VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Chapter 2 Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & ‘Stages of Change Model’ Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education.

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<ul><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Chapter 2Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>Text SourcesNelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&amp;4: 4th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006.</p><p>2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Mediators of Behavioural ChangeStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Mediators for behavioural changeA mediator is the mechanism through which the intervention (strategy) is believed to influence physical activity behaviour. Self-efficacy can be improved if a person is taught strategies to remind themselves to be more active.The improvement in these mediators combined might lead to a greater chance of behavioural change occurring.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Theoretical Social ModelsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Theoretical Social ModelsMany professionals are trying to change peoples physical activity levels.The focus of their promotion is biological, cognitive and behavioural factors the influence physical activity participation. Physical activity theories cover; determinants of physical activity, relationships between factors and the conditions required to get people involved in physical activity.</p><p>Social Models;Provide a framework of health behaviour that can enhance our understanding of participation in physical activity.Can direct the development of strategies used to increase physical activity levels.The major theoretical models related to physical activity;Social cognitive theoryEcological frameworkBehaviour-choice model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Social Models</p><p>ModelOverviewKey FactorsExamplesSocio cognitiveThe social learning theory of emphasises the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactionsof others.Behavioural capability Observational learningExpectations Self-EfficacyReinforcementsA persons P.A. skillsLearn about P.A. by looking.Expected results to from P.A.Self control Positive or negative eventsThe Ecological FrameworkLooks to explain the cause of inactivity by looking at six sets of factors that are effectively solutions to the problem of physical inactivityInterpersonal FactorsInterpersonal Processes Institutional FactorsCommunity FactorsPublic PolicyEnvironmental Factors Knowledge, skills attitudes social situations eg family or friends. interaction between organisations. local, state, national rules/lawsweather, facilities etcThe Behaviour-choice modelIncludes three reasons why people choose to behave in certain ways.Reinforcement ValueEnvironmental barriersPreference Consequences that result in a choice.Lack of bike paths results bike being used less often.Choose one behaviour over another. </p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Psychological ModelsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Psychological TheoriesThese theories are used to guide individual approaches.These models are used by practitioners and policy makers to justify, shape and focus health promotion strategies. Theories;Health-belief modelPenders health promotion modelTheory of reasoned actionStages of Change **(Also called the trans-theoretical model)</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Psychological Theories Summary</p><p>TheoryOverviewKey FactorsThe Health-belief ModelPromotes healthy behaviour change by addressing the patients health beliefsPerceived susceptibility and severity of illnesses.Perceived benefitsInformation access to prompt action Self-efficiencyPenders Health Promotion ModelDeveloped to describe and explain health enhancing behavioursHow people value their healthSelf-efficiencyPerceived health status and benefitsBarriers to changeInterpersonal factorsFamily membersRelationships with health professionalsTheory of Reasoned ActionPeople intend to participate in physical activity for a variety of reasons.Benefits of physical activity is weighed up against long term healthMotivated by significant others such as family and peers.Stages of ChangeShows the progression through several major changes of behaviour towards becoming more active.Pre-contemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceTerminationNote. Relapse can occur at most stages.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model Stages 1&amp;2Stage 2. ContemplationAcknowledge that they need to become more active.</p><p> Weighing up the pros and cons of being more active. </p><p> Intention of becoming more active within the next 6 months.</p><p> Some individuals remain in this stage for long periods.</p><p>Stage 1. Pre-contemplation Not considering behavioural change</p><p> No intention of being more active within the next 6 months. Not aware their lack of activity is a problem.</p><p> Most difficult group </p><p> Only start to think about change due to constant pressure or after a signicant health event eg. heart attack.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model- Stages 3&amp;4Stage 4. ActionRequires the largest effort, time and energy. Attempting to follow National Physical Activity Guidelines. Relapse is common, however if an individual maintains the active stage for six months they move into the maintenance stage.</p><p>Stage 3. PreparationSeriously considering becoming more active May exercise once or twice a week or several times a month. May be doing physical activity but are not meeting the physical activity guidelines. </p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stages of Change Model- Stages 5&amp;6Stage 5-MaintenanceRegularly active as part of their lifestyleMeeting NPAG for six monthsPerson continually strives to overcome barriers.May be in this stage for up to five years.</p><p>Stage 6-TerminationRegularly active for over five yearsRelapse very unlikelyPermanent behaviour change has occurred.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Complete questions 1-5 page 42 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.Explain what is meant by the term mediator and provide two examples.What are the 2 major categories of physical activity promotional strategies? List 3 examples used to promote physical activity at an individual level VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Checkpoints</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Counselling optionsStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling options</p><p>Telephone counseling and automated telephone-delivered adviceProgrammed to call people automatically including during convenient times. Collect data for PA research. Counseling for people living in isolated or remote areas Social support for older adults if not familiar with using web-based technologies.</p><p>Health-professional counseling Advice from GPs is often highly regarded. GPs sometimes prescribe PA instead of a prescription for medication. </p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies- 1&amp;2Assessing motivational readinessOne of the first steps is to assess a persons motivational readiness to become more active. Once their stage is determined, an individuals motivation readiness can be matched with processes to change their behaviour.