolvebrief superimposition of end of one shot and beginning of next shot Wipenext shot replaces shot via boundary line moving across frame Both images briefly on screendont blend
Film Editing Cutmost common technique of connecting shots Move directly from one shot to next Uninterrupted segment of screen time or space Instantaneous changes from one shot to another Create marked and abrupt shifts Enormous task of film editor Use of storyboards Planning of editing during shooting
Film Editing Four basic artistic choices and directions of editing Graphic relations between one shot and another Rhythmic relations between one shot and another Spatial relations between one shot and another Temporal relations between one shot and another
Film Editing Interaction and integration of purely pictorial qualities of two shots Elements of mise-en-scene and cinematography Graphic similarities create graphic match Similarities of shape, composition, and movement Most typical of narrative cinema Graphically discontinuous editing more noticeable
Film Editing Each shot as strip of filmcertain measurement Measured in film length Measured in frames Sound speed24 frames/second Editing allows control over duration of each shot Editing thus controls filmic rhythmaccent, beat, and tempo Patterning of shot length and style
Film Editing Editing constitutes metrical pace of film Editing allows director to construct filmic space Allows omnisciencecan move from one spot to notably different Allows relation of any two spots in space Can create continuity and breakdown Establishment of whole from component parts
Film Editing Allows spatial manipulation Strong influence of Soviet Montage style Kuleshov effectseries of shots (without establishing shot) that prompts spectator to infer spatial whole from parts Editing cues establish single locale Crosscuttingparallel editing technique used to establish variety of spaces Editing can establish ambiguous spatial relations
Film Editing Temporal relationsallows manipulation of time Common technique of flashback Presentation of one or more shots out of their presumed story order Usually interrupt present time Flashforwardediting moves from present to future and returns Tease audience with glimpses of future Establish possible narratives Possible to control duration of story via editing
Temporal Ellipsis Presentation of action in manner that it consumes less time on screen than in story Punctuation shot changedissolve, wipe, or fade to demonstrate progress accomplished Empty frames shotscharacters or objects entering and/or exiting frame Cutawayshot of other event elsewhere that will not last as long as the elided action 2 locales that we connect via editing Expansionopposite of ellipsis Eisenteins use of overlapping editing to expand time Overlapping editing allows presentation of time and space more than once
Continuity Editing Dominant editing style throughout Western Film History Rise of editing between 1900-1910 Used as method to establish coherent narrative Narrative continuity smooth flow between shots to create story
180 System Space of scene constructed along axis of action Center line 180 line Scenes action assumed to take place along discernible and predictable line Axis of action determines half-circle (180 area) where camera can present action
180 System Violation to shift to camera shot on opposite of axis 180 System ensures relative position of objects and characters remains consistent 180 System ensures consistent eyelines 180 System ensures consistent screen direction Characters moving in logical and understandable ways
180 System 180 System claims to organize space clearly Viewers can trust location (and relative location) of characters Viewers can trust their own locations and relative locations 180 System ensures and advances continuity system
180 System Shot/Reverse-shot pattern Shows one end point of axis and then the other Shot of opposite end of axis of action Usually shows view of subject Eyeline match Initial shot of character looking Second shot of object of characters gaze Neither shot shows both spectator and object
180 System Directional quality of eyeline establishes spatial continuity Object of gaze must be within gaze of spectator Establishes continuity from shot to shot Shot/Reverse-shot Pattern allows us to understand characters locations even when not in same frame Reestablishing Shotreestablishes overall space that was inferred in previous shots Pattern of establishment/ breakdown/ reestablishment
180 System Continuity editing subordinates space to action Emphasizes dialogue and character movement Match on action tacticextra method for ensuring spatial continuity Continuity of movement from one shot to next Creates match on action Carries a movement across the break of shots Must consider mise-en-scene and cinematography
180 System Filmmaker can create new axis of action by rotating shots/reverse shot pattern Axis of action allows for elimination of establishing shot Cheat cutmismatching slightly the positions of characters and/or objects in continuity editing Significant role of POV shot in continuity editing Allows/creates variety of eyeline-match editing
180 System Head-on Shotaction presented as moving directly toward camera Crosscuttingparallel editing to create various spaces (presumably in same time) Allows unrestricted access to causal, temporal, and spatial knowledge Yet creates spatial discontinuity while creating cause and effect in temporal simultaneity Builds up suspense Allows temporal/spatial collision
Continuity Editing Appears invisible and/or natural Usually presents plot consistently and chronologically Chronological order1-2-3 order Common violation of flashback One-for-one frequencyevent shown once Duration usually not expanded Temporal continuitynarrative progression has no gaps
Continuity Editing Use of diegetic soundsound issuing from space of story Creates spatial and temporal continuity Temporal ellipsisomission of time Viewer must recognize passing of time to ensure continuity Use of dissolves, fades, or wipes Montage sequencejoining of various images, objects, characters, places, and times to compress series of actions into brief sequence Usually still suggests continuity and one-for-one events
Non-Continuity Editing Common in abstract and/or associational films Often based on graphic and rhythmic qualities of film Based on light, texture, shape, movement Often subordinates space and time to rhythm Narrative becomes less important
Non-Continuity Editing Technique of jump cutcreates violation of spatial, temporal, and graphic continuity Two shots of same subject cut together but not notably different in camera distance and angle Creates notable jump on screen Avoided in continuity editing Nondiegetic Insertcut from diegetic scene to metaphorical or symbolic shot outside time and space of film Disturbs normal expectations about art and narrative
Non-Continuity Editing More frequent use of expansion of temporal qualities Jump cut Nondiegetic insert Expansion can be presented as formal aesthetic quality of film