Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition ... ?· Top ten things to do for healthy…

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<ul><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p>Thomas R. Overton, Ph.D.Professor of Dairy Management</p><p>Director, PRO-DAIRYAssociate Director, Cornell Cooperative Extension</p><p>Cornell University</p></li><li><p>Transition period goals</p><p> High milk production</p><p> Maintain/minimize loss of BCS</p><p> Low incidence of metabolic disorders</p><p> Minimize loss of immunocompetence</p><p> Control/decrease days to first ovulation and maintain/enhance fertility</p><p> Low stillborn rate and healthy calves</p><p> Make $$</p><p> Question can a dairy farm meet all of these goals?</p></li><li><p>Shift in mindset from the transition cow as a </p><p>disease opportunity to the transition cow as a </p><p>production and reproduction opportunity!!!</p></li><li><p>The good news..</p><p>Theres more than one way to get the job done</p></li><li><p>Transition cow success can come in many shapes and sizes.</p><p> Large freestall herds with the ability to group &amp; feed cows in a variety of ways</p><p> Small freestall herds with limited options on grouping &amp; feeding</p><p> Tiestall herds that segregate dry cows</p><p> Tiestall herds that have dry cows in their assigned stalls in the barn, with limited ability to feed them a specific dry or pre-fresh diet</p><p> Grazing herds that freshen year round (including on pasture)</p><p> Grazing herds that freshen most everything in the spring for that flush of spring grass</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p></li><li><p>Mineral status</p><p>Plasma minerals concentration</p><p>0</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>6</p><p>7</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>10</p><p>-18 -11 -4 0.3 0.6 1 2 3 4 5 9 15</p><p>Days relative to calving</p><p>Pla</p><p>sma</p><p> co</p><p>ncen</p><p>tra</p><p>tio</p><p>n (</p><p>mg</p><p>/dL</p><p>)</p><p>Control (Ca) </p><p>Low DCAD (Ca)</p><p>Control (P)</p><p>Low DCAD (P)</p><p>Control (Mg)</p><p>Low DCAD (Mg)</p><p>Ramos Nieves et al., 2009</p></li><li><p>Hypocalcemia incidence analysis</p><p>Clinical hypocalcemia </p><p>(&lt; 5 mg/dL)</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>70</p><p>80</p><p>8h 16h 1d 2d 3d 4d</p><p>Time relative to calving</p><p>% o</p><p>f c</p><p>ow</p><p>s o</p><p>n t</p><p>rea</p><p>tme</p><p>nt Control</p><p>Low DCAD</p><p>Subclinical hypocalcemia </p><p>(5 - 8 mg/dL)</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>70</p><p>80</p><p>8h 16h 1d 2d 3d 4d</p><p>Time relative to calving</p><p>Control</p><p>Low DCAD</p><p>Ramos-Nieves et al., 2009</p></li><li><p>Managing macrominerals in close-up dry rations for good postcalving Ca and P status</p><p> Our enemies</p><p> Potassium (legumes, heavily manured grasses)</p><p> Sodium (but a little salt is good)</p><p> Our friends</p><p> Chloride and sulfur (anionic supplements)</p><p> Magnesium </p><p> Calcium</p><p> DCAD = (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + S-2)</p></li><li><p>Major strategies for application of DCAD for close-up dry cows</p><p> Focus on feeding low K (and Na) forages and feeds to close-up dry cows</p><p> Calculated DCAD ~ +10 mEq/100 g of DM</p><p> Urine pH ~ 8.3 to 8.5</p><p> Feeding low K forages along with partial use of anionic supplement in close-up ration or one-group dry cow ration</p><p> Calculated DCAD ~ 0 mEq/100 g of DM</p><p> Urine pH ~ 7.5</p><p> Feeding low K forages along with full use of anionic supplement in close-up ration or one-group dry cow ration</p><p> Calculated DCAD ~ -10 to -15 mEq/100 g of DM</p><p> Urine pH ~ 6.0 to 7.0 need to monitor weekly and adjust DCAD supplementation if &lt; 6.0</p><p> Need to also supplement Mg (dietary target 0.40 to 0.45%) during close-up</p><p> Recommend supplementing Ca (0.9 to 1.0% if low K only; 1.4 to 1.5% if full anionic diet)</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Emphasis on bypass protein sources</p></li><li><p>Overall goals for energy and metabolizable protein intake of both far-off and close-up cows</p><p> Far off cows (dry off until ~ 3 weeks precalving) ~ 15 - 17 Mcal of NEL per day (0.59 to 0.63 Mcal/lb NEL) 110 to 120% of ME requirements (0.90 to 0.95 Mcal/lb) ~ 1000 g/d of metabolizable protein</p><p> Close-up cows (last 3 weeks before calving) ~16 - 18 Mcal of NEL per day (0.64 to 0.66 Mcal/lb NEL) 110 to 120% of ME requirements (~ 1.0 Mcal/lb) ~ 1100 to 1200 g/d of metabolizable protein</p><p> Maybe too low??