Usability Study of an Online Mobile Apps Instructional ... ? Usability Study of an Online Mobile Apps

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  • UsabilityStudyofanOnlineMobileAppsInstructionalModuleforBusyInstructors

    CherylIrebaria

    UniversityofHawaiiatMnoaHonolulu,Hawaii

    UnitedStatesofAmericairebaria@hawaii.edu

    http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

    Abstract: Considering the accessibility of online educational applications, it is natural to assume that instructors incorporate them into their practice. However, lack of resourceawareness and time prevent instructors from learning about practical apps. To overcome these barriers, an online instructional module that succinctly shares useful information on how to use the Kahoot!, Blendspace, and PowToon apps was developed. These apps were selected because they offer instructors relief from the timeconsuming task of creating entirely new deliverables by providing readymade products that instructors can use. The purpose of this usability study was to assess the ease of use, learnability, and user satisfaction of the module before use with its target audience. Online resources such as PowToon and YouTube were used to develop content while the ARCS Model of Motivation and Gagnes Nine Events of Learning guided design and content organization. The testing sessions, which were recorded using Google Hangouts on Air and ScreencastOMatic 2, exposed navigation, structural, and language issues as participants engaged in specific tasks. At the end of each session, participants completed a survey that provided additional insight and recommendations for improvement. Two rounds of usability testing were done each round uncovered problem areas that were corrected to facilitate quicker navigation of the site. Revisions to the module resulted in a more intuitive and fluid experience. These positive gains lend support for the effectiveness of usability testing in meeting designobjectives.

    IntroductionInstructorsmaybetoooccupiedwiththedemandsoftheirprofessiontolookforandresearcheducationalappsthatcouldbeeffectivelyutilizedintheclassroom.Thisisunfortunatebecausethereisawealthoffreeappsthatwouldbenefitbothinstructorsandstudents.Whileitmaybeeasytoprovideinstructorswithlistsofappsthatcouldbeusedforinstruction,manydonothavethetimetoexploreandevaluateappsthatwouldbeappropriatefortheirindividualdisciplinesorfields.Thedevelopmentofamodulethatshowcasesuniversalandeffectivemobileapplicationswouldrelievethemofhavingtosiftthroughloadsofmobileappsjusttofindonesthatwouldsuittheirneeds.Theshorttermbenefitsofinstructorsexpandingtheirtoolboxwillbeadiversified

    mailto:irebaria@hawaii.edumailto:irebaria@hawaii.eduhttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

  • classroomandnewskillstoaddtotheirrepertoirethelongtermgoalisstudentswillbeexposedtonewappsandleavetheirlearningenvironmentequippedwiththe21stcenturyskillsandknowledgenecessarytonavigateaworldfloodedwithnewtechnologies.Thepurposeofthisusabilitystudyprojectistoevaluateanonlinemobileappsinstructionalmoduleforindividualswhoserveinanyteachingcapacity(e.g.,instructorsinthefieldsofbusiness,education,military,medicine,etc.)TheonlineMobileAppsforBusyInstructorsmodulepresentsthreeapplications:Kahoot!,Blendspace,andPowToon.Kahoot!isawebbased,gamebaseddigitalplatformthatemploystheuseofmobiledevicesasresponsesystemclickers.Inotherwords,studentscanusetheirmobiledevicestoanswerquestionsononlinequizzes(thatwerecreatedusingKahoot!).Blendspaceisaplaceonthewebatwhichinstructorscanstoreusefulinstructionalmaterialsandresourcesforstudentstoaccessoutsideofclass.Lastly,PowToonisanonlinevideoanimationapplicationthatcanbeusedtocreatedynamicvideos.LiteratureReviewOtherinstructionaldesignershavecreatedmodulesforprofessionaldevelopmentwhosetargetaudiencewaseducatorsinHawaiispublicschools.InastudyconductedbyresearchersLin,Iyoda,andHo(2011)teacherswereaskedwhattheywouldsuggesttootherteachersconsideringmobiletechnologyintheirclassroomsandthreethemesformedaroundcommonanswers:1)gettingteachersreadyformobileintegration,2)gettingtheschoolreadyformobileintegration,and3)gettingstudentsreadyformobilelearningtheseresultsrevealthat...formobilelearningtobesuccessful,theschoolsystem,teachers,andstudents,allneedtobereadyfordiverselearningenvironmentsthatsupportdigitalagelearningexperiences(ascitedinTsinakosandAlly,2013,p.223).Theexperiencesharedintheaforementionedstudyindicatesaneedforteachertraininginmobiletechnologies.Formoreadoptionandintegrationoftechnologytoolstooccur,itwilltakemorethanintroducingandbuildingawarenessofsuchtechnologiesprofessionaldevelopmentcoursesneedtobemadeavailablesoteacherswillhaveopportunitiestolearnhowtoeffectivelyusemobileappsandincorporatethemintotheirpractice.AstudyofschoolsnearSiliconValley,Californiashowedthateventhoughthoseschoolshadthetechnologyinfrastructuretosupportmeaningfuluseoftechnology,teachersdidnotusetechnologytoitsfullpotential(Richardson,Flora,&Bathon,2013).Thismeansthathavingtechnologytoolsatonesdisposaldoesnotensurethattheywillbeusedeffectivelytofacilitatelearningandencouragetheirintegrationintocurricula.Developmentofaninstructionalmodulethatguidesinstructorsandprovidesthemwithreadymadeideasforutilizingeducationalappswouldbeapurposefulstepintherightdirection.Thejustificationsforcreatinganonlinelearningmodule(insteadofconductingthecoursefacetoface)includemakinglearningconvenientforbusyinstructorsaswellas

