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Tiger article Bengal Tiger Panthera Tigris


  • Tiger 1


    TigerTemporal range: Early Pleistocene Recent

    A Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris) in India's Bandhavgarh National Park

    Conservation status

    Endangered (IUCN 3.1)[]

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: FelidaeGenus: PantheraSpecies: P. tigris

    Binomial name

    Panthera tigris(Linnaeus, 1758)


    P. t. tigrisP. t. corbettiP. t. jacksoniP. t. sumatraeP. t. altaicaP. t. amoyensisP. t. virgataP. t. balicaP. t. sondaica

  • Tiger 2

    Tiger's historic range in about 1850 (pale yellow) and in 2006 (in green).[]


    Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758[1]Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858

    Tigris regalis Gray, 1867

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3m (11ft) and weighingup to 306kg (670lb). It is the third largest land carnivore (behind only the polar bear and the brown bear). Its mostrecognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. It hasexceptionally stout teeth, and the canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of as much as74.5mm (2.93in) or even 90mm (3.5in).[2] In zoos, tigers have lived for 20 to 26 years, which also seems to betheir longevity in the wild.[3] They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring largecontiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenousto some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central Asia, from theislands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia. Today, they range from the Siberiantaiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified asendangered by IUCN. The global population in the wild is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals,down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century,[4] with most remaining populations occurring in smallpockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitatfragmentation and poaching.[] The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than 1,184,911 km2

    (457,497sqmi), a 41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s.[5]

    Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. They have featuredprominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. Tigersappear on many flags, coats of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams.[6] The Bengal tiger is the national animal ofboth India and Bangladesh.[7]

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    Taxonomy and etymologyIn 1758, Linnaeus first described the species in his work Systema Naturae under the scientific name Felis tigris.[1] In1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using thescientific name Panthera tigris.[8]

    The word Panthera is probably of Oriental origin and retraceable to the Ancient Greek word panther, the Latin wordpanthera, the Old French word pantere, most likely meaning "the yellowish animal", or from pandarah meaningwhitish-yellow. The derivation from Greek pan- ("all") and ther ("beast") may be folk etymology that led to manycurious fables.[9]

    The word "tiger" is traceable to the Latin word tigris, meaning "a spotted tigerhound of Actaeon".[10] The Greekword tigris is possibly derived from a Persian source.[11]

    Range of the tiger in 1900 and 1990

    Characteristics and evolution

    The oldest remains of a tiger-like cat, called Panthera palaeosinensis,have been found in China and Java. This species lived about 2 millionyears ago, at the beginning of the Pleistocene, and was smaller than amodern tiger. The earliest fossils of true tigers are known from Java,and are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. Distinct fossils from theearly and middle Pleistocene were also discovered in deposits in Chinaand Sumatra. A subspecies called the Trinil tiger (Panthera tigristrinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossilsfound at Trinil in Java.[12]

    Tigers first reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia (but not the AmericanContinent), Japan, and Sakhalin. Fossils found in Japan indicate the local tigers were, like the surviving islandsubspecies, smaller than the mainland forms. This may be due to the phenomenon in which body size is related toenvironmental space (see insular dwarfism), or perhaps the availability of prey. Until the Holocene, tigers also livedin Borneo, as well as on the island of Palawan in the Philippines.[13]



    Tigers have muscular bodies with particularly powerful forelimbs andlarge heads. The pelage coloration varies between shades of orange orbrown with white ventral areas and distinctive black stripes. Theirfaces have long whiskers, which are especially long in males. Thepupils are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears haveblack markings on the back, surrounding a white spot.[2] These spots,called ocelli, play an important role in intraspecific communication.[14]

    The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and these uniquemarkings can be used by researchers to identify individuals (both in thewild and captivity), in much the same way as fingerprints are used to identify humans. The function of stripes islikely camouflage, serving to help tigers conceal themselves amongst the dappled shadows and long grass of theirenvironments as they stalk their prey. The stripe pattern is also found on the skin of the tiger. If a tiger were to beshaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved.