</p></li><li><p>Energy for Far-Off Dry Cows</p><p> Ration considerations</p><p>NEL 0.59 to 0.63 Mcal/lb for maintenance BCS and controlled energy intake</p><p> Typical lactating cow forages</p><p>Corn silage ~ 0.70 to 0.75 Mcal/lb NELHaylage ~ 0.60 to 0.65 Mcal/lb NEL</p><p> Usually will need to bring in forage with lower energy content than lactating cow forages</p></li><li><p>Dr. Patrick French regression analysis</p><p> 18 published transition cow studies (2002 to present)</p><p> Prepartum MP intake, mMet intake, and mLysintake positively associated with postpartum milk protein yield (when all three in model r2 = 0.56)</p><p> Suggest optimum at ~ 1,300 g/d MP, 30 g/d mMet, and 90 g/d mLys</p></li><li><p>Moderate energy prefresh diet composition (as formulated)</p></li><li><p>General goals for diet formulation for closeup cows</p><p>Low K only Full anionic</p><p> NEL, Mcal/lb ~0.64 to 0.66</p><p> NEL, Mcal/kg ~1.40 to 1.45</p><p> Metabolizable protein, g/d 1100 to 1200 NFC, % 28 to 32 Starch, % 16 to 19 Dietary Ca, g/d 100 180 to 200 Dietary Ca, % 0.90 ~ 1.5 Dietary P, % 0.30 to 0.35 Mg, % 0.40 to 0.42 Cl, % 0.3 0.8 to 1.2 K, % &lt; 1.3 &lt; 1.3 Na, % 0.10 to 0.15 S, % 0.20 0.3 to 0.4 Added Se, ppm 0.3 Vitamin A (IU/d) 100000 100000 Vitamin D (IU/d) 30000 30000 Vitamin E (IU/d) 1800 1800Prefer use of more bioavailable trace elements</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p></li><li><p>Keys to feeding management of dry cow TMR</p><p> Minimize sorting</p><p> Particle size of straw/hay</p><p> Longest particles &lt; 1.5 in (4 cm)</p><p> Moisture content of TMR</p><p> Target 46 to 48 DM % -- add water if necessary</p></li><li><p>You HAVE to chop the %(*(#*@ straw/hay</p><p>3.5 lbs straw in 26 lb DM package</p><p>6 lbs straw in 27 lb DM package</p></li><li><p>Screen Lactating cow TMR</p><p>Dry cow or heifer TMR</p><p>Corn silage Hay crop silage</p><p>Straw/dryhay for TMR</p><p>Top (&gt; 0.75 sieve)</p><p>6 to 10% 10 to 20% 5 to 10% 10 to 20% 33%</p><p>Middle(0.31 to 0.75 in sieve)</p><p>45 to 55% 50 to 60% 45 to 65% 45 to 75% 33%</p><p>Bottom(&lt; 0.31 in sieve)</p><p>&lt; 50% &lt; 40% 30 to 40% 20 to 30% 33%</p><p>Particle size recommendations using Penn State Particle Separator</p><p>Adapted from Penn State guidelines by T. Overton 9/2013</p><p>http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&amp;source=images&amp;cd=&amp;cad=rja&amp;docid=QVkDgMGCmDIaaM&amp;tbnid=M71Tc3fuPUQrZM:&amp;ved=0CAgQjRwwAA&amp;url=http://www.enasco.com/product/C15924N&amp;ei=uAdgUu6NE5Dw8ATTzIDwCA&amp;psig=AFQjCNEWq6dbCjowID1Qca2NDCzchlJzNA&amp;ust=1382111544382720</p></li><li><p>Commercial farm study prefresh TMR samples from 55 farms (Lawton and Overton, unpublished)</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>Top Middle Pan</p><p>55 Farms</p><p>Recommendation</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p><p> Clean and comfortable housing and fresh water</p><p> Manage social interactions/hierarchy</p><p> Stocking density, commingling cows/heifers, group changes</p></li><li><p>https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/NYSCHAP/</p></li><li><p>NYSCHAP questionaire stocking density</p><p>https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/NYSCHAP/</p></li><li><p>NYSCHAP questionaire general environment</p><p>https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/NYSCHAP</p><p>/</p></li><li><p>NYSCHAP questionaire dry cow