  • promotingtheideasofmobilityandaccessibility,demonstratingtheusesoftechnology,andenhancinglearning.Whilenotcompletelyapplicabletothemobileappsmoduleduetoadifferenceintopicausabilitystudyforaninteractive,webbasedmoduleonmarketingconceptsfoundthatlearningthatinvolvesinteractingwithlessonspresentedonacomputerresultsinavaluableandmeaningfullearningexperience(GirardandPinar,2011).Anotherstudycorroboratesthepreviouslystatedsuggestionwithevidencecollectedfromfocusgroups,whichrevealthatintegrationoftechnologytoolsintheclassroomenhanceslearningandmayleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(Devlin,Feldhaus,andBentrem,2013).Researchsuggeststhatthereissupportfortheuseoftechnologytoolsinteachingandtheteachingoftechnologytools.ProjectDevelopmentThecreationofanonlinemodulewouldnotonlydemonstratetheusefulnessandvalueoftechnologiesbutalsomakelearningaccessibleforbusyinstructors.Toaddresstheissueofinstructorreluctancetointegratetechnology,aninstructionalmodulewasdesigned,developed,anddeliveredusingWix.comawebsitebuilderandhostsite.Theonlineinstructionalmodule(functionalprototype)canbeaccessedathttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule.Forinstructorswhoarelessfamiliarwithusingmobileappsorknowingwhatmobileappstouse,thisinstructionalmoduleprovidesideasandassiststheminintegratingtechnologyintotheirrespectivelearningenvironments.Essentially,therehavebeenthreeiterationsoftheinstructionalmodulebasedonthecomponentsoftheADDIEmodel(Boulet,2007).Ateverystageofdevelopment,therewasanevaluationoftheproductthatuncoveredareasthatneedimprovement.ThewebsitebuilderWix.comwasusedbecauseithasfeaturesthatallowonetoeditthewebsiteinmobileviewforoptimalviewingonamobiledevicetheresultisamodulesitethatisbothviewableonacomputerandmobiledevices.Wixisalsouserfriendly,allowinganyonewithnocodingexperiencetobuildawebsiteusingthedraganddropfeaturetoaddimages,videos,buttons,andtextboxestoawebpage.Also,unlikeotherwebsitebuilderplatforms,itprovidesmorefreedomintermsofpagedesignverticalmenus,forexampleandhasaverylargelibraryoffreeimages(seeAppendixE).TheADDIEmodelsystemsapproach(Analysis,Design,Development,Implementation,andEvaluation)framedmoduledevelopmentandtheARCSModelofmotivationaldesignguidedcontentdevelopmentanddelivery(Boulet,2007Keller,1999).ItmaybethatparticipantswillnotnoticethedifferentelementsoftheARCSModel,butthemodulelessonsdofollowthesuggestedcomponentsofAttention,Relevance,Confidence,andSatisfaction.Initsentirety,theinterfaceandcontentoftheinstructionalmodulearelooselycraftedaccordingtoGagnesNineEventsofInstructioninrelationtomultimediainterfacedesign.Forexample,selectiveuseofcolorsandabalancedscreendesigncanhelpgainandkeeptheattentionaswellasdirecttheattentionofthelearner(seeFigure1andFigure2).Screendesigncanbestructuredinawaythatgainstheattentionofthestudent(Deubel,2003).Inaddition,Stemler(1997)foundthatchunked

    http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

  • informationimprovesscreendesign(ascitedinDeubel,2003).NoticetheseparationsandchunkingofinformationinFigure1.

    Figure1.ScreenshotoftheHomePageInthesamearticle,itisalsostatedthatwhennavigationalelementssuchasmenusandbuttonsareconsistentlyandpurposefullyplacedthroughoutaprogramitprovidesstructureand,inturn,giveslearnerscontrol,whichleadstoconfidence(Deubel,2003).Advicefromexpertswastakenintoconsiderationinthedesignoftheonlinemodulefunctionalprototypesuchas:Designersshouldthinkastheusertodesignamobilelearningexperiencethatisusercentered,objectsonapageshouldbeorganizedandconsistentthroughoutsothatuserscanrealizethepatterninwhichinformationissharedandpresented(Forni,2012,2014).Theconceptsofchunking,consistency,andcuesaredemonstratedonthesitetomakeitasuserfriendlyandassimpleaspossible(Figure2).Additionally,havingaconsistentandpredictabledesignthroughoutbuildsuserconfidenceandcomfortinnavigationofthesite.

    Figure2.Sidebysidecomparisonoftwomodulelessonsthatillustratesconsistency.

  • MethodsTheresearchersentoutanemail,contactedprospectsviaphone,andapproachedpotentialrecruitsinpersonwithinformationaboutthestudy.Sixinstructorsagreedtoparticipateintheusabilitystudy.Allparticipantsarefemaleadults.Theiryearsofteachingexperience,age,knowledgeofonlinetools,andleveloftechnologyskillsvary.Thestudywasconductedintworounds,threeparticipantsperround.Agedistributionsforeachroundareasfollows:Round1,6170(33%)and3140(66%)andRound2,1830(33%),4150(33%),3140(33%).

    Figure3.Agerangeofusabilitystudyparticipants.Participantsofthisstudyareinstructorsemployedindifferentfields(e.g.,themilitary,business,education,etc.).Ofthosewhoareinstructorsineducation,twoareteachersandoneisatechnologycoordinatortheotherparticipantsholdadministrativerolesintheirrespectivefieldsbusiness,retail,andthemilitary.Breakdownperround:Round1,Militaryadministrator(33%),Retailadministrator(33%),andEducationteacher(33%)Round2,Businesssupervisor(33%),Educationteacher(33%),andEducationtechnologycoordinator(33%).

    Figure4.Professionsofusabilitystudyparticipants.

  • Toinforminstructionaldesign,webdevelopment,andfutureiterationsoftheMobileAppsonlineinstructionalmodule,theusabilitystudysoughttoanswerthefollowingresearchquestions:

    1. Howdifficultisitforinstructorstonavigatethroughouttheinstructionalmodulewebsite?

    2. Howdifficultisitforinstructorstobecomefamiliarwiththeorganizationorstructureofthewebsite?

    Tasksandscenariosbasedontheresearchquestionsweredevelopedtohelpidentifynavigational,organizational,structural,andgeneralfunctionalityissueswiththewebsite.

