Using Existing Tools to Support Diverse Learners

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Using Existing Tools to Support Diverse Learners. Regional Technology in Education Consortia Presentation to Spring CUE Presenting from the WestEd RTEC Julie Duffield, Linda Ullah, and Kent Graeber February , 2004. 3 Things We Need to Consider. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Using Existing Tools to Support Diverse LearnersRegional Technology in Education ConsortiaPresentation to Spring CUE Presenting from theWestEd RTECJulie Duffield, Linda Ullah, and Kent GraeberFebruary , 20043 Things We Need to ConsiderNeed to tailor instruction to meet student needsTechnology as a primary change forceTeachers as the keySit & ConsiderThink of the students you teach:Think of your most capable studentThink of 3 things s/he was good atThink of a student who struggledThink of 3 things s/he was good atHow different are those two students?How different are the things they were good at?Can we expect these two studentsto benefit equally from the same instructional program?Tailoring instruction to meet student needs -its not going awayGood news, good newsGood news for kids..Teachers focus & design instructionGood news for teachers..Technology is a key to differentiate instructionDifferentiated learning is a model of instruction that revolves around the belief that students learn in many different ways.A Simple DefinitionA differentiated classroom provides multiple options for:XTaking in informationMaking sense of informationExpressing what students learnCONTENTPROCESSPRODUCTSWhat does PLB offer?a framework in which to make differentiated instruction possible.A Process that features a teaching methodology that centers on a problem learner-centered educational methods learning from working with problemsInstruction is designed aroundEngagementExplorationInvestigationCreation& SharingReflection:What are the shared philosophies between PBL and Differentiation?A ThoughtPBL Curriculum offers a framework in which to make differentiated instruction possible. The Case for TechnologyDurable learning starts with engagement.It offers?Universal Design To Support Differentiation, Engagement and LearningTechnology enables more than a one size fits all Images from CASTDigital media and materials allows forDigital media and materials allows forMultiple representationsDifferent learners use different aspectsScaffolding can be built in Other languages can be addedGeneral search tools like Google can be usedTale of Two Cities It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age ofTale of Two Cities It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age ofStand & Consider:It is Flexible & Versatile.Images from CASTSome Tips for Differentiated Instruction Using TechnologyUse graphic organizers Make the text talk (text-to-speech) Find electronic textUse Word featuresUse portable word processorsUsing Graphic Organizers Why use graphic organizersTop three reasonsgenerate ideas (brain-storming, etc.)organize & display informationaid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledgeWhy use graphic organizersA few more reasonsassess understanding or diagnose misunderstandingcan increase recall design a complex structure (long texts, large web sites, etc.) or communicate complex ideasWho does it help?Students who benefit from seeing relationships between informationStudents who enjoy an interactive processFactors Influencing EffectivenessInstructional context: Graphic organizers can be effective learning tools when implemented within a substantive instructional context, particularly a interactive/collaborative approach involving teacher modeling, student-teacher discussion, and practice with feedback.Organization of Observations & IdeasVisual Organizers that allow text & images are good for seeing, reflecting and modifying students ideas & concepts and connections among themText to Symbols Ideas for graphic organizersWebbingConcept mappingMatrixFlow chartVenn diagramTime lineExamples within PBL ProcessAssessing Prior Knowledge around a problem (e.g KWHL)Setting Up the Problem (P/S Outline)Deciding on the Project (Spider Map) Students Choosing a Topic Setting Up the Problem/Quest Assessment e.g prior knowledge using KWHL ChartKWHL Chart Deciding On The Topic Setting up the problemExploring and InvestigatingBeginning Research (Compare & Contrast)Note Taking SummarizingMaking a Content Map Researching for Compare & Contrast AssessmentPre/Post (KWHL)SummarizingCreating a Rubric (Rubi Star)Demonstrating Understanding(Duck)Demonstrating understandingGraphic organizer generatorshttp://www.teach-ology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/http://cbss.uoregon.edu/clearing/index.html#Bonus: Visualization of ProcessesCommerical Visual ThesaurusMaking the Text TalkWhat is talking text?Words on the screen are read by the computer, on command. In some cases, the words need to be highlighted first.allows reading of individual words or phrases.works with word processors, websites, and more.often called text-to-speech.Who does it help?Those who could benefit from auditory input to support reading and finding informationStudents who struggle with the task of composing grammatically correct sentences; Those who could benefit from hearing omissions or inaccuracies in their work;What does research say?If a great deal of effort goes to sounding out words, energy for comprehension is reduced.Many students improve editing and proofreading.Hearing ones own words is rewarding and motivating.Using talking textin PBL as part of Exploration & Investigation researching information