Unit 2: The Art of Persuasion Argument and Persuasion Unit 2: Societys Influence of the Individual; Art of Persuasion
Part 1: Authors Purpose An authors purpose is what the writer hopes to achieve by crafting a particular work. Although there may be more than one purpose, usually one stands out. A writers purpose could be any of the following: To inform or explain To express thoughts or feelings To persuade To entertain
Uncovering Purpose You can uncover the authors purpose by looking at the choices the writer made. Subject Tone Your reaction to the piece Diction/word choice Important details included in the piece
Purpose: Inform or Explain If the authors purpose is to inform or explain something to the reader, he/she will typically use the following elements to achieve their goals: Facts and statistics Steps in a process Diagrams or illustrated explanations
Purpose: To Persuade If the authors purpose is to persuade the reader to think or feel something, he/she will typically use the following elements to achieve their goals: A statement of opinion Supporting evidence Appeals to emotions Call to action
Purpose: To Entertain If the authors purpose is to entertain the reader, he/she will typically use the following elements to achieve their goals: Suspenseful or exciting situations Humorous or fascinating details Intriguing characters
Purpose: To Express Thoughts or Feelings If the authors purpose is to express thoughts or feelings to the reader, he/she will typically use the following elements to achieve their goals: Thoughtful descriptions Insightful observations The writers personal feelings
Part 2: The Elements of an Argument An argument expresses a point of view or position on an issue and supports the position with reasons and evidence. Sound (strong) arguments appeal strictly to reason, not emotions. Include these elements: Claim: the writers or speakers position on an issue Support: valid reasons and relevant and sufficient evidence
CLAIM REASON EVIDENCE REASON
Strategies for Reading an Argument Look for a claim Often stated in the introduction or conclusion (thesis) Look in the title for clues as well If no claim directly stated ask yourself: What does the evidence tell me about the writers or speakers position or point of view? Track the evidence Keep track of how a writer or speaker develops his or her claims and ideas Jot down reasons and supporting evidence- same order they appear Facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes and quotations from experts Analyze the quality, credibility, and relevance of the evidence
Motorcycle Helmet Bill Read the short excerpt from the testimony and complete the questions at the end of the document. You can speak with your group members while working on this assignment.
Part 3: The Craft of Persuasion Persuasion- the art of swaying peoples feelings, opinions, and actions. With compelling language, writers and speakers can enhance strong arguments or disguise the flaws in weak ones. In order to evaluate the strength of an argument, you need to recognize the persuasive techniques being used to sway you. 40 techniques covered in presentations
The Gift of Life- speech by Tommy Thompson Read the short excerpt from the speech and complete the questions at the end of the document. You can speak with your group members while working on this assignment.
Rhetorical Structure and Devices Rhetorical devices shape and structure sentences and paragraphs within a persuasive work to make the message resonate with the audience. RHETORICAL DEVICEEXAMPLE REPETITION: using the same word or words more than once to emphasis point. Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. -from Glory and Hope by Nelson Mandela PARALLELISM: uses similar grammatical constructions to express ideas that are related or equal in importance. Often creates a rhythm. We cannot, we must not, refuse to protect the right of every American to vote in every electionAnd we ought not, and we cannot, and we must not wait another eight months before we get a bill. - From We Shall Overcome by Lyndon Baines Johnson ANALOGY: makes a comparison between two subjects that are alike in some ways. Have you heard the canned, frozen and processed product being dished up to the world as American popular music today? - From a commencement address by Billy Joel
Analyze the Text- The New Frontier Read the short excerpt from the speech and complete the questions at the end of the document. You can speak with your group members while working on this assignment. Submit the completed document to turnitin.com to receive credit.