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    Skull, as drawn by N. N. Kondakov.

    Tigers are the most variable in size of all big cats, even more so thanleopards and much more so than lions.[] The Bengal, Caspian andSiberian tiger subspecies represent the largest living felids, and rankamong the biggest felids that ever existed. An average adult male tigerfrom Northern India or Siberia outweighs an average adult male lionby around 45.5kg (100lb).[] Females vary in length from 200 to 275cm (79 to 108 in), weigh 65 to 167 kg (140 to 370 lb) with a greatestlength of skull ranging from 268 to 318 mm (10.6 to 12.5 in). Malesvary in size from 250 to 390 cm (98 to 150 in), weigh 90 to 306 kg(200 to 670 lb) with a greatest length of skull ranging from 316 to 383mm (12.4 to 15.1 in).[15] Body size of different populations seems to becorrelated with climateBergmann's ruleand can be explained bythermoregulation.[2] Large male Siberian tigers can reach a total lengthof more than 3.5m (11.5ft) "over curves", 3.3m (10.8ft) "betweenpegs" and a weight of 306kg (670lb). This is considerably larger thanthe size reached by the smallest living tiger subspecies, the Sumatrantiger, which reaches a body weight of 75 to 140 kg (170 to 310 lb). Ofthe total length of a tiger, the tail comprises 0.6 to 1.1 m (2.0 to 3.6 ft).[16][17] At the shoulder, tigers may variouslystand 0.7 to 1.22 m (2.3 to 4.0 ft) tall.[3] The accepted record weight, per the Guinness Book of World Records, for awild tiger was 389kg (860lb) for a Bengal tiger shot in 1967, though its weight may have been boosted because ithad eaten a water buffalo the previous night.[][18]

    Tigresses are smaller than the males in each subspecies, although the size difference between male and female tigerstends to be more pronounced in the larger tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.7 times more than thefemales.[19] In addition, male tigers have wider forepaw pads than females. Biologists use this difference in tracks todetermine gender.[] The skull of the tiger is very similar to that of the lion, though the frontal region is usually not asdepressed or flattened, with a slightly longer postorbital region. The skull of a lion has broader nasal openings.However, due to the amount of skull variation in the two species, usually, only the structure of the lower jaw can beused as a reliable indicator of species.[20]

    SubspeciesThere are 9 subspecies of tiger, three of which are extinct. Their historical range in Bangladesh, Siberia, Iran,Afghanistan, India, China, and southeast Asia, including three Indonesian islands is severely diminished today. Thesurviving subspecies, in descending order of wild population, are: The Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris), also called the Indian tiger, lives in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh, and is

    the most common subspecies, with populations estimated at less than 2,500 adult individuals. In 2011, the total population of adult tigers was estimated at 1,5201,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 155 in Nepal and 75 in Bhutan.[21] It lives in alluvial grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests, and mangroves. Male Bengal tigers have a total length, including the tail, of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in), while females range from 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in). The weight of males range from 180 to 260 kg (400 to 570 lb), while that of the females range from 100 to 160 kg (220 to 350 lb).[2][22] In northern India and Nepal, tigers tend to be of larger size. Males often average 235 kilograms (520lb), while females average 141 kilograms (310lb).[23] In 1972, Project Tiger was founded in India aiming at ensuring a viable population of tigers in the country and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the people.[24] But the illicit demand for bones and body parts from wild tigers for use in traditional Chinese medicine is the reason for the unrelenting poaching pressure on tigers on the Indian subcontinent.[25] Between 1994 and 2009, the Wildlife Protection Society of India has documented 893 cases of tigers killed in India, which is just a fraction of the