on the WWW /Internet read aloud to support different readersas a differentiation that allows a choice in how to access content PBL ExamplesGraphic Organizers (e.g Setting Up the Problem, Scaffolding audio word lists,)Word Processing (Product, Paper, Summary)WWWExploring and InvestigatingResearch on InternetLow tech- various books at different reading levels, interviewing different folks Internet read aloud can scaffold learning by providing a multi sensory access to content Supporting reading across the content areasAssessment/ReflectionGraphic organizer children explaining diagram Doing a Taking PowerPoint Presentation etcDemo: Life CycleGo to Web Site on Life CycleCopy and Paste Text from Web into Word Processing E.g. Text from the WWW brought into Simple Text and Read Aloud Change the font CAST Real Player Clip- Life CyclesHow to provide talking textMacintosh (10.3.1)Speech PreferencesFinder menu, System Preferences, Speech, Spoken User InterfacesSet Key to read highlighted text (Command plus L)Choice of voices & rate (under Default Voice)How to provide talking textMacintosh (10.2 or earlier)Download free utility called HearIthttp://www.ldresources.com/files/hearit.sea.hqxInstall as a control panel and restart.Set key combination (Hit Control plus \ to hear text.)(Select a key not frequently used by other software.)Works with highlighted text in any program Deselect text to stop the talking.(SimpleText also talks)AppleWorks talks, as wellOpen a Word Processing document. Highlight text and click lips or text to speech icon in the button bar.If there is no talking icon in the tool bar:Open Preferences, Available buttons, Word ProcessingDrag lips into button bar, click done.How to provide talking text Windows XP & 2000 - Free downloadsAlive Text http://www.alivemedia.net/textspeech.htm Text Aloud is another option, also with free download : http://www.nextup.com/TextAloud/download.htmlHow to provide talking text Microsoft Reader for Windows and the Text-to-Speech PackageWorks with Windows 98, 2000, EP, Mehttp://www.microsoft.com/reader/downloads/pc.aspCommercial productsNot free but can be worth the expense.Write OutLoud ($99 or less)IntelliTalk ($140 or less) (Free 45 day download)CAST ALL highlight sentence and word within sentence as it is readallow reading by letter, word, or sentenceallow correction of pronunciationhave other helpful features, e.g. talking dictionaryKidspiration talksThe Talking Interface reads menus, buttons, and other program elements on-screen. The Listen tool (Symbol of an ear) reads the words in their projects.The Record command (click Record on the Goodies menu) can record sounds so they can be attached to symbols or ideas to expand and reinforce learning. This allows a teacher to record instructions for students to use in an activity.KidPix talks, tooSpeech MenuRead Text AloudReads text entered with the keyboard, using typewriter keyText boxes will be read in order, top to bottomPick a VoiceDialog box with choice of voicesPreview to hear how each soundsClick OK to select a voiceUsing Digital Information -Electronic TextWhat is electronic text?Text stored as strings of characters.If you can select and change the font of text on the computer screen, its electronic text.Many books and historical documents have been converted to digital format, for access via computer.Why Use E Text ?Specifically, electronic documents are usually searchable, modifiable, and enhanceable For exampleVisual display can be varied Auditory display - good for pre-readingAllows embedding learning supports in contentPre-reading background, definitions Summary Key questionsAllows students to copy/paste, or otherwise manipulate the text.Who does it help?Those who have trouble reading standard print from booksThose who need additional information or supports placed immediately near the relevant text.Those who could benefit manipulating or interacting with the text.PBL: Different ways to engage with the contentCan be changed during use to meet the needs of the readerE-text often allows students to choose their own font and font sizeMay have features so students can add: their own documents and images to the bookor annotate the text with personal observations in the form of notes. Exploring and Investigating: SearchableHelpful if researching a topic in a large documentStudying variations in how something is treated by the author over time If searching a set of web pages, readers may receive a list specifying all matches for the desired word or phrase, thus allowing easier access to a single desired occurrence and easier comparison of multiple occurrences.UDL Design Rubric for reviewing digital mediaEnhanceableResources designed to enhance text use and comprehension can be embedded into an electronic book by the developers or by teachersResources support students' understanding of the text (e.g., definitions, explanations, pictures ) extend their learning (e.g., background information, primary source material, links to related documents (Note: different types of embedded resources have different functionsHow to find digital textHow to find digital textFree or almost free books onlineCAST e-Text Spider: Searches e-Text repositories that index public domain materials and are free of charge. http://www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm?i=1300 Benetechs BookShare, http://www.bookshare.org (Over 12,000 titles)Historical Source DocumentsWhen in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created Free Enhanced Books: Project INTERSECT Creating a set of digital books with a wide variety of resources to support comprehension, extend reading