    Table1.TasksandScenarios

    Beforetheusabilitytestingsessionwasinitiated,participantswereinformedofthepurposeofthestudy,method,timerequiredtoparticipate,andpotentialrisksandbenefits,revealedinaconsentform(seeAppendixA).Participationwasvoluntaryandinformedconsentwasobtainedbeforeparticipantsproceededwiththeusabilitysession.ToevaluatetheMobileAppsforBusyInstructorsonlineinstructionalmodule,participantsengagedintheusabilitystudyinoneoftwoways:1)ModeratedcompletelyonlineviaGoogleHangoutsonAir,withtheresearcherandparticipantusingtheirowncomputersandInternetconnectiontoconductthestudyatamutuallyagreedupontimeor2)Moderatedinpersonatamutuallyagreedupontimeandlocation,usingacomputerandInternetconnectionprovidedbytheresearcher.Foronlineandinpersontests,participantswereaskedtonavigatetheonlineinstructionalmoduleandtothinkoutloudwhiledoingso.Theresearcherpresentedtotheparticipantsscenariostoexploredifferentcomponentsofthesite.Astheparticipantscompletedtasks(forthescenarios)theywereaskedtoverbalizetheirthoughts(SeeTable1).TheprotocolwasbasedlargelyontheoutlineprovidedinSteveKrugsworkRocketSurgeryMadeEasy:TheDoItYourselfGuidetoFindingandFixingUsabilityProblems(2009)(seeAppendixD).Screen

  • activityandaudiowererecorded,butnorecognizableimagesoftheparticipantswerecaptured.AtoolcalledScreencastOMatic2wasusedtorecordactivityandcommentaryduringinpersonusabilitytestingsessions.Foronlinesessions,GoogleHangoutsonAirrecordedverbalandscreenactivity.RecordingswereautomaticallypublishedtoYouTubeattheendofeverysession.Allrecordingsweredownloadedontoapasswordprotectedcomputerforsafekeeping,thendeletedfromYouTube.Thecreationofaninstructionalpackageandexecutionofusabilitytestingofthemoduletookapproximately20weekstocomplete.Beforeparticipantstestedthefunctionalprototype,itunderwentanevaluationofpeersduringFallsemester2015,andchangesweremadeaccordingtofeedback.TheactualusabilitystudytookplaceduringthebeginninghalfofSpringsemester2016.Therewasatotalofsixparticipantsforofficialusabilitytestingthisnumberwasneededtogathersufficientdatatoascertainsevereissues.Informationgatheredfromthefirstroundofusabilitytestingwasusedtoimprovethesiteandmakeexploringitasintuitiveaspossible.Revisionsweremadebeforethesecondroundofusabilitytesting.Evaluationoftheinstructionalmodule,analysis,andrevisiontookapproximately10weekstocomplete.ResultsAnonlineprestudysurveygathereddataondemographicsandinstructorsselfperceptionwithrespecttotechnologyuseandintegration(seeAppendixB).Basedonprestudysurveydata,allparticipantsarecomfortablewithusingcomputers,tablets,andsmartphonesandusetheInternetonadailybasis.AllbutoneparticipantselectedNeutralonitemspertainingtocomfortwithusingtheInternetforprofessionaldevelopmentandintegrationofmobiletechnologyintoherpractice.Attheconclusionofeachusabilitytestingsession,anonlinepoststudysurveywasadministered.Openendedquestionsonthesurveygatheredadditionalfeedbackonhowthemodulecanbeimproved(seeAppendixC).Likertscaleitemswereusedtomeasureeaseofuse,learnability,andusersatisfaction.Degreeofagreementwasmeasuredusinga5pointscale(5StronglyAgree,4Agree,3Neutral,2Disagree,and1StronglyDisagree).Theresearcherconsideredincludingquestionsregardingcourseeffectivenessinpromotingtechnologyintegrationandbuildingfamiliaritywithtechnologytoolsbutdecidedtheywerenotpertinenttotheusabilitystudybecauseparticipantswouldnotbeabletoactuallytakethecourseduringthesession.BothpreandpostsurveyswerecreatedusingGoogleFormsforquickrevisionandseamlessdatacollection.DatafromthesurveyswerecompiledautomaticallyinaGoogleSheet.Fromthere,theresearchercleanedandorganizedthedataforstatisticalpurposes.QuantitativedatageneratedmainlyfromLikertscaleitemsweresummarizedusingdescriptivestatistics.XLMinerAnalysisToolpak,anonlineGoogleSheetsaddon,analyzedthedatatoproducemeansandstandarddeviationsforeachsurveyitem.Thestatisticsprovidedmeaningfulinsightsandsuggestedrecommendationsforimprovingmoduledesign.

  • ThepoststudyresultsforEaseofUsesurveyitemsrevealthatparticipantsofthesecondround(comparedtoparticipantsofthefirstround)didnotfindthesiteeasytouse(Figure3).Thefollowingstatements,LinksareeasytoidentifyandThemodulehasacleanandsimplepresentationscoredlowerforRound2.Oddly,thestatement,Thewebsitewaseasytonavigatehadahighermeanthesecondtimearound.Timewilltellamoreobjectivestory.

    Figure5.Round1vs.Round2ComparisonsforEaseofUsesurveyitems(5pointLikertScale)Round2participantshadaneasierexperiencenavigatingthroughthewebsitetheyexploredthesitewithlesspromptingand,generally,completedscenariotasksinlesstimecomparedtoparticipantsinRound1.

    Table2.TimeResultsforScenarioCompletionByRound

    Note.n=6.Valuesrepresenttimeinminutesandseconds.

  • Thepostresultsforlearnabilityaremoredefinite(Figure4).Round2participantsexpressedhigherlevelsofagreementwithsurveystatementscomparedtotheirRound1counterparts.However,thisdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatthesitewasdifficultforRound1participantstolearn.Itwasfoundthatuserscouldeasilylearnhowtonavigatethesitewhengivenenoughtimetoexplore.ARound1participantmentionedthatafterspendingagooddealoftimeclickingthroughthesite(asshecompletedthetaskforScenario1),shebecameacquaintedwithitsorganizationthisincreasedherabilitytocompletetheremainingtwoscenarioswithease.Nonetheless,revisionstothemoduleafterRound1producedafavorableoutcome.NotonlydidittakeparticipantsofRound2lesstimetocompletescenarios,butalsonotmuchtimewasnecessarytobuildfamiliaritywiththesite.