</p><p>Matching processes of change with motivational readinessStages of change = when people change behaviour Processes of change = how people change their PA behaviour Processes of change can be grouped into two different categories: cognitive processes &amp; behavioural processes. Individuals in early stages (Stages 1 or 2) focus on cognitive strategies eg increasing awareness and knowledge of the benefits of physical activity. Later Stages (Stages 3,4 and 5) might include behavioural strategies such as developing a reminder system an encouraging the use of rewards.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Readiness to change (motivational readiness)Are you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most (five+) days of the week?NoYesAre you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity at least one day per week?Have you been doing this on a regular basis for the last six months?Do you intend to increase your physical activity?If youre doing physical activity irregularly, youre in the preparation stage.If youre not even thinking about it, you are in the precontemplation stage.If you're giving it a thought now and then but not doing it, you are in the contemplation stage.If you have been doing this consistently but for fewer than six months, you are in the action stage.If youre maintained the new habit for six months of more you are in the maintenance stage.NoNoNoYesYesYes</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies 3&amp;43. Identifying opportunities to be active Before you can identify opportunities to be more active you have to be aware of how often you move. Modern technology has minimised the need to move and people today sit longer hours than previous generations. 4. ContractingYou could draw up a simple contract that states your activity goals and have a witness sign it with you. Set a date to reassess whether or not you have met your behavioural goal. Reward yourself if goals are achieved. Punishments can be used but should be determined by you. Punishments should not be in the form of physical activity; eg. no television for a week.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete the data analysis task on page 47 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>Coursework 2.1</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies 5&amp;6Enlisting social supportNot having an exercise partner is often a barrier to physical activity. Many studies report that having someone to exercise with greatly increases your chances of being sufficiently active. Support may come from family members, partners, friends, work colleagues or other community members.</p><p>6. Reminder systemsReminding yourself to be active is especially important when you are in the contemplation to action phases of the Stages of Change Model.The following are some example reminder systems:Leave yourself a note on the refrigerator, computer or mirror.Use a diary.Poster on office wall or desk.Get friends to send email or text message to remind youSet reminders using your computer or mobile phone.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete the laboratory task on page 48 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>Coursework 2.2</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Counselling strategies 7&amp;8Gradual programming Similar to progressive overload - gradual increase in workload, frequency or intensity. A slow, step-by-step approach desirable for inactive people For a beginner, being exhausted at the end of an activity greatly reduces likelihood of continuing to be active.</p><p>TailoringPrescribing a physical activity plan to meet the individual needs of each person.Individual factors to consider include : social support, access to facilities, work hours, cultural factors, family structure, fitness levels and climate.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete questions 1-5 page 49 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.Checkpoints</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Cognitive and Behavioural StrategiesStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Cognitive StrategiesIncreasing Knowledge Encourage individual to read and think about P.A.</p><p>Being Aware of risksProvide the individual with the message that being inactive is very unhealthy.</p><p>Caring about the consequences to othersEncourage the person to recognise how their inactivity affects their family, friends and co-workers.</p><p>Comprehending benefitsAssist the individual to understand the personal benefits of being physically active.</p><p>Increasing healthy opportunities.Help the individual increase their awareness of opportunities to be physically active</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Behavioural Strategies Substituting alternativesEncourage the individual to participate in physical activity when they are tired, stressed, or unlikely to want to be physically active.</p><p>Enlisting social supportEncourage the individual to find a family member, friend, or co-worker who is willing and able to provide support for being active.shoes in the car/office, ready for use at any time</p><p>Rewarding yourselfEncourage the individual to praise themselves and reward themselves for being physically activeCommitting yourselfEncourage the individual to make promises, plans and commitments to be active.Reminding yourselfTeach the individual how to set up reminders to be active, such as keeping comfortable</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>Physical Activity PromotionStrategies for Promoting Physical Activity &amp; Stages of Change Model</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Promotion of Physical ActivityPopulation based promotionEnvironmental / PolicyMass mediaPopulation approaches are designed to reach large segments of society or specific population groups.Population based information is often collected by VicHealth, National Heart Foundation and various universities.Information collected is used to establish government priorities and initiatives.</p><p>Individual based promotionTheoretical models of changePrint and web-based mediaCounselling and screeningThese strategies are often based on theoretical models of individual behaviour change</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete the case study task on page 53-4 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>Coursework 2.3</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete the structured questions on page 54 of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &amp; 4.</p><p>Coursework 2.4</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Environmental StrategiesTailoring Changing physical environments to suit community needs. Eg. Walking track along Wimmera river promotes walking.</p><p>2. Removing impediments to activity Take away reasons for people not to participate in PA eg. Design walking tracks away from major highways/roads.3. Introducing new resources and facilities eg. New sports grounds, age specific playgrounds.</p><p>4. Support from other programs eg. Reducing crime in an area will make people feel more safe to go for a walk.5. Opening Hours Opening sporting venues before and after business hours.</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Sample Environmental Strategies</p><p>VCE Physical Education - Unit 3</p></li><li><p>VCE Physical...</p></li></ul>

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