VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Chapter 4 Foods, fuels and energy systems Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4 th Edition – Malpeli,

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 4Foods, fuels and energy systemsText SourcesNelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&amp;4: 4th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006.</p><p>2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Food FuelsFoods, Fuels and Energy systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Food Fuels for EnergyCarbohydrates (CHO) Preferred source of fuel during exercise (Glycogen)Fat Concentrated fuel used during rest and prolonged sub-maximal exercise.Protein Used for growth and repair (Negligible use during exercise)</p><p>Energy</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Foods High in CHO, Fats and Proteins</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>CheckpointsComplete questions 1-4 page 87 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Foods, fuels and energy systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Our mechanical energy required for muscular contractions, require the chemical breakdown of the ATP molecule (Forms ADP).Our ATP stores are very limited, therefore it must continually be rebuilt.Nutrients assist in rejoining the split molecule. </p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Fuel use at Varying Intensities and DurationFoods, Fuels and Energy systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Food Fuels at RestRest (Aerobic)Fat and glucose are the preferred fuelsDuring ExerciseShort duration / high intensity Anaerobic systems used using carbohydrates.Long duration / low intensity Aerobic system using carbohydrates. However, fats are used once glycogen stores are depleted.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Maximal and Sub-maximal Activity</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Contributions of Carbohydrates, Fats and Protein to Energy ProductionFoods, Fuels and Energy systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Energy Demands - IntensityLow intensityATP requirements are met aerobically using the aerobic system.High IntensityExplosive movements require instant supply of ATP which cant be met aerobically, therefore the ATP-PC and lactic acid systems need to be used anaerobically.</p><p>AerobicAnaerobicIntensity increases</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Carbohydrate ContributionsStorage (Based on 80kg person)Muscle glycogen 400gLiver glycogen 100gIntake of Carbohydrates depends on the intensity and duration of exercise bouts.Normal contribution to diet is 55-60% CHOCarbohydrate loading (80% CHO intake) is used to endurance activities.</p><p>Carbohydrate rich diet;Increases glycogen storesGlycogen is used in rebuilding ATPCHO preferred fuel over fats during exercise due to requiring less oxygen to release energy.Athletes need to be aware of their dietary intakes of CHO. Excess CHO is converted to fat.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Fat ContributionsStorage of fatsAdipose tissueTriglycerides (Broken down into free fatty acids)Aerobic metabolism of fat is;Slow as it requires more oxygen than CHOs.Adds stress to the oxygen transport systemATP yield is much higher from fat (460 molecules) in comparison to glucose (36).At rest50% of energy supplied by fatsOxygen demand is easily met to burn fatsBenefits of fatLarge energy storeTransport medium for fat soluble vitaminsNegative aspects of fatAdverse health effectsObesity, heart disease etc.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>CheckpointsComplete questions 1-4 page 92 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Crossover Concept</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Protein ContributionsRole of protein (Amino acids) in the body;Growth and repairSpeed up reactions in the body (Enzymes)Produces hormones and antibodiesProtein and exerciseNot used as a fuel, therefore low priority.Only used in extreme circumstancesNormal diet contains enough protein (15%).Excess protein can lead to;Less intake of CHOIncrease in fat intake from animal productsIncrease in fluid waste</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Prolonged Endurance EventsDuring prolonged endurance events such as marathon running and triathlons;Body uses a combination of CHO and fats.Trained athletes are able to spare glycogen and use free fatty acids.Fats cannot be used alone as a fuel (poor solubility in the blood).Hitting the wall occurs when glycogen stores are depleted. This is called hypoglycaemia.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Glycemic Index (GI)Glycemic index;Rating of CHO effect on blood glucoseQuick breakdown with immediate effect on blood glucose levels are labelled high GI Slow breakdown are labelled low GI</p><p>Before exercise you should eat;Food that maintains blood glucose levels ie.low GI foodAvoid high GI food prior to exercise.High GI cause an insulin surge, effecting the performance of an athlete</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Glycemic Index of Common Foods</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Comparative Results for High and Low GI Meals</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>CheckpointsComplete questions 1-2 page 94 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The Three Energy SystemsFoods, Fuels and Energy systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Aerobic ExerciseAerobic exercise includes lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time. Activities like walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to make the energy needed for prolonged exercise.The energy system that is used in aerobic exercise is called the aerobic system. It can also be called oxygen system or the aerobic glycolysis system.