  • Tiger 5

    actual poaching and illegal trade in tiger parts during those years.[26] An area of special conservation interest liesin the Terai Arc Landscape in the Himalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11 protectedareas comprising dry forest foothills and tall grass savannas harbor tigers in a landscape of 49,000 squarekilometres (19,000sqmi). The goals are to manage tigers as a single metapopulation, the dispersal of whichbetween core refuges can help maintain genetic, demographic, and ecological integrity, and to ensure that speciesand habitat conservation becomes mainstreamed into the rural development agenda. In Nepal, a community-basedtourism model has been developed with a strong emphasis on sharing benefits with local people and on theregeneration of degraded forests. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, andcreating a local constituency for conservation.[27]

    The Indochinese tiger (P. t. corbetti), also called Corbett's tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma,Thailand, and Vietnam. These tigers are smaller and darker than Bengal tigers. Males weigh from 150195kg(330430lb), while females are smaller at 100130kg (220290lb).[2] Their preferred habitat is forests inmountainous or hilly regions. According to government estimates of national tiger populations, the subspeciesnumbers around a total of 350 individuals.[28] All existing populations are at extreme risk from poaching, preydepletion as a result of poaching of primary prey species such as deer and wild pigs, habitat fragmentation, andinbreeding. In Vietnam, almost three-quarters of the tigers killed provide stock for Chinese pharmacies.

    The Malayan tiger (P. t. jacksoni), exclusively found in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, was notconsidered a subspecies in its own right until 2004. The new classification came about after a study by Luo et al.from the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity Study, part of the National Cancer Institute of the United States.According to official government figures, the population in the wild may number around 500 individuals, but isunder considerable poaching pressure. The Malayan tiger is the smallest of the mainland tiger subspecies, and thesecond-smallest living subspecies, with males averaging about 120kg (260lb) and females about 100kg (220lb)in weight. The Malayan tiger is a national icon in Malaysia, appearing on its coat of arms and in logos ofMalaysian institutions, such as Maybank.

    The Sumatran tiger (P. t. sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, and is criticallyendangered.[29] It is the smallest of all living tiger subspecies, with adult males weighing between 100 and 140 kg(220 and 310 lb) and females 75 and 110 kg (170 and 240 lb).[2] Their small size is an adaptation to the thick,dense forests of the island of Sumatra where they reside, as well as the smaller-sized prey. The wild population isestimated at between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks. Recent genetic testing has revealedthe presence of unique genetic markers, indicating it may develop into a separate species,Wikipedia:Citingsources if it does not go extinct.[30] This has led to suggestions that Sumatran tigers should have greater priorityfor conservation than any other subspecies. While habitat destruction is the main threat to existing tigerpopulation (logging continues even in the supposedly protected national parks), 66 tigers were recorded as beingshot and killed between 1998 and 2000, or nearly 20% of the total population.

    The Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica), also known as the Amur tiger, inhabits the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in far eastern Siberia.[31] It ranks among the largest felids ever to have existed, with a head and body length of 160180cm (6371in) for females and 190230cm (7591in) for males, plus a tail of about 60110cm (2443in), with adult males weighing between 180 and 306 kg (400 and 670 lb) and females 100 and 167 kg (220 and 370 lb).[2] The average weight of an adult male is around 227kg (500lb). Siberian tigers have thick coats, a paler golden hue, and fewer stripes.[2] The heaviest wild Siberian tiger weighed 384kg (850lb), but according to Mazk, this record is not reliable.[3] In 2005, there were 331393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population has been stable for more than a decade, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate the Russian tiger population is declining.[32] At the turn of the century, the phylogenetic relationships of tiger subspecies was reassessed, and a remarkable similarity between the Siberian and Caspian tigers was observed, indicating the Siberian tiger population is the genetically closest living relative of the extinct Caspian tiger, and strongly implying a very

  • Tiger 6

    recent common ancestry for the two groups.[33]