    Figure6.Round1vs.Round2ComparisonsforLearnabilitysurveyitems(5pointLikertScale)Evenwiththechangestothefirstiteration,participantsofRound2showedthesamelevelofusersatisfactionasparticipantsofRound1.Whiletherewasnomarkedimprovementinusersatisfactionratings,they,onaverage,remainedpositive(Figure).Allsixparticipantsexpressedhighagreementwiththestatement,Iwouldconsiderparticipatinginanonlineinstructionalmoduleinthefuture,whichmeansthattheirexperiencewiththeMobileAppsinstructionalmodulecertainlydidnotintimidatethem.Thestandarddeviationforbothroundswas0.577thisindicatesthatthelevelsofagreementofallrespondentswerenotspreadoutandtherewasverylittlevariance.Theresultsmaybeexplainedbyuserperceptionandgoestoshowthatonessubjectiveopinionmaynotcoincidewithobjectiveperformanceresults.

  • Figure7.Round1vs.Round2ComparisonsforUserSatisfactionsurveyitems(5pointLikertScale)Qualitativedataweregatheredfromcommentaryonrecordingsofusabilitytestingsessionsandfeedbackfromthepostsurveytheywereorganizedaccordingtotopicsotargetareascouldbeidentifiedandimprovedforfuturelearners.

    Table3.SummaryofConcernsandConsiderationsforRound1

  • Round1participantsrevealedmanyareasofweaknessnamely,navigation.Thereweretoomanyoptionsinthesubmenuandthisfrustratedparticipantswhowerenotfamiliarwithcomponentsofalesson.ARound1participantsresponsetohowthemodulecouldbeimprovedwas,Lessoptionstonavigatethrough.IfeltlikeIthoughtbackandforthwiththemanyoptionsavailable.Iwasabitconfusedhavingaccesstothesameoptionfromtwodifferentmenus.AsRound1participantstriedtocarryoutscenarios,theyalmosthaphazardlyexploredthemultiplemenuoptions.Simplechangesweremadetothesitetomakenavigationlessstressful.ComparisonsofnavigationmenuscanbeseeninFigures6and7.

    Figure8.OriginalMobileAppsforBusyInstructorsHomePage

    Figure9.SeconditerationofMobileAppsforBusyInstructorsHomePageandmenuwithnosubmenureveal.Linkstomodulelessonsconsolidatedononepage.

  • Terminologychangesalsomadeadifferenceinthetimeittookforparticipantstofindwhatthescenariorequiredofthem.Forexample,whenRound1participantsweregiventhesituationinwhichtheyhadtofindassignmentrequirements,theystruggledtocompletethescenariobecausetheydidnotrealizethatTaskissynonymouswithAssignment,and,tomakemattersmorecomplicated,theTasklinkswerehiddeninthesubmenusforeachmodulelesson.WhenRound2participantsweregiventhesamescenario,theyknewexactlywheretogobecauseadirectlinkwasprovidedinthenavigationmenu.ThetermInstructionwasalsovague.WhenRound1participantswereaskedtofindhelpproducingananimatedvideo,theyskippedoverInstructionandsearchedothermodulelessonpagesforhelp.Asaresultofthisfinding,InstructionwaschangedtoHowTo.Furthermore,theverbiageintheprotocolconfusedtheRetailparticipantbecausethescriptreadProductrequirementsandthatledhertothinkofmerchandise,notanassignment.Thefirstiterationwastweakedtocreateamoreuserfriendlyandconduciveinterface(seeAppendixEforacomparisonofiterations).Afterissuesfromthefirstroundwerefixed,anotherissuearoseinthesecondround:Participantsdidnotalwaysscrollthefulllengthofthepage.Afterreviewingtherecordings,itwasapparentthatparticipantsdidnottakethetimetoreadcontenteventhoughnoneofthemweregiventimelimitsortimegoals.

    Table4.SummaryofConcernsandConsiderationsforRound2

    Theresearchermaderevisionstotheinstructionalmoduleafterthesecondroundtocreateyetanotheriteration.Thethirditerationincludedtheadditionofa3minutewelcomevideoonthehomepagethatexplainshowtonavigatethesite.Keypointsofthevideoemphasizedscrollingtheentirepagetoviewalltheinformationthepageprovides,usinglinks(toaccessIntroduction,HowTo,andAssignment)atthetopofalessonpagetonavigatewithinamodulelesson,andusinganchorlinksthatwouldallowtheusertoskiptoacertainpointinthepage(seeAppendicesEthroughItoviewchanges).DiscussionTherewillalwaysberoomforimprovement.Evaluationofeveryiterationuncoveredmoreissuesthatrequiredrevision.Whendevelopinganinstructionalmodulethatismeantforarangeofprofessionals,itisimportanttoconsidertheircurrentknowledgethendesignaninterfacethatfacilitatesthelearningofwhattheyneedtoknowto