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Anaerobic ExerciseThe term "anaerobic" means "without air" or "without oxygen." Anaerobic exercise uses muscles at high intensity and a high rate of work for a short period of time. Anaerobic exercise helps us increase our muscle strength and stay ready for quick bursts of speed. Examples of anaerobic exercise include heavy weight lifting, sprinting, or any rapid burst of hard exercise. These anaerobic exercises cannot last long because oxygen is not used for energy and a by-product, called lactic acid, is produced. There are two energy systems which use the anaerobic pathways; ATP-PC (Alternatively called; Alactacid, Creatine Phosphate or Phosphogen system) and the Lactic Acid systems (Also called Anaerobic glycolysis or Lactacid)</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Common MistakeThe three energy systems do not turn on and off like a traffic light. They are always in operation the relative contribution of each system varies depending on factors such as intensity, type of activity and duration.X</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The ATP-PC SystemFoods, Fuels and Energy Systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The ATP-PC SystemQuickest systemBreaks down phosphocreatine (PC) to form ATP anaerobically.However, PC stores require time to replenish.Dominant system for the first 10-15 seconds of high intensity exerciseUsed in fast, powerful movements.</p><p>How does the system work?PC releases a free phosphatePC = P + C ADP + P = ATP</p><p>Body has a larger storage of PC compared to ATPPC stores can be replenished through aerobic recovery.Once PC stores are depleted, they body must use glycogen through the anaerobic pathway.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The Lactic Acid SystemFoods, Fuels and Energy Systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The Lactic Acid SystemThe lactic acid system;Activated at the start of intense exerciseMore complex reactions than the ATP-PC systemPeak power until it fatigues (2-3 minutes)Predominant energy supplier in events 85% max HR eg. 200m sprint.How the system works;Glycogen is broken down in the absence of oxygen (Anaerobic glycolysis)This produces a fatigue causing by product called lactic acid.Lactic acid makes the muscle pH decrease (More acidic), reducing ATP resynthesis.The lactic acid system;Provides twice as much energy for ATP resynthesis than the ATP-PC system.Experiences problems at the anaerobic threshold.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Coursework 4.1Complete the data analysis task on page 99-100 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The Aerobic SystemFoods, Fuels and Energy Systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>The Aerobic SystemThe aerobic systemSlowest contributor to ATP resynthesisHowever, produces much more energy than the anaerobic systemsBecomes major contributor once the lactic system decreases.Major contributor in prolonged exercise eg. Endurance events.Aerobic system does contribute in maximal intensity exercise (Eg. Between 55-65% in 800m)</p><p>See table 4.4 p.101 and 4.5 p.102How the system works;CHOs and Tryglycerides (FFA + glycerol) broken down to release energy. This produces pyruvic acid.Pyruvic acid is further broken down producing carbon dioxide (Krebs cycle)Further breakdown via the electron transport chain. It requires hydrogen ions and oxygen, producing water and heat.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Anaerobic and Aerobic Glycolysis</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Coursework 4.2 and 4.3Complete the laboratory tasks on page 104 and 105-6 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Energy System InterplayFoods, Fuels and Energy Systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Interplay Between Energy SystemsAll activities use some energy from all three systems.The energy systems overlap they never work independently.It its the relative contribution of each system that varies.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Aerobic Contributions</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Anaerobic v Aerobic Contributions</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Coursework 4.4 and 4.5Complete the data analysis task on page 109-111 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.Complete the laboratory task on page 111-3 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Duration and Intensity</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Comparing the Three Energy SystemsFoods, Fuels and Energy Systems</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>High Intensity Competition</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>CheckpointsComplete questions 1-4 page 114 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Test Your KnowledgeComplete the review questions 1-9 page 116 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Peak PerformanceComplete the chapter questions on page 20-28 of Nelson Peak Performance Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>PHYS ED NotesRead the summarised information of pages 38-46 of PHYS ED Notes and complete the revision questions.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCAA Questions - 2006</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCAA Questions - 2006</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCAA Questions - 2006</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Web Links Chapter 4</p><p>VCE Board of Studies additional information about energy systems: http://vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/physicaledu/EnrgSys.pdf Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au Australian Institute of Sport sports nutrition: http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/ Nutrition Australia: http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/ Dietician's Association of Australia: http://www.daa.asn.au/ Sports Coach UK energy pathways: http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/energy.htm How stuff works How exercise works: http://health.howstuffworks.com/sports-physiology6.htm Info about the glycemic index: http://www.glycemicindex.com/ </p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li></ul>

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