    The South China tiger (P. t. amoyensis), also known as the Amoy or Xiamen tiger, is the most criticallyendangered subspecies of tiger, and is listed as one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world.[34] One of thesmaller tiger subspecies, the length of the South China tiger ranges from 2.22.6m (87100in) for both malesand females. Males weigh between 127 and 177 kg (280 and 390 lb) while females weigh between 100 and 118kg (220 and 260 lb). From 1983 to 2007, no South China tigers were sighted.[] In 2007, a farmer spotted a tigerand handed in photographs to the authorities as proof.[][35] The photographs in question, however, were laterexposed as fake, copied from a Chinese calendar and digitally altered, and the "sighting" turned into a massivescandal.[36][37][38] In 1977, the Chinese government passed a law banning the killing of wild tigers, but this mayhave been too late to save the subspecies, since it is possibly already extinct in the wild. Currently, 59 captiveSouth China tigers are known, all within China, but these are known to be descended from only six animals. Thus,the genetic diversity required to maintain the subspecies may no longer exist.[citation needed] Currently, efforts arebeing made to breed and reintroduce these tigers to the wild.[citation needed]

    Bengal tiger at RanthamboreNational Park

    Indochinese tiger Malayan tiger Sumatran tiger

    Siberian tiger Siberian tiger South China tiger

    Extinct subspecies

    A hunted-down Bali tiger

    The Bali tiger (P. t. balica) was limited to the Indonesian island ofBali, and was the smallest subspecies, with a weight of 90100kg(200220lb) in males and 6580kg (140180lb) in females.[3]

    Bali tigers were hunted to extinctionthe last Bali tiger, an adultfemale, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali,on 27 September 1937. There is no Bali tiger in captivity. The tigerstill plays an important role in Balinese Hinduism.

    The Caspian tiger (P. t. virgata), also known as the Hyrcaniantiger or Turan tiger was found in the sparse forest habitats andriverine corridors west and south of the Caspian Sea and west through Central Asia into the Takla-Makan desertof Xinjiang, and had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s.[39] The Amur tiger is the genetically closestliving relative of the Caspian tiger.[33]

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    A Javan tiger

    A captive Caspian tiger, Berlin ZoologicalGarden 1899

    The Javan tiger (P. t. sondaica) was limited to the island of Java,and had been recorded until the mid-1970s.[40] Javan tigers werelarger than Bali tigers; males weighed 100140kg (220310lb) andfemales 75115kg (170250lb).[41] After 1979, no more sightingswere confirmed in the region of Mount Betiri.[42] An expedition toMount Halimun Salak National Park in 1990 did not yield anydefinite, direct evidence for the continued existence of tigers.[43]


    Hybridisation among the big cats, including the tiger, was firstconceptualised in the 19th century, when zoos were particularlyinterested in the pursuit of finding oddities to display for financialgain.[] Lions have been known to breed with tigers (most often theAmur and Bengal subspecies) to create hybrids called ligers andtigons.[44] Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this isnow discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species andsubspecies. Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos inChina.

    The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress.[] Because thelion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the correspondinggrowth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent. They share physicaland behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male ligers are sterile,but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, theirmanes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion. Ligers are typically between 10 and 12feet in length,and can weigh between 800 and 1,000pounds or more.[]

    The less common tigon is a cross between the lioness and the male tiger.[45]

    Colour variations

    White tigers

    A Bengal white tiger in Bannerghatta NationalPark in Bangalore

    A well-known allele produces the white tiger, technically known aschinchilla albinistic,[] an animal which is rare in the wild, but widelybred in zoos due to its popularity. Breeding of white tigers will oftenlead to inbreeding (as the trait is recessive). Many initiatives havetaken place in white and orange tiger mating in an attempt to remedythe issue, often mixing subspecies in the process. Such inbreeding hasled to white tigers having a greater likelihood of being born withphysical defects, such as cleft palates and scoliosis (curvature of thespine).[][46] Furthermore, white tigers are prone to having crossed eyes(strabismus). Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not liveas long as their orange counterparts. Records of white tigers were first

    made in the early 19th century.[47] They can only occur when both parents carry the rare gene found in white tigers;this gene has been calculated to occur in only one in every 10,000 births. The white tiger

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    A pair of white tigers at the Singapore Zoo

    is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation; since the onlywhite tigers to have been observed in the wild have been Bengaltigers[48] (and all white tigers in captivity are at least part Bengal), therecessive gene that causes the white colouring is commonly thought tobe carried only by Bengal tigers, although the reasons for this are notknown.[][49] They are not in any way more endangered than tigers aregenerally, this being a common misconception. Another misconceptionis white tigers are albinos, despite pigment being evident in the whitetiger's stripes. They are distinct not only because of their white hue, butthey also have blue eyes.