strategies, provide background information, improve content area achievement, and help students meet state standards.http://intersect.uoregon.edu/Free Enhanced Books: Project INTERSECTFree Enhanced Books: Project INTERSECTIts here now - online interactive text books Enhancing text: Prentice Hall Interactive Text Books http://www.phschool.com/ interactive textbook is the same trusted content with the same pagination as your print textbookHolt Online http://www.hrw.com/include printed version, interactive tutors, classroom management tools, tests, journals, audio files, video files, and additional activities that engage students in the subject matter. Selecting Digital Media via specialized search engines & directoriesSearch EnginesConsider Visual displays -Groker2 http://www.groxis.comKartoo http://kartoo.comNSDL http://nsdl.orgKids Search Tools http://www.rcls.org/ksearch.htmSelecting Digital Media directoriesMarcopolo http://marcopolo-education.orgWeb Questhttp://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/matrix.htmlHistorical Source DocumentsThe Library Of Congress American Memory Site http://memory.loc.gov/learnWhen in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created Word FeaturesComputer-generated summariesHow the text looks on the screenOther: Words Table Feature to make rubric,outline to make better topic choicesOrganization Chart - show 2 commons structures Using The Track Changes tool Annotation Feature for Peer editing and open dialoguePBL:Exploration & InvestigationBeginning Research Note Taking SummarizingMaking a Content MapExamples within PBL Process: Word Table Feature for Concept AttainmentDemo: MS Word- AutoSummarizeLife Cycle PBLAuto-SummarizeA tool that will highlight key sentences orextract key parts of a documentWhy?Pre-reading for meaningPost-reading to self-test or summarizeMS Word- AutoSummarizeHow to Auto-SummarizeTools, Auto-SummarizeDialog Box gives choices on: % or size of summaryMethod: highlight, summary on top, etc.Readability StatisticsChanging the display in WordFontSerif or sans-serif, size, and colorYellow text, serif fontYellow text, sans-serif fontBlue background, pink textWhyWhy: Greater clarity for students having difficulty readingHow: Preferences, General: blue background with white textConsider: Text in audio form CD-Rom or cassette tapes Student comprehension improves when material has been added to help identify and locate informationhelp organize informationhelp students self-assess their comprehensionUse portable word processorsWhy use portable word processors?Typing is easier than writing for some studentsWriting can be imported into other programs, for editing, enhancing, etc.Supports lesson plans that encourage cooperative learningHighly transportableWho does it help?Students who struggle with paper and pencilStudents who are motivated by technologyPBL:Exploring & InvestingFieldtrip/Interviewing Recording: Students or adults take notes on 3-4 AlphaSmarts, of what the group saw, did, and learned. Students can refer to these notes in writing up their experienceCollect dataStudents can use these to write their interview questions and use as a prompt or collect data or take notes about the interview.Bonus Hint: AlphaSmart with Co:WriterFrom the first letters students type, Co:Writer SmartApplet generates possibilities for the words they want. Words are based on spelling, grammar rules, context clues and vocabulary.Topic dictionaries give fast access to very specific words and phrases such as Queen of the Nile and Alexandria.The FutureSB 842 passedAccessible websites beginning in 2005.Accessible literature support online beginning with next adoption- 2009.Differentiated InstructionGreater ease of modification with respectful work for allCONTENTHow students access the information PROCESSWhat students do with the information to make sense of it PRODUCTSWhat students produce to demonstrate learningNext StepsWaiting until conditions are ideal or until you are [completely] sure of yourself yields lethargy, not growth.On the other hand, trying to do too many things before you have a chance to thinkthem through leads to frustration & failure.Tomlinson on DifferentiationNext StepsSet a goal for yourselfTry something & reflect on itWork together & share practiceLet us know how we can help"Who dares to teach must never cease to learn." - John Cotton DanaOnline Teacher Professional Resourceshttp://www.cast.org/tesRTEC & ATA:TipsLeaFE WestEd RTEC http://www.westedrtec.orgAlliance for Technology Access http://www.ataccess.orgWith differentiated instruction the learning is modified in three areas: content, process, and product. Differtination is a model of instruction that revolves around the belief that students learn in many different waysWhat: Content refers to the concepts, principles, and skills that the student is expected to learn. This may be state-approved curricula, scope and sequence charts, state or national standards, or the curriculum materialHow The process refers to the activities that students will engage in to make sense of the ideas and skills being taught. Strategies Assessment Product refers to the projects that allow students to demonstrate what they have learnedThere is a lot of variation in differentiated instruction. The teacher may not be able to change the content but can modify the presentationLearning styles are used in differentiated instruction to determine process and product.Differentiated instruction has as many faces as it has practitioners and as many outcomes as there are learners" (Pettig, 2000)When using problem-based learning, students are presented with a