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Research Issues in Ubiquitous ComputingSyed Imran Jami PhD Student FAST-NUOutlineWhat is Ubiquitous Computing Scenarios Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing Labs working on UbiComp Web Sites / Conferences / Magazines and Journals Some good books1What is Ubiquitous ComputingVisionAlso known as Pervasive Computing Some Visions areComputing Everywhere for Everyone Embed Computing devices in the environment Keep the computers in the background presence2DefinitionsIt is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous, connected computing devices in the environment.a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic technologies and the Internet. Wireless enabledUbiquitous computing devices are not personal computers, but very tiny - even invisible devices.Can be either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable. This may include cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods - all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks.According to Dan Russell, director of the User Sciences and Experience Group at IBM's Almaden Research Center,By 2010 computing will have become so naturalized within the environment that people will not even realize that they are using computers In future smart devices all around us will maintain current information about their locations, the contexts in which they are being used, and relevant data about the users3Definition: by Mark Weiser [4]Mark Weiser is the founder of this idea. According to him: The goal of Ubiquitous computing is to enhance computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user. Ubiquitous computing envisions a world of fully connected devices, with cheap wireless networks everywhere. You need not carry anything with you, since information will be accessible everywhere. Ubiquitous computing envisions computation primarily in the background where it may not even be noticed. Ubiquitous computer gives the feeling as though you did it yourself.Ubiquitous Systems require Embedded processors In everyday objects Small cheap and light weight Wireless Communications Sensors4CharacteristicsUbiquitous SystemsCan remember pertinent events they have a memoryShow context-sensitive behavior they may have sensors location / situation awarenessAre responsive communicate with their environment networked with other smart objectsMain ThemeWith Ubiquity of ComputersInformation processing moves to the background human centered: concentrate on the task, not the tool the notion computer as a tool does no longer holdNew picture of computing as an invisible, ubiquitous background assistancespecialized, invisible computers will become an integral part of the natural human environmentComputing without Computers5Some reasons for this revolutionAs per Moores lawProcessing speed and storage capacity double every 18 months cheaper, smaller, fasterThis leads to the fact that most important technology parameters double every 1 3 years:computation cycles memory, magnetic disks bandwidthSome reasons for this revolutionNew devicesSmart papers E Ink Live boardsPhilips prototype for smart paper and E-Ink6Some reasons for this revolutionProgress in Communication Technologies Fiber optics: from Gbit/s to Tbit/s Powerline technique coffee maker automatically connected to the Internet Wireless mobile phone: GSM, UMTS wireless LAN (> 10 Mbit/s) Body area networks A set of mobile and compact units (on body) enable transfer of parameters between the bodies. The data flow passes a chain of BAN modules from each sensor to a main body station, which consolidates the data streams of all sensor modules attached. Transmits the data to a home base station, from where they can be forwarded via telephone line or internet. Wide application in remote health careSome reasons for this revolutionBetter SensorsVery small cameras and microphones pattern recognition, assisted by heuristics user is in a meeting speaker recognition, speech controlled devicesFingerprint sensor on mobile objects Many other types of sensors (e.g. location) Autonomous perception of the users environment establishing contextual relations recognition of objects7ScenariosWatchPad1.5 by IBM8Use as a Universal Remote ControllerWatchPad 1.5Use as a Personal IdentificatorAutomated check-in at hotel and air counter Cashless payment at restaurant and station Medical history and prescription retrieval Specify your preferenceUse as a Display for Location Based ServicesProvide personalized advertisement and offering information Timetable and flight schedule at station and airport Navigate you at stations9Radio SensorsApplicationsMobile devices Wireless light switch Fire detectors Temperature surveillance Remote controlComputer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing10Ubiquitous Computing is an emerging discipline bringing together different areas of Computer Science. This includes:Mobile Computing Sensors & Ad hoc Networks Computer Architecture HCI Data Management Privacy & SecurityComputer