TKI 332 Perencanaan Tata Letak Pabrik

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  • FACILITY LAYOUT

    Lecture-04

  • OUTLINE

    Facility layout: [Using QuantitativeMeasures]

    Facility layout: [Using Quantitative andQualitative Measures]

  • FLOW PROCESSES

  • Layout Evaluation Criteria

    The most commonly used quantitativecriterion for evaluating layout:

    TCMF :Total Cost of Material Flow per time period TCtran: Total Cost of Material Transport per time

    period TC : Total Cost of Material Movement per time

    period

    M

    1i

    M

    1jijijijtranMF dhfTCTCTC

  • Total Cost of Material Movement

    M: number of activities (facilities) fij : flow volume between activities i and j,

    measured per time period dij: distance between activities i and j,

    measured per time period hij: cost per move between activities i and

    j per unit distance

  • FACILITY LAYOUT

  • FACILITY LOCATION

  • FACILITY LAYOUT

    Machine LayoutDepartment Layout

  • Machine Layout Relationship between activities:

    Quantitative measures (Flow of materials) Other quantitative and qualitative measures are

    possible (e.g. adjacency) Flow Requirements

    Unit load (batch) sizes Equivalence Factors

    Machine Layout Criterion Total weighted distance Total cost Combination of Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria.

  • FLOW WITHIN DEPARTMENTS

    Depends on the type of machine layout Fixed Product Layout Product Layout

    Most flow is between adjacent machines. Depends on whether or not operators are

    shared between machines (end-to-end, front-to-front, U-shaped flow pattern, etc.)

    Group Layout Little flow between groups

  • FLOW WITHIN DEPARTMENTS

    Process Layout Variable-path material handling Most flow is between machines Flow pattern depends on machine-aisle

    arrangement (Two-way aisles; One-way aisles)

  • QAP Model of Machine Layout

    Machine layout can be modelled as aQuadratic Assignment Problem (QAP)

  • QAP

  • Example:[4 Sites & 4 Facilities]

  • QAP

    The layout models are NP-complete Optimal algorithms: Branch and bound,

    Decomposition, Cutting plane algorithms These algorithms can produce optimal solutions

    for only small sized problem (M20. Heuristic (non-optimal) procedures are typically

    used to solve QAPs Steepest Descent Pairwise Interchange (SDPI)

    Heuristic

  • Steepest Descent

  • SLP

  • Qualitative Relationships

    Material Flow Personnel Flow Same resource Same personnel Communication Safety Noise Structural

  • Systematic Layout Planning

  • RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMMING FOR NEWLAYOUTS

    Step-1: Select the first department to enter thelayout (The Dept with the greatest number ofA)

    Step-2:Select the second department to enterthe layout (The Dept selected should have an Arelationship with the first Dept.)

    Step-3:Select the third department to enter thelayout (The third Dept selected should have thehighest combined relationship with the twoDepts)

  • RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMMING FOR NEWLAYOUTS

    Step-4:Select the fourth department to enter thelayout (The same logic as in Step-3)

    Step-n:Department n is placed according to therules described in Steps 3 and 4.

  • Systematic Layout Planning

  • Systematic Layout Planning

  • Systematic Layout Planning

  • Department Layout Manufacturing Departments

    A group of machines and/or workstations Non-Manufacturing Departments

    Shipping/Receiving areas, Storage areas,Offices, Cafeterias, etc.

    Flow Pattern between Departments U-shaped, S-Shaped, W-Shaped.

    Block Layout Representations

  • Block Layout Representations

  • Non-Manufacturing Departments Offices offices for administrative, support, and

    engineering staff; meeting/conference rooms;etc.

    Storage/Warehousing dedicated areas outsidesof each manufacturing department for thestorage of raw materials, in-process inventories,and finished goods.

    Shipping/Receiving dockboard area, manuveringarea for MHE used for loading/unloading,buffer/staging areas, container and trash storage,offices and truckers lounge.

    Restrooms located within 200 feet of everypermanent workstation.

  • Non-Manufacturing Departments

    Food Services Health Services, looker rooms, and wash

    rooms. Plant Services HVAC, pump, generators,

    etc. Emergency exits an exit must be within

    150 ft of any point in the building.

  • Total Facility

  • Total Site

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