nutrition</p></li><li><p>https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/sects/NYSCHAP</p><p>/</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p><p> Clean and comfortable housing and fresh water</p><p> Manage social interactions/hierarchy</p><p> Manage cold stress and heat stress</p></li><li><p>Cooling during the entire dry period increases subsequent milk production (differences in kg/d above bars)</p><p>Tao and Dahl. 2013. J. Dairy Sci 96 :40794093</p><p>+ 1.2 </p><p>+ 3.6 </p><p>+ 2.6 </p><p>+ 1.9 </p><p>+ 7.5 + 2.3 + 5.0 </p><p>+ 5.2 </p><p>+ 6.3 </p></li><li><p>Heat stress during the prepartumperiod decreases calf birth weight</p><p>Heat-</p><p>stressed Control</p><p>% </p><p>reduction Reference</p><p>Tao and Dahl. 2013. J. Dairy Sci 96 :40794093</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p><p> Clean and comfortable housing and fresh water</p><p> Manage social interactions/hierarchy</p><p> Manage cold stress and heat stress</p><p> High quality forage and fermentable diets for fresh cows</p></li><li><p>BMR corn silage during the transition period</p><p>3 wk Prefresh</p><p>Conventionalcorn silagehybrids</p><p>BMRcorn silage</p><p>&gt; 3 wks post-fresh</p><p>Conventionalcorn silagehybrids</p><p>BMRcorn silage</p><p>Wks 3.5 15</p><p>Conv. CS</p><p>Diet formulation goal: Keep all parameters the same withthe exception of NDF digestibility. </p><p>Diets formulated with CPM Dairy</p><p>Stone et al., 2012. J. Dairy Sci. 95 :66656676</p></li><li><p>Days before or after calving</p><p>DMI of cows fed BMR or conventional corn silage during the transition period (Stone et al., 2012)</p><p>0</p><p>5</p><p>10</p><p>15</p><p>20</p><p>25</p><p>30</p><p>-25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105</p><p>Kg</p><p>/da</p><p>y</p><p>BMR</p><p>Control</p><p>DMI d -14 to -1 14.3 vs. 13.2, P &lt; 0.03DMI d 0 21 20.2 vs. 18.2, P &lt; 0.001</p><p>Stone et al., 2012. J. Dairy Sci. 95 :66656676</p></li><li><p>3.5% FCM of cows fed BMR or Control corn silage during the transition period</p><p>20</p><p>25</p><p>30</p><p>35</p><p>40</p><p>45</p><p>50</p><p>55</p><p>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16</p><p>Kg/d</p><p>Week of Lactation</p><p>BMRCS</p><p>CCS</p><p>Wk 1 - 3 Wk 4 15</p><p>Variable CCS BMR</p><p>CS</p><p>SE P-</p><p>value</p><p>CCS BMR</p><p>CS</p><p>SE P-</p><p>value</p><p>Milk, kg 34.3 37.5 1.0 0.03 45.3 47.3 0.90 0.11</p><p>3.5% FCM, kg 38.8 42.9 1.5 0.06 46.7 49.4 1.1 0.09</p><p>Stone et al., 2012. J. Dairy Sci. 95 :66656676</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p><p> Clean and comfortable housing and fresh water</p><p> Manage social interactions/hierarchy</p><p> Manage cold stress and heat stress</p><p> High quality forage and fermentable diets for fresh cows</p><p> Strategically use feed additives/nutritional tools (the next talk)</p></li><li><p>Top ten things to do for healthy and productive transition cows</p><p> Manage macromineral nutrition/DCAD of dry cows, especially in the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving</p><p> Control energy intake in both far-off and close-up cows not too little, not too much</p><p> Make sure supplying enough metabolizable protein before calving</p><p> Get the feeding management right, every day</p><p> Clean and comfortable housing and fresh water</p><p> Manage social interactions/hierarchy</p><p> Manage cold stress and heat stress</p><p> High quality forage and fermentable diets for fresh cows</p><p> Strategically use feed additives/nutritional tools (the next talk)</p><p> Implement cow- and herd-level monitoring programs</p></li><li><p>Types of monitoring</p><p> Cow-level</p><p> Seeking to make a diagnosis/treatment decision on an individual animal</p><p> Herd-level</p><p> Periodic (e.g., weekly) evaluation of a representative sample of cows in a sampling window of interest</p><p> Using as a barometer of the herd</p></li><li><p>Potential herd level monitors for transition cow performance and health opportunities</p><p> Most of dairy industry works on averages</p><p> Challenges related to nutrition/non-nutritional factors cause increases in variation in DMI/performance/metabolism</p><p> Almost impossible to detect some of these on farms</p><p> Potential tools for use in monitoring variation in transition cow management and subclinical opportunities</p><p> BHBA (gold standard blood ketone)</p><p> NEFA (best marker for negative energy balance)</p><p> Calcium (getting renewed attention)</p><p> Haptoglobin (acute-phase response/systemic inflammation)</p><p> Rumination monitors? other electronic monitoring?