Architecture/Hardwarethe computer artifact is of many sizes and shapes, including tiny inexpensive ones that could bring computing to everyone. three new kinds of hardware devices are required: [4]very low power computing, low-power high-bits communication, and pen devices.11Mobile and Ubiquitous SystemsSeveral famous projects are going on in this area Famous Research labs are working on this area Software Competence Center Hagenberg (SCCH) Austria, www.scch.atComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MITMobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Oxygen[1]Enables pervasive, human-centered computing through a combination of specific user and system technologies Speech and vision technologies enable to communicate with Oxygen as if we're interacting with another person, Working on collaboration technologies Oxygen's device, network, and software technologies dramatically extend range by delivering user technologies at home or at work. Computational devices embedded in homes, offices, and cars sense and affect immediate environment. Handheld devices empower us to communicate and compute anywhere Dynamic, self-configuring networks help machines locate each other as well as the people, services, and resources Software that adapts to changes in the environment or in user requirements help us do what we want when we want to do it.12Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Hydrogen [2]Vision: Bringing together People, Information and Things Investigation and evaluation of middleware for:Supporting social interaction among people Mobile ad hoc cooperation among team members Taking into account the very dynamic execution context of applications running on mobile devicesDevelopment of experimental prototypesMobile meeting agenda Location aware reminder13Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Location awarenessWhere I am?Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Location awarenessLot of labs working on it Lot of opportunities for collaborations14Mobile and Ubiquitous SystemsThe central theme is to try and hide the impact of mobility Borrowed on notions of distribution transparency popular at the time (access, location, migration, replication, failure etc.)PrivacyWhat is Privacy? An ability of an individual or group to stop information about themselves from becoming known to people other than those they choose to give the information to. [Wikipedia] Can be seen as an aspect of Security Different Facets of privacy [3] Bodily Privacy Strip Searches, Drug Testing, Territorial Privacy Privacy Of Your Home, Office, Privacy Of Communications Phone Calls, (E-)mail, Informational Privacy Personal Data (Name, Address, Hobbies, )15Privacy: IssuesDifferent Ubiquitous systems are coming that will compromise privacyPrivacy: Bodymedia [3]Communication Platform for wireless Transmission of Body Sensor Readings Bodymedia Data Center translates Raw Data into Lifestyle Data which is accessible via Web Interface on Company-Site16Privacy: Virtual DadRoad Safety International Sells Black Box for Car Detailed Recording of Position, Acceleration, etc. Audio Warnings When Speeding, Cutting Corners Continuous Reckless Driving is Reported Home Sold as Piece of Mind for Parents Imagine if you could sit next to your teenager every second of their driving. Imagine the control you would have. Would they speed? Street race? Hard corner? Hard brake? Play loud music? Probably not. But how do they drive when you are not in the car? Source: http://www.roadsafety.com/Teen_Driver.htmPrivacyCar MonitoringACME Rent-A-Car, New Jersey Automatically Fines Drivers US$450.-at Speeds Over 79mph GPS Records Exact Position of Speed ViolationAutographSystem Pilot Program 1998/99, Houston, TX Insurance based on individual driving habits (When, Where, How) GPS Tracking, Mobile Communication, Data CenterFuture: Tracking Your Personal Mobile Phone Source: Insurance& Technology Online, Jan 2nd 2002 (http://www.insurancetech.com/story/update/IST20020108S0004)Other ExamplesElectronic Toll Gates Consumer Loyalty Cards Electronic Patient Data Computer Assisted Passenger Screening (CAPS) Improved Systems in the Works (post 9/11)Plans: Link Travel Data, Credit Card Records, Address Information, 17Privacy: Some partial solutionsNo hidden data collection!Legal requirement in many countriesEstablish privacy policies How to publish policies in Ubicomp?Periodic broadcasts Too many devices? Countless announcements an annoyancePrivacy: Some partial solutionsUse Anonymous data for analysis and experiment comes cheap no consent, security, access needed Pseudonyms allow for customization user can discard at any time Sometimes one cannot hide No anonymizing cameras & microphones Real-world data hard to anonymized Even pseudonyms can reveal true identity Real-world has complex situation-dependant security requirements Free access to medical data in emergency situations18Privacy: Some partial solutionsIdentifiable data must be accessibleUsers can review, change, sometimes deleteCollectors must