problem. They must determine what knowledge they need in order to solve the problem. Working as a group, they must then find the resources needed to gain the necessary understanding of the problem, find a solution to the problem, present the solution, and then revise the solution when given additional information. Thus, with problem-based learning, learning has a purpose. the philosophy is assessment prior i knowledge , choices in demonstrating understanding , formative assessments, creating learning environments that support Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences" (Willis and Mann, 2000).Choice is important Flexibility and ongoing "tweaking" of the processStrategies used in differentiated instruction are cooperative learning, multi-age grouping, and tiered activities. Without knowing it, we often throw roadblocks in the way of student learning, simply by using traditional, one-size-fits-all media and methods in our teaching. It can enhance the traditional one size fits all print medium notes; find suitable digital materials tied to standards and goals, thanks to ever-increasing online collections of digital resources, which provide high-quality materials ready to integrate into curriculumSoftware with adjustable features,using software you may already haveElectronic media are ideal for providing scaffolds in the context of learning. Features such as text-to-speech "translation" supports decoding so that learners can focus on strategic reading or content learning; spell checkers support mechanics so that learners can focus on expressing their ideas and improving their writing fluency; built-in calculators scaffold math facts so that learners can focus on mathematical reasoning. Ideally, scaffolds should be http://teachers.teach-nology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/venn_diagrams/optional and assignable to individual students, the better to accommodate individual progress and differences between learners. In his work Marzano analyzed the results of more than 100 research reports on instruction, involving more then 1.2 million subjects. Based on the meat analysis identified 9 categories of instruction that are mostly likely to lead to improving student learning. One of these is Non Linguistic Representations Classroom that works P73-74)http://www.graphic.org/goindex.htmlIdentifying Similarities & Differences include comparison tasks classifying tasks and metaphors and analogies.Generating and Testing Hypotheses effective as it requires students to apply their knowledge and thus deepen their understanding and revise knowledge maps http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2dogmo.htm includes a lesson plan http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htmA graphic organizer is an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or class's prior knowledge about a topic or section of text; specific examples include the K-W-L-H Technique and the Anticipation/Reaction Guide. Other organizers include the: The process of creating a spider diagram helps the student focus on the topic, requires the student to review what they already know in order to organize that knowledge, and helps the student to monitor their growing comprehension of the topic. It also helps point out the areas where the student must investigate more (where the web is hard to fill out). Identifying Similarities & Differences include comparison tasks classifying tasks and metaphors and analogies.Summarizing and Note taking requiring distilling information. The ability to summarize information in different ways deleting information that isnt critical to the overall meaning of the text. Note taking is similar deciding what is important - mapping allows thiisthat appeals to a number of students with learning difficulties, particularly difficulties associated with reading and writing text. In contrast to their efforts to produce text in the form of a test or report, many of these students demonstrate a high level of success when asked to draw or create a concept map of what they know.Symbol-rich maps are concept maps in which at least 70% of the nodes are something other than text (for example, a graphic element that either stands for, or augments the text).Instructional context: graphic organizers can be effective learning tools when implemented within a substantive instructional context, particularly a interactive/collaborative approach involving teacher modeling, student-teacher discussion, and practice with feedback.concept-formation tracking (Ditson, Kessler, Anderson-Inman & Mafit, 1998). Using this approach, students are asked to create concept maps at various stages in the learning process - prior to instruction and after each significant instructional activity. Because the concept map is electronic, it can be easily modified to reflect changes in the student's conceptual understanding over time (concept formation), even when those changes require a total reworking of the map. Using Technology to Individualize Reading Instruction by David Rose and Bridget Dalton, CAST, Inc. (2002). Using Technology to Individualize Reading Instruction. In C.C. Block, L. B. Gambrell & M. Pressley (Eds.), Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice (pp. 257-274). San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.)Talking text allows a student to select individual words that they may be having problems with and can support reading at a higher level. Emerging writers experience the connection between the spoken and written word from the writing perspective. NOTE Star allows teachers to create online research projects for their