Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE

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Agenda for This Tutorial Read about examples of plagiarism and the consequences in the real world. Learn more about plagiarism: What plagiarism is and how one can avoid it When to cite your sources How to cite your sources Take a quiz to verify your understanding. Pledge that you will avoid plagiarism.

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 10 - 11NOTE: To move through this tutorial, use the mouse to click on the arrow at the bottom right of your screen. Agenda for This TutorialRead about examples of plagiarism and the consequences in the real world. Learn more about plagiarism: What plagiarism is and how one can avoid it When to cite your sources How to cite your sources Take a quiz to verify your understanding. Pledge that you will avoid plagiarism. You know this dont you?Sure you do.Teachers have been talking (and talking, and talking) about plagiarismand how you should avoid it. But, if it is so bad, why do students (and adults) do it? Why do students plagiarize? Here are some excusesWhy does it matter?My (pick one of the following) teacher/parent/guardian doesnt care if I do it. Everybody else does it.Why not me, too? The assignment was dumb/boring/too hard/too easy/etc., so why should I put my effort into it? Why do students plagiarize? Here are some excusesWhy does it matter?My (pick one of the following) teacher/parent/guardian doesnt care if I do it. Everybody else does it.Why not me, too? I didnt know that I had to cite my sources. I didnt understand the assignment and I needed some help. The assignment was dumb/boring/too hard/too easy/etc., so why should I put my effort into it? Why do students plagiarize? Here are some excusesWhy does it matter?My (pick one of the following) teacher/parent/guardian doesnt care if I do it. I didnt have the time to do the work on my own.I had work/rehearsal/practice/etc. Everybody else does it.Why not me, too? I didnt know that I had to cite my sources. I didnt understand the assignment and I needed some help. I had to.I need to have good grades. The assignment was dumb/boring/too hard/too easy/etc., so why should I put my effort into it? Why do students plagiarize? Here are some excusesWhy does it matter?My (pick one of the following) teacher/parent/guardian doesnt care if I do it. I didnt have the time to do the work on my own.I had work/rehearsal/practice/etc. Everybody else does it.Why not me, too? I didnt know that I had to cite my sources. I didnt understand the assignment and I needed some help. I had to.I need to have good grades. The assignment was dumb/boring/too hard/too easy/etc., so why should I put my effort into it? Have you heard any of those before? But those excuses dont cut itThere is no acceptable excuse for plagiarism.Plagiarism is cheating (and it will be treated as such if it is found in your work). Look at these real life examples Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsDoris Kearns Goodwin, a Pulitzer Prize winning historian, was forced to step down from the Pulitzer board after she was found to have accidentally used anothers words in one of her books. Disgraced Kirpatrick, David D.Author Goodwin Resigns from Pulitzer Board.New York Times. (1 June 2002.) 5 Aug . Hostetter, Janet.6 Apr Associated Press Images.5 Aug Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsAfter being accused of rampant plagiarism in her work, tenured professor Madonna G. Constantine was fired from her position at Columbia University. Fired Santora, Marc.Columbia Professor in Noose Case Is Fired on Plagiarism Charges.New York Times.(24 June 2008.)5 Aug . Bondafeff, Dian.10 Oct Associated Press Images.5 Aug . Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsAs a reporter for the New York Times, Jayson Blair plagiarized or fabricated in more than 40 stories between 2002 and He was fired from his job.The top two editors of the newspaper resigned as a result of the scandal. Forced to give up career Correcting the Record.New York Times.11 May The New York Times.5 Aug Image: Szymaszek, Jennifer.12 May Associated Press Images.5 Aug Real Life Plagiarism ScandalsBlair Hornstein was the valedictorian of her high school class and had earned admission to Harvard University.After articles Hornstein wrote for a local newspaper were discovered to have been plagiarized, Harvard University rescinded their acceptance. Harvard Admission Revoked Blair Hornstein.The Gothamist.14 July Aug . Capuzzo, Jill P. MOORESTOWN JOURNAL; Seeing Crimson. New York Times.(20 July 2003.)5 Aug . So, as you can see, plagiarism is a serious offenseSo, as you can see, plagiarism is a serious offense.This presentation is part of your class work so that you knowwhat plagiarism isandhow you can avoid it. Definition of PlagiarismPlagiarism is: To steal the words or ideas of another person To pass off the words or ideas of another person as ones own Further: It doesnt matter whether the theft is intentional or accidental.Either way, it is plagiarism. Lets look at some hypothetical situationsLets look at somehypothetical situations.For each, determine if the student plagiarized or did not.Click on the arrow to move to the next page. Jacks Situation Is this plagiarism? Yes NoJack has an English paper due tomorrow.He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about. Jack logs onto the Internet just to get some ideas about topics for his paper. He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found.He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found. Is this plagiarism? Yes No return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said Jack did plagiarize.You are right.Jacks actions constitute plagiarism. Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper. Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You said Jack did not plagiarize.You are wrong.Jacks actions constitute plagiarism. Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper. Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong.Jacks actions constitute plagiarism. He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper. Jills Situation Is this plagiarism?During history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castros rise to power. Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedias article on Fidel Castro.Without using quotation marks, Jillcuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment. Is this plagiarism? Yes No return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said Jill did plagiarize.You are right.Jills actions constitute plagiarism. By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. She can avoid plagiarizing by quoting the article in her assignment and including an entry that describes the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper. You said Jill did not plagiarize.You are wrong.Jills actions constitute plagiarism. By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. She can avoid plagiarizing by quoting the article in her assignment and including an entry that describes the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper. Gretels Situation Is this plagiarism?Gretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school.When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on genetics, Gretel is confused and frustrated. During lunch, Gretel borrows her friends paper and copies the answers onto her own paper. Is this plagiarism? Yes No return to previous slideYou must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said Gretel did plagiarize.You are right.Gretels actions constitute plagiarism. Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. Gretel is guilty of plagiarism.She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person. You said Gretel did not plagiarize.You are wrong.Gretels actions constitute plagiarism. Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. When a student attempts to take credit for the words and ideas of another person without acknowledging the original source of the work Think youve got it. Read the following (and pay attentionThink youve got it?Read the following(and pay attention!There will be a quiz on this information at the end!) Definition of PlagiarismPlagiarism is: To steal the words or ideas of another person To pass off the words or ideas of another person as ones own It doesnt matter whether the theft is intentional or accidental.Either way, it is plagiarism. How to Avoid PlagiarismCite the source of any idea or words you take from anyone else. Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea. Provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated. So, what is the benefit of citing my sources?OK, I get it there are penalties for plagiarizing because it is stealing someone elses words or ideas. But, if I am not caught, I wont be penalized. So, what is the benefit of citing my sources? Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work. Cheating is unethical behavior. It is only fair to give credit to the sourceotherwise, you are stealing the sources ideas. The consequences are severeplagiarism is not worth the risk. You probably have two questions: (1) What do I need to citeYou probably have two questions:(1) What do I need to cite?(2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers What do I need to cite? Did you think of it? No. Yes. Is it common knowledge? Cite it. Do not cite it. This chart will help you decide what must be cited. It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook. Did you think of it? No. Yes. Is it common knowledge? Cite it. Do not cite it. Sothe rule is:If you created it without any help, you do not need to cite the source.If you did not create the content, you must cite the source. Did you think of it? No. Yes. Is it common knowledge? Cite it. Do not cite it. The one exception to that rule is for common knowledge.You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:(1) an educated person should know the information, OR(2) it is a fact that could be found in an encyclopedia. So, you dont need to cite a fact, but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge. So, you dont need to cite a fact,for example: Harper Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird. ORHarper Lee was born in but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own. for example: Dorothy Gale believes that Lord of the Flies is an inspiring story (75).ORAccording to Joe Smith, Piggy represents the human spirit (15). And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge. You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation. Did you think of it? No. Yes. Is it common knowledge? Cite it. Do not cite it. Take one more look at this chart! If the idea and the words are yours, you do not need to cite. So, lets check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you dontAnswer the following questions and choose the correct answer. Do not cite the Cite the source. source. Test Case #1Jack isnt sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below.He found the fact online. Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president. What do you think?What should Jack do?Pick one of the answers below. Cite the source. This means he will: Either: Surround with quotation marks, or Put the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization Include a lead-in giving the sources name, Give the page number, and List the source in a bibliography Do not cite the source. This means that the information is a commonly reported fact.It is generally known and available from many sources. Jack should verify the information in at least two sources, then Jack will write the well-known information in his own words. return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You are incorrect. In this case, citation is not necessary.Jack does not need to cite the source or quote the information because it is general knowledge. Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places.Therefore, Jack can use the information without citation. You are correct! Jack does not need to cite this information.Jack does not need to cite the source or quote the information because it is general knowledge. Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places.Therefore, Jack can use the information without citation. What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.Test Case #2 In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source that explained that Affirmative Action evens the field of play by forcing equality among all players. In her paper, Jill uses the phrase forcing equality but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words. What should Jill do?Pick one of the answers below. Cite the source. This means she will: Either: Surround with quotation marks, or Put the quotation into her own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization Include a lead-in giving the sources name, Give the page number, and List the source in a bibliography Not cite the source. This means that the information is generally known and available from multiple sources. Jill should verify the information in at least two sources, then Jill will write the well-known information in his own words. (3)Jill should make a bibliographic citation for use on her Works Consulted page. return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You are correct! Jill must cite this information.Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase forcing equality, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source. You are incorrect. In this case, citation is necessary.Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase forcing equality, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source. Test Case #3 Gretel found a very helpful article in an online database.She very carefully made sure that she rewrote the content of the article using her own personal style; she changed the authors syntax and organization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper. What should Gretel do? Cite the source. This means she will: Either: Surround with quotation marks, or Put the quotation into his own words, changing the syntax, structure, & organization Include a lead-in giving the sources name, Give the page number, and List the source in a bibliography Not cite the source. This means that the information is generally known and available from multiple sources. Gretel should verify the information in at least two sources, then Gretel will write the well-known information in his own words. (3)Gretel must include a bibliographic citation on her Works Consulted page. return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You are correct. In this case, citation is required.Gretel paraphrases the sources idea and content.She must give credit to the source. She must provide her audience with the source of the idea that she borrowed. You are incorrect! Gretel must cite the source of this information, even though she put itin her own words. Gretel paraphrases the ideas of the source, so she must cite the identity of the source. Gretel must provide her audience with the source of the material that she borrowed. So, you can identify what must have a citationNow you need to knowhow to use and cite a source! How to Cite a Source Its easy. Just provide your audience with the source of any ideas or words that are not your own. First, carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea. Then, provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated. In fact, listing your sources shows your audience that you are an informed, well-researched writer! How to Cite Direct QuotationsProvide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated. Park, Beth L.Understanding William Goldings Lord of the Flies.Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008. Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea. Use a signal phrase to introduce the source. Use quotation marks to surround the words of the source. Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks. EXAMPLE: According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Piggy finds peace through his search for the height of his own potential (24). How to Cite ParaphrasesProvide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated. Park, Beth L.Understanding William Goldings Lord of the Flies.Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008. Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources material. Use a signal phrase to introduce the source Put the sources original words into your own words: It isnt just about using synonyms to replace words. You must change the syntax, sentence structure, & organization of the original. If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if a direct quotation would work.If it would work, then use a direct quotation. Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks. EXAMPLE: According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Piggy protects his self-esteem by disciplining the other boys (24). It can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundaries It can be said in a bunch of different waysMark the boundaries Bracket the borrowed It can be said in a bunch of different waysFence the borders Mark the boundaries Bracket the borrowed It can be said in a bunch of different waysFence the borders Mark the boundaries Bracket the borrowed Enclose the borrowed It can be said in a bunch of different waysFrame the usage Fence the borders Mark the boundaries Bracket the borrowed Enclose the borrowed It can be said in a bunch of different waysFrame the usage Fence the borders Mark the boundaries Bracket the borrowed Enclose the borrowed Surround the usage It can be said in a bunch of different waysFrame the usage Fence the borders Mark the boundaries But, they all mean the same thing Provide a clear indication of any words or ideas that are not your own. Bracket the borrowed Enclose the borrowed Circumscribe the usage Can you identify plagiarism when you see it?Try the following four examples.On each you will see the source material and the students usage of that material. Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to choose if the example shows acceptable use or plagiarism. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 1Original text from the source: Students Text: One reason that Lincoln was well-liked during his lifetime was that his integrity was sincere.A persons statements and dealings with the world allows that person to be judged as honest. Integrity must be sincere.Thats one reason Lincoln was so admired in his lifetime.Through an individuals words, deeds, and actions, integrity can be judged to be genuine. Donald T. Phillips. Lincoln on Leadership. (52) Students Bibliography: No references given. Acceptable Use Plagiarism CHOOSE ONE: return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are incorrect.Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is plagiarism. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are correct!The student put the authors idea into her own words; however, she did not give credit to the source of the idea. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 2Original text from the source: Students Text: Phillips believes that the populaces admiration for Lincoln stems from his integrity and honesty (52). Integrity must be sincere.Thats one reason Lincoln was so admired in his lifetime.Through an individuals words, deeds, and actions, integrity can be judged to be genuine. Donald T. Phillips. Lincoln on Leadership. (52) Students Bibliography: Phillips, Donald T.Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times.Warner Books: New York, 1992. Acceptable Use Plagiarism CHOOSE ONE: return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are correct!The student clearly marked the boundaries of the paraphrase: Providing the authors name at the beginning of the paraphrase shows where Phillips idea starts. Providing the page number at the end of the paraphrase shows where Phillips idea ends. The reference on the bibliography page is accurate. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are incorrect!Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why this usage is acceptable. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 3Original text from the source: Students Text: Lincoln was so admired in his lifetime because he had integrity.Integrity must be sincere.Through an individuals words, deed, and actions, integrity can be judged to be genuine. Integrity must be sincere.Thats one reason Lincoln was so admired in his lifetime.Through an individuals words, deeds, and actions, integrity can be judged to be genuine. Donald T. Phillips. Lincoln on Leadership. (52) Students Bibliography: No references given. Acceptable Use Plagiarism CHOOSE ONE: return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are incorrect!Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is plagiarism. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are correct!The student used the exact words of the source without providing any indication of their origin. A reader would believe that this passage is the work of the student. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 4Original text from the source: Students Text: During his lifetime, people admired Lincoln because his words, deeds and actions demonstrated his sincere, genuine integrity. Integrity must be sincere.Thats one reason Lincoln was so admired in his lifetime.Through an individuals words, deeds, and actions, integrity can be judged to be genuine. Donald T. Phillips. Lincoln on Leadership. (52) Students Bibliography: Phillips, Donald T.Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times.Warner Books: New York, 1992. Acceptable Use Plagiarism CHOOSE ONE: return to previous slideYou must choose one of the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are incorrect!Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is plagiarism. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are correct!The student changed the order of the words and the structure of the sentences; however, he did not give credit to the Phillips book as the source of the idea. So, to review Plagiarism is a serious offense.Not only does it carry heavy penalties, but your integrity is damaged when you plagiarize. Plagiarism is easily avoidablejust cite the sources when you use the words or ideas of another person. If you have any questions, see your teacher or school librarian! Final Directions: Your teacher has a written quiz for you to take on the subject of plagiarism. At the end of the quiz is an honor code statement.You will sign it in order to verify that you have receive this training. You will then have your parent sign the honor code. Your teacher will collect these signed forms. Sources Consulted DeSena, Laura Hennessey.Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques.National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL, 2007. Harris, Robert A.The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism.Pyrczak Publishing: Los Angeles, 2001. Valenza, Joyce Kasman.What is Plagiarism? (And Why You Should Care).Springfield High School Media Center Information Literacy Lessons.Springfield School District. End of presentation. If you have questions or suggestions, please see your teacher. This Presentation was used by permission of Michelle Kramer English/Media Arts Teacher Mt. Lebanon High School

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