  • successfullyusethesite(Spool,2005).ThefirstiterationoftheMobileAppsforBusyInstructorsinstructionalmodulewas,forthemostpart,tooconfusingforparticipantstonavigateefficientlyandeffectively.Themanyoptionsfornavigationmadeitextremelydifficultforparticipantstobecomefamiliarwiththestructureofthesite.Itwasalsodiscoveredthatthelanguageusedonthesiteandintheprotocolwasunfamiliartoindividualsoutsideofeducationtermssuchasdeliverable,instruction(meaninglessonorteaching),andrubricaretechnicaljargonthatisnotfamiliartopeoplefromoutsideofthefieldofeducation.Moreresearchintoprotocollanguageshouldbeconductedtodeterminethebestapproachforusabilitystudiesinvolvingindividualswithdiversebackgroundsandknowledge. Itisalsopossiblethatresearcherinterventionorpresenceandcircumstancecouldhaveimpactedtheperformanceofparticipants.Anecdotally,whenuseractivitywasnotbeingrecorded,participantshadexpressedthatdespitethereassurancethatthesitewasbeingtestednotthem,theystillfeltslightpressuretoperformwell.Itwasfoundthatinterventioncausesparticipantstobehaveacertainwayandincreasesthelikelihoodofevaluatorbias(Zhao,McDonald,&Edwards,2014).Thispresentsachallengeandlimitationtocollectingreliabledata.However,thesignificantdifferencesinthetimeittooktocompletetasksbetweenRounds1and2indicatethatchangesmadetothesiteprobablycontributedtothebetterperformanceofRound2participants. ConclusionIfinstructorsavoidlearningabouttechnologytoolsandintegratingthemintotheirprojectsorpractice,theirlearnerswillnotbeexposedtothem.Educatorshaveagreaterresponsibilitytopreparethemselvesandtheirlearnersforthe21stcentury.Todothis,theymustprepareatoolboxofappsandtechtoolssotheyareequippedtodifferentiateandengagelearnersateverystageofinstructionand,intheprocess,demonstratefortheirlearnershowproductivitytoolscanbeutilizedeffectivelytoproduceahighqualityproductorperformance.Inthisquesttospreadknowledgeofmobileandsoftwareapplications,twobarriersthatmaybemostwithinourcontroltoovercomearelackoftimeandlackofnecessaryknowledgeandskills(Chen&Miller,1997Hew&Brush,2007Pritchett,C.G.,Pritchett,C.C.,&Wohleb,2013).Thedevelopmentofonlineinstructionalmodulesthataresuccinct,straightforward,andstressfreemaybethekeytoattractinstructorswhoarereluctanttoengageinprofessionaldevelopment.Othermotivatingfactorsthatdesignersshouldconsidertogetteacherstoexploreprofessionaldevelopmentsitesincludeappearanceofthesite,easeofuse,andthequalityandusefulnessoftheinformationbeingpresented(Beach&Willows,2014).Withonlinelearning,instructorswillhavethefreedomtoaccessmeaningfulknowledgeasynchronously,attheirownconvenience.Additionally,tomakelearningoptimalandeffectiveforbusyprofessionals,itiscrucialtomakelearningasnaturalaspossibleandempowerthemtotakeownershipoftheirlearning.

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  • AppendixAConsentFormtoParticipateinUsabilityStudy

    ConsentForm

    UniversityofHawai'iConsenttoParticipateinUsabilityStudy:

    MobileAppsInstructionalModuleAlohaandWelcome!MynameisCherylIrebaria.IamagraduatestudentintheLearningDesignandTechnologyProgramattheUniversityofHawaiiatMnoa.Asafulfillmentforthisprogram,Iamconductingausabilitystudy.Thepurposeofthisusabilitystudywillbetoevaluatetheeaseofuse,learnability,andusersatisfactionofanonlinemobileappsinstructionalmoduleforinstructorsofanyprofession.ThemobileappsincludedinthemoduleareKahoot!,afreewebbased,gamebaseddigitallearningplatformandstudentresponsesystemBlendspace,aspaceonlineatwhichresourcescanbeconsolidatedforlearnersandPowToon,animationsoftwarethatcanbeusedtocreateanimatedvideopresentations.Youarebeingaskedtoparticipateinthisresearchstudybecauseyouareanadultwhoseprofessionrequiresyoutodelivertrainingorinstruction.Themoduleisbeingdevelopedforindividualslikeyou.Yourparticipationinthisstudywillhelpdeterminehowthemodulecanbeadjustedtoimproveuserexperience.ProjectDescriptionActivitiesandTimeCommitmentParticipationinthisstudywillinvolvethreeactivities:1)Takingapreinstructionsurvey,2)Goingthroughanonlineinstructionalmodule,and3)Completingapostinstructionevaluation.ParticipationwillbecompletelyonlinethroughaGoogleHangoutwiththeresearcherorusingyourowncomputerandInternetconnectionorinpersonusingacomputer(provided)andInternetconnectionatamutuallyagreeduponlocation.Ifyouparticipate,youwillbeaskedtonavigatethroughthemoduleandbepresentedwithscenariostoencourageinteractionwiththesite.ThesequestionsareintendedtoevaluatetheeaseofuseandlearnabilityoftheMobileAppsonlinemodule.Youwillbeaskedtothinkoutloudasyounavigatethiswillassistresearchersingainingfurtherinsightsintouserexperience.Youractionsandverbalcommentswillbescreencapturedandrecorded.Theusabilitystudywillbeginwithapresurveytocollectdemographic,attitudinal,andskillleveldata.Participantswillthenmoveontoexploringthelearningmodule.Thestudywillconcludewiththecompletionofapostsurveythatincludesquestionsaboutoverallusersatisfactionwiththemodule.Theentirestudyshouldtake3045minutes.BenefitsandRisksThebenefitsofparticipatinginthisusabilitystudyincludegainingexposureknowledgeofdynamicwebbasedtechnologytoolsinyourpracticeandgainingpracticaltakeawaysforimmediateuse.Thereisminimalriskinparticipatinginthisproject.Thesurveysinthemoduleandthestudyitselfarenotmeanttomeasureindividualabilityorperformancetheyaremeanttoevaluatetheusabilityoftheonlineinstructionalmodule.

  • VoluntaryParticipationParticipationinthisresearchstudyisvoluntary.Asaparticipant,youhavefullauthoritytodiscontinueyourparticipationinthisprojectatanytimebynotifyingtheresearcher.Therewillbenopenaltyorlossofbenefits.Ifyoudoagreetoparticipate,youcanstopatanytime.Pleasereadtheinformationinthisconsentformthoroughlybeforeconsentingtoparticipateinthisstudy.Printacopyofthisconsentformforyourrecordsandfuturereference.ConfidentialityandPrivacyYourparticipationwillbecompletelyanonymous.Allinformationwillbekeptinasafeplace.OnlymyUniversityofHawaiiadvisorandIwillhaveaccesstotheinformation.Otheragenciesthathavelegalpermission,suchastheUniversityofHawaiiHumanStudiesProgram,havetherighttoreviewresearchrecordsforthisstudy.WhenIreporttheresultsofmyresearchproject,Iwillnotuseyourname.Iwillnotusepersonalinformationthatcanidentifyyou,andwillreportmyfindingsinawaythatwillprotectyourprivacyandconfidentiality.RighttoAskQuestionsPleasecontactCherylIrebaria(researcher)atirebaria@hawaii.eduwithquestionsorconcernsaboutthisstudy.ForanyotherquestionsorconcernsyoumaycontactadvisorDr.PeterLeongatpeterleo@hawaii.edu.Ifyouhavequestionsaboutyourrightsasaresearchparticipant,youmaycontacttheUHHumanStudiesProgramat808.956.5007oruhirb@hawaii.edu.Tothosewillingtoparticipate,pleasefillouttheStatementofConsent(below)andclick"Submit."Onceyouaredone,proceedtothePreInstructionSurveybyclickingonthe"TakePreSurvey"buttonattheverybottom. Ifyoudonotwishtoparticipateinthestudybutwanttocontinuewiththemodule,youmayskiptheStatementofConsentandclickonthe"BeginModule"button(atthebottomofthescreen).