students. Students then can sue NoteStars features to take notes from online sources and organize their topic by topic and subtopic. Visual organizers that allow text and images a re a good tool for seeing, reflecting on and modifying students ideas and concepts and the connects among them. Many of the tools used for organizing may also be sued for individual and group reflection on design and eventual product for the project. See mutil sites and allow comment on the the same document. URL to encantedlearning.comFor internet text-to-speech, there are a few options ranging from cut and paste into the program to reading online. Different program offer different features. Just thought I'd mention that when my kids do research projects, we copy the entire contents of the web page (or sometimes just the relevant parts) into a Word document we create specifically for original source material. At the top page of every article, we paste in the URL of the web site so they can find the site later and so that they can use it in the bibliography Once you have the source material in a Word document, your child can use the highlight tool to mark the sentences/paragraphs that have the important information Then we copy the highlighted pieces into another document and that becomes a really rough working copy. We use the highlight tool (or an alternate text color - sometimes different colors for different sources) to indicate that the text is still in the author's original words Windows? Open a Word Processing Document, press the button with a triangle in the top left of the tool bar. Select Default and Visible at Start Up. Press the triangle button again and select Edit Button Bar. Select Default and Modify. From the pulldown menu, Button Categories, select Word Processing. Select Speak Text, a dialogue box will explain the function. Select Add, OK and Done.This causes the Plain Talk button to show up on your tool bar.After typing, select the text (either use the mouse to highlight or Open Apple key and the letter A at the same time.) Select as much of the text as you want read and select the Plain Talk button. Voice settings may be changed through the Speech Control Panelthe WebQuest model a constructivist lesson format50 Problem Solving Tips http://www.une.edu.au/psychology/staff/malouff/problem.htm#Introduction Electronic media are ideal for providing scaffolds in the context of learning. Features such as text-to-speech "translation" supports decoding so that learners can focus on strategic reading or content learning; spell checkers support mechanics so that learners can focus on expressing their ideas and improving their writing fluency; built-in calculators scaffold math facts so that learners can focus on mathematical reasoning. Ideally, scaffolds should be 1. Multiple modes of representation 2. Multiple modes of Expression 3. Multiple modes of EngagementBookshare fee: $50 per year plus $25 initial fee for individual, other deals for schoolsCopywrite books for students with identified reading problemsPrentice Hall Literary analysis plot, mood, theme, style, point of viewReading strategies questions about contentbreaking down complex sentencesmaking predictionsReview and assesscompare and contraststory mappingCarefully structured and scaffold investigations that contain some web sites help initiate search, questions and note taking guides for helping their data analyisi and a rubric of the quality of what they have foundWord processors can be excellent tools for summarizing . One approach is to delete information that isnt critical to the overall meaning of the text, substitute some information and keep some information.Students can easily delete words words and phases , view and revise text and make changers as needed. Almost all teachers have access to a word processor. Doing a unit on the Life Cycle to integrate summarizing and note taking using word features and web features, identifying similarities and differences using Venn Diagrams and using non linguistic representations using a graphic organizers Someone reads the text verbatim into a tape recorder and the teacher provides this tape to students who are reading below grade level. But though this process has been recommended as a way to provide student access, research has shown that without additional adaptations, the method by itself does not really help students improve their performance. When the tape provides special instructions that help the students find and organize the information within the chapter, and when the students review the information to self-assess what they know, then their comprehension has been shown to increase considerablyhttp://www.cec.sped.org/osep/ud-sec4.htmlERIC/OSEP Topical BriefFall 1998 Research: Measure scientific data Probes are wonderful tools for measuring all types of things. Students can download data from scientific probes to their computers or handhelds. Palm with free CC Probe ware from Concord Consortium as a data gathering tool. Research : Students may need to capture their research to use later . Digital Microscopes camera to take a picture of something micro organism . A digital camera record events . Digital voice records with speech recognition to record ideas or interviews then download their words to a word processor ltater. What Richard Wanderman loves about his Alphasmart:http://www.ldresources.com/articles/alphasmart_ld.htmlAfter or before slide 87 but in about publishers slides The companion Web site for Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age includes complete text and images from the print book with interactive Web resources that