</p><p> Variation in early lactation milk yield / Transition Cow Index (TCI)</p><p> Urine pH only if feeding anionic supplements, but can be great monitor of feeding management</p></li><li><p>Histogram of prevalence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in 1,717 Holstein dairy cows undergoing repeated testing for ketosis from 3 to 16 DIM. A positive test </p><p>was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L</p><p>McArt et al., 2012. J. Dairy Sci. 95 :50565066</p></li><li><p>Approach for monitoring energy-related blood analytes in transition cows</p><p> Sample size: ~ 15 to 20 cows </p><p> Cows to sample Pre-partum: 14 to 2 days before calving Post-partum: 3 to 14 DIM</p><p> Sample to take Serum (red top) or plasma (green top) Dont shake, keep cool</p><p> What to do with sample? BHB: Precision Extra Meter for blood; milk Ketotest in US and Canada NEFA: Lab</p><p> What to do with results Interpret % above cut-point More than 15% above cut-point indicates herd-level problem</p></li><li><p>Herd-level impacts of elevated NEFA/BHB</p><p>Metabolite level Herd </p><p>Alarm </p><p>Associated with:</p><p>PRE-Partum</p><p>NEFA &gt; 0.3 mEq/L</p><p>15% +3.6% Disease incidence</p><p>-1.2% Pregnancy rate</p><p>- 529 lbs ME305 milk (both heifers and cows)</p><p>POST-Partum</p><p>NEFA &gt; 0.6a - 0.7b mEq/L</p><p>15% +1.7% Disease incidenceb</p><p>- 0.9% Pregnancy ratea</p><p>Heifers: -640 lbs, Cows: - 1,272 lbs</p><p>BHB &gt; 10a-12b* mg/dL 15%</p><p>*20%</p><p>+1.8% Disease incidenceb</p><p>-0.8% Pregnancy rateb</p><p>Heifers: -1,179 lbs*, Cows: - 732 lbsa</p><p>*15% of 15 = 2-3 animals Ospina et al., 2010</p></li><li><p>Prevalence of hyperketonemia - 55 dairy farms Lawton and Overton, unpublished</p><p>0%</p><p>10%</p><p>20%</p><p>30%</p><p>40%</p><p>50%</p><p>60%</p></li><li><p>60</p><p>80</p><p>100</p><p>120</p><p>40</p><p>Monthly snapshot of herd milk production at test day</p><p>Days in milk at test day</p></li><li><p>Current field study (Overton, Burhans, and Nydam)Funding partners: NY Farm Viability Institute, USDA </p><p>Multistate Hatch, Poulin Grain Inc)</p><p> Objectives: Identify relationships between dry period nutritional strategy, fresh </p><p>period nutritional strategy, and postpartum outcomes related to health, milk yield, and reproduction.</p><p> Determine if interactions exist between dry period nutritional strategy, fresh period nutritional strategy, and biomarkers related to the above postpartum outcomes on commercial dairy farms (focus on NEFA, BHBA, and haptoglobin)</p><p> Identify relationships of nonnutritional factors affecting cows during the dry period and early lactation (stocking density, commingling of cows and heifers, pen moves) with postpartum health, milk yield, reproduction, and biomarkers related to these outcomes on commercial dairy farms.</p></li><li><p>General study approach</p><p> 72 herds total across four nutritional management categories Controlled energy one-group dry, fresh cows fed high diet</p><p> Controlled energy one-group dry, fresh cows fed fresh diet first</p><p> Step up (two-group) dry, fresh cows fed high diet</p><p> Step up (two-group) dry, fresh cows fed fresh diet first</p><p> High energy one/two group dry, fresh cows fed high diet</p><p> High energy one/two group dry, fresh cows fed fresh diet first</p><p> Follow cohort...</p></li></ul>

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