be accountableTry some Privacy-aware storage technology?Ubicomp applications need lots of dataIncreased need for accounting and accessPrivacy: Some partial solutionsNo spying, please (Proximity)Devices only record if owner is presentRumors should not spread (Locality)Local information stays local Walls and Flower-Pots can talk (but wont do so over the phone)19Sensors in Ubiquitous ComputingIssues [3]Why sensing is important for Ubiquitous computing Examples of how sensing features used in ubicomp projects Some new trends in Sensing Issues in distributed sensingSensors in Ubiquitous ComputingWhy we need Sensing Ubiquitous Computing need systems that adapt to people, as opposed to people adapting to systems Reactive to what people do Proactive, anticipating what people want to do Situated, sharing context with human user Necessary for interaction between people and systems All this requires ability for observation of human activity if a computer merely knows what room it is in, it can adapt its behaviour without even a hint of AI20Sensors in Ubiquitous ComputingEnabling Technology As per Moores Lawsensors in overdrive dramatic drop in price Drop in sizeRequire energySensors: ExamplesExamples of Sensing in Ubiquitous Computing Location Sensing [4]Active Badge System ORL, Cambridge/UK, 1989-92 Locating people (and devices) Room-level accuracy Badges worn by people emit beacons Sensors with known location21Sensors: ExamplesThe Bat Ultrasonic Location System [3] Highly accurate indoor positioning 95% of readings within 3cm Bat device emits short pulse of ultrasound Ceiling mounted sensor array Sentient Computing [3] Use sensors to construct model of the environment Shared view of the world between system and userSensors: ExamplesWeight Lab [3]An environment in which all surfaces are load-sensitive Floor, tables, chairs,shelves, trays Activity tracking with infrastructure22Sensors: Smart deviceOrientation-aware Newton MessagePad [5] Sensors as UI elementSensors: Smart deviceThe Aware Home [3] Research initiative at GaTech A Living Lab for Ubicomp Research Large-scale deployment of sensors for perception of everyday activities Smart Home23Sensors: Smart deviceSmart Palm PCMicrosoft Research Hinckley et al Sensors to improve user interaction Detecting simple percepts holding & duration tilt, orientation etcDetecting simple motion dictaphone gesture scrollingSensors: Smart deviceTEA Mobile Phone [3] Integration of diverse simple sensors (light, audio, acceleration, temperature, touch) Sensor fusion for perception of device context (car, meeting, home, ...) Shared context among phone users context call context phonebook24Sensors: Smart deviceWearable Sensing StartleCam [3]MITMediaLab Example for sensing the user Sensing generally important in wearablesSensors: Smart deviceThe Mediacup [3] TecO Karlsruhe, 1999-2000 Wireless sensor device embedded in ordinary coffee cup Movement, weight, temperature sensing On-board computation of user-level context: filled up, gone cold, etc. >95% reliable context prediction in everyday use25Sensors in Ubiquitous ComputingDevice-based sensing (Portable, Wearable) Sense the user, the location, the immediate environment Enable proactive/reactive behaviours, novel UI techniquesEnvironment-based sensing Homogeneous sensing infrastructure to supply devices Smart environment control, responsive rooms etcWireless sensor devices and networks Heterogeneous sensors, ad hoc organized Large-scale observation of the physical world Deep embedding in physical objectsSensors: DistributedIssues In current trends we require distributed sensing To facilitate combination of distributed observations Factoring out sensing from devices into infrastructure Separation of sensing and application into distributed entities Some implications Location and time need to be considered Data delivery from sensor to application Where to sense: device vs. infrastructure26Sensors: Location and TimeThere are real-time and real-place issues Real-time issues Value of observation time-dependent e.g. can become irrelevant after some timeLatency can contribute to inaccuracy e.g. location reading of moving objectsSynchronization of distributed observations Real-place issues Arising with mobile/flexible sensor nodes Value of observation location-dependent e.g. less relevant the greater the distance between sensor node and observed entityLocation also relevant for combination of sensors Localization hot issues for wireless sensor networks!Sensors: Sensor Data DeliveryApplication-level Delivery ModelsContinuous: sensors communicate their data at prespecified rate Event-driven: report data only if event of interest occurs Request-reply: report only response to an application requestNetwork-level Routing ModelsFlooding: broadcasting observations to neighbors, who rebroadcast until application is reached Directed Diffusion: data-centric protocol Data is named by attribute-value pairs Applications submit queries, diffused through the network Nodes satisfying the query start transmitting data27SensorsWhere