    StatementofConsent*RequiredIunderstandthatIcanchangemymindaboutbeingintheprojectatanytimebynotifyingtheresearcher.*oYesoNoIunderstandthatmyactionsandverbalresponsesduringthestudywillberecordedandonlytheresearcherwillaccesstheaudiorecording.oYesoNoMysignaturebelowindicatesthatIunderstandtheinformationprovidedintheconsentform("ConsenttoParticipateinUsabilityStudy:MobileAppsInstructionalModule")andIagreetoparticipateinthisusabilitystudy.Typeyourfullname.(FirstandLast)Date(mm/dd/yyyy)

  • AppendixBPreStudySurvey

    https://goo.gl/zuXfXD

    https://goo.gl/zuXfXD

  • AppendixCPostStudySurvey

    https://goo.gl/2z8TNn

    https://goo.gl/2z8TNn

  • AppendixDUsabilityStudyProtocol

    UsabilityProtocolName:CherylIrebaria

    ModifiedfromUsabilityScriptRocketSurgeryMadeEasy2010SteveKrug

    TechnologySetUpChecklist(FacilitatorComputer)

    1.Facilitatorshouldsetuphis/hercomputerandattachallcords/peripheralsmakesuretouseawiredmouse

    2.Plugintoapoweroutlet(donttrustthebattery)3.MakesurecomputerisconnectedtotheInternet4.Setupaudioandtestheadsettesta.Ensurethemicrophoneisworkingb.Ensurethevolumeisatareasonablelevel5.LogintoFacilitatorGoogleaccount6.Contactparticipantandaskifparticipantscomputerissetupandparticipantisready.7.Forinpersonsessions,ensureScreencastOMatic2islaunched,set,andoperating. AfterParticipantcomputerissetup:(Doesnotapplytoinpersonsessions)

    8.FacilitatorinvitesparticipanttoaGoogleHangoutsonAir.9.FacilitatorcanaccessGoogleHangoutsonAirthroughGoogle+byclickingonthe

    greenquotationsiconandenteryourinvitationtotheparticipant.10.ParticipantcantestifGoogleHangoutsonAirisworkingwithhis/herGmailaccount:

    a.StartingfromGmail,askparticipanttoclickonhis/herphotoiconnexttohis/hernameinthechatareatoseeGoogleHangoutonAirpreferences.Ifparticipantisloggedin,oncehe/sheclickspicture,HangoutInvitesshouldappearinthedropdownmenubelowyourphoto.Thisistheinvitationtoparticipateinthestudy.

    11.RunatestwithGoogleHangoutsonAirandtestvideo/audioandscreensharea.Ifitdoesnotwork,thenreviewpreparationofFacilitatorscomputerforGoogleHangoutsonAirandretest:

    i.EnsurethatyouarerunningtheChromebrowserforbestresultsii.EnsureyouhavethecurrentGoogleVoiceandVideoSetuppluginiii.RunatestbroadcastinGoogleHangoutsonAirtolinkyourYouTubeaccount.Youwillneedtoprovideyourcellphoneoremailforverification.

    TechnologySetUpChecklist(ParticipantComputer)12.Participantsetsupcomputerandattachallcords/peripheralsmakesuretousea

    wiredmouse13.Plugintoapoweroutlet(donttrustthebattery)14.MakesurecomputerisconnectedtotheInternet

  • 15.Setupaudioandtestheadsettesta.Ensurethemicrophoneisworkingb.Ensurethevolumeisatareasonablelevel

    16.LogintoParticipantGoogleaccount(https://plus.google.com/)17.Waitforfacilitatortocontactaskingifready18.Whencontacted,facilitatorwillsendinvitationforGoogleHangoutsonAir19.AcceptinvitationthroughGoogleHangouts.

    a.HowtotestifGoogleHangoutsisworkingwithyourGmailaccount:i.StartingfromGmail,clickonyourphotoiconnexttoyournamein

    thechatareatoseeyourGoogleHangoutpreferences.Ifyouareloggedin,onceyouclickyourpicture,HangoutInvitesshouldappearinthedropdownmenubelowyourphoto.Thisisyourinvitationtoparticipateinthestudy.

    ii.YoucanalsoaccessGoogleHangoutthroughGoogle+byclickingonthegreenquotationsiconandenteryourinvitationtotheparticipant.

    20.RunatestwithFacilitatorcomputerthroughGoogleHangoutsonAir.a.Ifitdoesnotwork,thenreviewpreparationofparticipantcomputerfor

    GoogleHangoutsonAirandretest:i.EnsurethatyouarerunningtheChromebrowserforbestresultsii.EnsureyouhavethecurrentGoogleVoiceandVideoSetuppluginiii.RunatestbroadcastinGoogleHangoutsonAirtolinkyour

    YouTubeaccount.Youwillneedtoprovideyourcellphoneoremailforverification.

    21.AddbookmarkfortheURLofthewebsiteyouareevaluating.Notesitemstocheck(forremotesessions)

    MutemicandturnvideooffofotherparticipantssodoesnottogglebackandforthGoogleHangoutswillrecordscreenshareandparticipantsvoices

    Activemicswillbetheparticipantandfacilitator Canusewithmultiplescreens Usebroadcastnow Ifconnectionfails,clickonHangoutsicontologbackintothecall

    FacilitatorScript

    STARTtheGoogleHangoutsAirSessionbyclickingontheredbuttonlabeledStartbroadcastORScreencastOMaticbyclickingonredrecordbuttonlabeledRec.

    Hi,[insertparticipantsname].Mynameis[insertfacilitatorsnameCherylIrebaria]andImgoingtobewalkingyouthroughthissessiontoday.

    Beforewebegin,Ihavesomeinformationforyou,andImgoingtoreadittomakesurethatIcovereverything.

    https://plus.google.com/

  • SinceIrecruitedyoutoparticipate,youprobablyalreadyhaveagoodideaofwhyyouarehere,butletmegooveritagainbriefly.Iamaskingpeopletoviewanonlineinstructionalmodule.Iwouldliketoseeifitworksasintended.Thesessionshouldtakeabout10minutes.

    ThefirstthingIwanttomakeclearrightawayisthatImtestingthesite,notyou.Youcantdoanythingwronghere.Infact,thisisprobablytheoneplacetodaywhereyoudonthavetoworryaboutmakingmistakes.

    Asyouusethesite,Imgoingtoaskyouasmuchaspossibletotrytothinkoutloud:tosaywhatyourelookingat,whatyouretryingtodo,andwhatyourethinking.Thiswillbeabighelptome.

    Also,pleasedontworrythatyouregoingtohurtmyfeelings.Imdoingthistoimprovethesite,soIneedtohearyourhonestreactions.

    Ifyouhaveanyquestionsaswegoalong,justaskthem.Imaynotbeabletoanswerthemrightaway,sinceIminterestedinhowpeopledowhentheydonthavesomeonewhocanhelp.ButifyoustillhaveanyquestionswhenweredoneIlltrytoanswerthem.

    Andifyouneedtotakeabreakatanypoint,justletmeknow.Doyouhaveanyquestionssofar?

    Askparticipantafewpreliminaryquestions:

    OK.Beforewelookatthesite,Idliketoaskyoujustafewquickquestionsaboutyourexperienceasaninstructor.

    1.Howmanyonlinecourseshaveyoutakenbefore?

    2.Now,roughlyhowmanyhoursaweekaltogetherjustaballparkestimatewouldyousayyouspendusingtheInternet,includingWebbrowsingandemail,atworkandathome?

    2.1.Andwhatsthesplitbetweenemailandbrowsingaroughpercentage?

    2.2.WhatkindsofsitesareyoulookingatwhenyoubrowsetheWeb?

    2.3.DoyouhaveanyfavoriteWebsites?

    3.HaveyoueverusedWixwebsitebuilderbeforeeitherviewingasiteormakingoneofyourown?

    3.1.Ifso,howfrequentlydoyouuseit?

    4.Haveyoueverbuiltorhelpededitawebsite?

  • 4.1.Ifso,whatprogramorsoftwaredidyouuse?

    OK,great.Weredonewiththequestions,andwecanstarttestingoutthesite.AskparticipanttoopenURL.[REMOTE]ImgoingtosendyouthewebsitelinkviathechatboxonGoogleHangouts.Togettothechat,clickontheblueicononthetopleft.

    PleaseclickonthelinkthatpopsupinthechatboxontherightofGoogleHangouts.

    SendparticipantURLforwebsitetobeevaluated:

    http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappkahootORhttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

    Startthetimer(keeptrackofthetime)

    Askparticipanttobeginthescreenshare:PleasestartScreensharebyclickingontheScreensharelinkonyourlefthandnavigationintheGoogleHangoutsonAirwindow.Apopupwindowwillappearwiththreeoptions:EntireScreen,Google+Hangouts,andtheWebsite.Selectthewebsite.[F2F]Imgoingtoopenthewebsitelinktotheonlineinstructionalmodule.Haveparticipantsdoanarrativeofthewebsitesoverallappearancethreeorfourminutes,atmost:Imgoingtoaskyoutolookatthispageandtellmewhatyoumakeofit:Justlookaroundanddoalittlenarrative.Youcanscrollifyouwantto,butdontclickonanythingyet.1)Whatstrikesyouaboutit?2)Whosesitedoyouthinkitis?3)Whatcanyoudohere?4)Whatisitfor?Onlyaskthesequestionsifyouneedmorenarrativeandhavetime.ProbeQuestionsifneedtogetmorenarrative:WhatyoucanlearnfromtheWhatcanyougatheraboutthesiterightaway?Toppartofthesite?Leftsideofthesite?Middlepartofthesite?Rightsideofthesite?

    http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappkahoothttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodulehttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

  • Askparticipanttocompleteafewspecifictasksbasedoffoftheirscenariossheet:Scenarios(presentinchatboxoneatatime)PresentscenarioswithnumbersinthechatboxTASK1:Navigatethewebsitetofindaprintablecopyofanassignmentrubric.SCENARIO

    Scenario1(ResearchQuestion#1):Youareastudentthatappreciatesahardcopyhandoutofassignmentguidelines.Printacopyofproductrequirements.

    TASK2:Locatevideosthatofferinstructionsonhowtocompleteprojectsinashortamountoftime.SCENARIO

    Scenario2(ResearchQuestion#2):Youareastudentwithlittletimetospareforcreatingavideoproject.Findhelpwithproducingananimatedvideothequickandeasyway.

    TASK3:Navigatetopageswithinformationonthespecificmobileappsfeaturedinthemodule.SCENARIO

    Scenario3(ResearchQuestion#1):Youareaninstructorinterestedinanappthatwillmakestudentsmoreaccountablefortheirlearning.Getadetaileddescriptionofhowtheappsfeaturedinthemodulecanbeusedinyourlineofwork.

    Remember!Keepyourparticipanttalking.Thanksfordoingthat.Youdidagreatjob.NowImgoingtoaskyoutotrydoingsomespecifictasks.Imgoingtoreadeachoneoutloud.Youshouldhavereceivedacopyoftheseinyouremailbeforethisstudy.

    Imalsogoingtoaskyoutodothesetaskswithoutusinganysearchfeatures.Welllearnalotmoreabouthowwellthesiteworksthatway.Andagain,asmuchaspossible,itwillhelpusifyoucantrytothinkoutloudasyougoalong.