to Sense Smart Device vs Smart Environment e.g. location sensing GPS model: infrastructure sends its coordinates, device computes its position Active Badge model: device/client sends beacon, infrastructure computes positionPrivacy issues: whos in control over location information Distributed systems issues System-wide location management Client reliance on infrastructure Protocols to talk about locationConclusion: What will happen28Labs & ProjectsThe Labscape Project - Ubiquitous Computing in the Cell Biology LaboratoryLarry Arnstein, Research Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of WashingtonStephen S. Intille's work on ubiquitous sensingMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyUbiquitous Computing research at Yano Lab, Tokushima university, Japan Ubiquitous Chip Research LaboratoryInternet Systems Research Laboratories, NEC Corp. and Osaka University collaboration labThe Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) Project Aura - Distraction-free Ubiquitous ComputingCMUThe Ubiquitous Communications (UbiCom) program at Delft University. Ubiquitous Networking Laboratory.HarvardUbiquitous Computing research - The Intelligence Engineering Lab (IEL) of Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Science (ISCAS) Ubiquitous Computing LabDepartment of Information Systems and Multimedia Design School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki UniversityUC Lab, Keio University M-Lab - The Mobile And Ubiquitous Computing Lab Ubiquitous Networked Media Computing Projects.Nara Institute of Science and TechnologyUbiquitous Computing & Communication Laboratory, Keio University, Japan Multi-Agent Distributed Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Lab at the Computer Science Department University of Saskatchewan29BooksPervasive Computing: Technology and Architecture of Mobile Internet Applications by Horst Henn, Stefan Hepper, Klaus Rindtorff, Thomas Schack (Editor), Provides both a theoretical overview and a practical guide The first part of the book walks through the essential protocols, standards and architectures involved The second part uses a continuous real-world example to present an end-toend architecture for implementing pervasive computing applications. first book to offer an understanding of the scope and the implications of pervasive computing Good for IT managers, professionals, architects, consultants, developers, and students concerned with internet and web technologies. Contents of Pervasive Computing include:Introduction to pervasive devices and their applications Overview of the key technologies and protocols Web application concepts WAP and beyond Voice Technology Server-side programming in Java Pervasive web application architecture Device-independent example application Accessing the example application via PC, PDA, WAP and voice30BooksMobile and Ubiquitous Information Access by Fabio Crestani, Mark Dunlop, Stefano Mizzaro Contains thoroughly refereed postproceedings of the International Workshop on Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Access held in Udine, Italy in September 2003 during Mobile HCI 2003. The 21 articles in the book are organized in topical sections on foundations: concepts, models, and paradigms; interactions; applications and experimental evaluations; context and location.Security for Ubiquitous Computing) by Frank Stajano Focuses on two very hot topics: ad-hoc wireless networking and security Covers security issues for wellestablished and widely used technologies such as GSM, Bluetooth, and IP Includes basics on security and cryptography Describes the security issues in peerto-peer networking31UbiComp 2005: Ubiquitous Computing: 7th International Conference, UbiComp 2005, Tokyo, Japan, September 11-14, 2005, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science) (Paperback) by Michael Beigl (Editor), Stephen Intille (Editor), Jun Rekimoto (Editor), Hideyuki Tokuda (Editor)Fundamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing by Frank Adelstein, Sandeep KS Gupta, Golden Richard III, Loren Schwiebert Provide engineering principles underlying mobile computing Good as a text book for graduates and senior undergraduates. Contains extensive Exercises, projects, and solutions. Gives the preview of the latest research that will help realize the full potential of pervasive computing32References[1] MIT Project Oxygen, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/index.html [2] The Hydrogen Project at Software Competence Center Hagenberg, Austria http://www.scch.at/index.jsp [3] Lecture notes and presentations, Summer School on Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing August 7-14, 2002 Schloss, Dagstuhl, Germany http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/events/dag2002/ [4] Mark Wieser, Computer Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC, http://www.ubiq.com/weiser/ [5] Newton MessagePad, Newton Team, Apple. http://www.msu.edu/~luckie/gallery/mp100.htm33


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