    Allowtheusertoproceedfromonetasktothenextuntilyoudontfeellikeitsproducinganyvalueortheuserbecomesveryfrustrated.Repeatforeachtaskoruntiltimerunsout.

    InformationforUsabilityStudy:RESEARCHQUESTIONS1:Howdifficultisitforinstructorstonavigatethroughouttheinstructionalmodulewebsite?2:Howdifficultisitforinstructorstobecomefamiliarwiththeorganizationorstructureofthewebsite?

  • TASK1:Navigatethewebsitetofindaprintablecopyofanassignmentrubric.SCENARIO

    Scenario1(ResearchQuestion#1):Youareastudentthatappreciatesahardcopyhandoutofassignmentguidelines.Printacopyofproductrequirements.

    TASK2:Locatevideosthatofferinstructionsonhowtocompleteprojectsinashortamountoftime.SCENARIO

    Scenario2(ResearchQuestion#2):Youareastudentwithlittletimetospareforcreatingavideoproject.Findhelpwithproducingananimatedvideothequickandeasyway.

    TASK3:Navigatetopageswithinformationonthespecificmobileappsfeaturedinthemodule.SCENARIO

    Scenario3(ResearchQuestion#1):Youareaninstructorinterestedinanappthatwillmakestudentsmoreaccountablefortheirlearning.Getadetaileddescriptionofhowtheappsfeaturedinthemodulecanbeusedinyourlineofwork.

    ProbeQuestions:Onlyaskifneedmorenarrative.Arethereanynoticeablepatternsinthestructureororganizationoftheinstructionalmodule?Website?

    Thanks,thatwasveryhelpful.

    RequestfromtheparticipantthattheyendtheirscreensharebyclickingontheScreensharelinkontheirlefthandnavigationintheGoogleHangoutsonAirwindow.

    Asktheobserversquestions(iftimepermits).

    PostInterview:(Notrequiredbutrecommended)Wearedonewiththemainquestions,butIhaveafewmoregeneralquestionstoaskyou.

    Note:Ifyouaskyes/no,truefalse,andrankingfollowupquestions,besuretofollowupwithquestionsaboutWHY.Thisisbecausedesignteamswillask,"Well,whatwasthecause?Whatexactlyweretheythinkingwhentheyansweredthis?Howshouldtheproductdesignrespondtothis?Giveussomethingwecanuse!"

    1.Onascaleof1to7,with1representingverydifficultand7representingveryeasy,howwouldyourateyourexperienceduringtoday'stesting?

  • 2.Pleasethinkbacktoothereportfoliosyouhaveviewedbefore.Haveyoueverneededtoperformtasksliketheonesyoudidintheusabilitytesttoday?Comparedtoyourpriorexperience,wouldyousaythatthetasksyouperformedtodaywereeasierormoredifficult?Why?

    3.Afterparticipatinginthisstudy,wouldyourecommendthissitetoanyofyourcolleaguesasatemplateforformattingeportfolios?Why?

    **Thatsthelastquestion,Doyouhaveanyquestionsforme,nowthatweredone?

    [F2F]EndScreenrecording.

    Iwanttothankyouforyourtimeandwillingnesstobeaparticipantinthisstudy.

    StoptheGoogleHangoutAirBroadcastbyclickingontheredbuttonlabeled,endbroadcast.

    ForScreencastOMatic,stoprecordingbyclickingonthebluePausebutton,thenclickDone.

    AftertheSession:1.TechgrouplogsintoYouTubetoensurethatthevideoisavailableonYouTubeChannel,downloadScreencastOMaticvideofiletocomputerdesktoporuploadtoYouTube(forfacetofacesessions).2.Quicklyscrubthroughthevideostoensuretheintegrityoftheaudioandvideo3.InYouTubeVideoManager,setthePrivacysettingstounlisted,whichwillallowyoutogiveaccesstothevideothroughalink(easeofaccess).Confirm:InviteParticipantsbeforehandtomakesuretheyareinyourG+circle(toaccessandjoinGoogleHangoutsonAirbroadcastsession)

  • AppendixEhttp://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule#!home/sr2o4

    OriginalInstructionalModulePrototypeHomepage

    PostRound1ChangestoHomepage

    Linkstomodulelessons(Kahoot!,Blendspace,andPowToon)areallconsolidatedononepage.Essentially,originalHomepagebecomestheModuleLessonspage.AquicklinktoAssignmentsisaddedtothenavigationmenu.Submenusareremoved.

    http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule#!home/sr2o4http://cheirebaria.wix.com/mobileappsmodule

  • AppendixF

    OriginalAppearanceofNavigationButtonsatBottomofPage

    Buttonsareflatandhavenodepth.Whilepointsindicatedirection,itwasnotcleartotheuserthattheseweremorethanimagesandwereactualnavigationbuttons.Originally,aftercompletionofonelesson,buttonsledusertotheintroductiontothenextmodulelesson.

    PostRound1ChangestoButtons

    Buttonshavemoredepth.Theshadowgivestheuserstheimpressionthatbuttoncanbepressed.Thearrowsindicatedirectionormovementwithinthemodulelesson.HereabuttonthatreturnstotheModuleLessonspageisprovided,sotheusercanregroupanddecideonthenextmodulelessontoapproach.

  • AppendixG

    PowToonModuleLessonIntroductionPage

    PowToonAssignment(HowTo)PagewithNavigationLinksatTopofPage

    Linkstosectionsofamodulelessonwereaddedtothetopofthepagesoquickandeasynavigationwithinthelessonwouldbepossiblethisallowedfortheremovaloftheverticalnavigationmenusubmenus.

  • AppendixH

    PostRound2ChangestoInstructionalModuleHomepage

    TheHomepagewasorganizedfurtherandWelcomevideowasaddedtohelpclarifynavigationofthemobileappssite.

  • AppendixIPostRound2ChangestoInstructionalModule:AnchorLinks

    AnanchorlinktotheSaveTimesectionofthepagethatwouldofferinformationonhowtocreateproductquicklyandeasilywasaddedinthetoprightcornerbelowtheheader.

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