    The causative mutation has been identified: it is due to a mutation in codon 477 from Alanine to Valine (A477V) inthe transporter protein SLC45A2.[50] The mutation is a transition from a cytosine to a thymidine at base position1429 in the coding sequence.

    Golden tigers

    A rare golden tiger at the Buffalo Zoo

    In addition, another recessive gene may create a very unusual "golden"or "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry".Golden tigers have light-gold fur, pale legs, and faint orange stripes.Their fur tends to be much thicker than normal.[51] Extremely fewgolden tigers are kept in captivity, around 30 in all. Like white tigers,golden tigers are invariably at least part Bengal. Some golden tigerscarry the white tiger gene, and when two such tigers are mated, theycan produce some stripeless white offspring. Both white and goldentigers tend to be larger than average Bengal tigers.

    Other colour variations

    No black tiger has been authenticated, with the possible exception ofone dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846.[52] There areunconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, the Maltese tiger. Largely or totally black tigers are assumed,if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species.[]

    Distribution and habitatIn the past, tigers were found throughout Asia, from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to Siberia and the Indonesianislands of Java, Bali and Sumatra. During the 20th century, tigers have been extirpated in western Asia and becamerestricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range. Today, their fragmented and partly degraded rangeextends from India in the west to China and Southeast Asia. The northern limit of their range is close to the AmurRiver in southeastern Siberia. The only large island inhabited by tigers today is Sumatra.[]

    Tigers were extirpated on the island of Bali in the 1940s, around the Caspian Sea in the 1970s, and on Java in the1980s. Loss of habitat and the persistent killing of tigers and tiger prey precipitated these extirpations, a process thatcontinues to leave forests devoid of tigers and other large mammals across South and Southeast Asia. Since thebeginning of the 20th century, their historical range has shrunk by 93%. In the decade from 1997 to 2007, theestimated area known to be occupied by tigers has declined by 41%.[]

    Fossil remains indicate tigers were present in Borneo and Palawan in the Philippines during the late Pleistocene andHolocene.[53][54]

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    Tigers can occupy a wide range of habitat types, but will usually require sufficient cover, proximity to water, and anabundance of prey. Bengal tigers live in many types of forests, including wet, evergreen, and the semievergreen ofAssam and eastern Bengal; the swampy mangrove forest of the Ganges Delta; the deciduous forest of Nepal, and thethorn forests of the Western Ghats. In various parts of their range they inhabit or have inhabited additionally partiallyopen grassland and savanna as well as taiga forests and rocky habitats. Compared to the lion, the tiger prefers denservegetation, for which its camouflage colouring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantagecompared with the multiple felines in a pride. A further habitat requirement is the placement of suitably secluded denlocations, which may consist of caves, large hollow trees, or dense vegetation.[55]

    Biology and behaviour

    Territorial behaviour

    A tiger in a pool at Zoo Dortmund in Dortmund,Germany

    Adult tigers lead solitary lives and congregate only on an ad hoc andtransitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentifulsupply of food. They establish and maintain home ranges. Residentadults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definiteterritory, within which they satisfy their needs, and in the case oftigresses, those of their growing cubs. Those sharing the same groundare well aware of each other's movements and activities.[52]

    The size of a tiger's home range mainly depends on prey abundance,and, in the case of male tigers, on access to females. A tigress mayhave a territory of 20km2 (7.7sqmi), while the territories of males aremuch larger, covering 60 to 100 km2 (23 to 39 sqmi). The range of a male tends to overlap those of severalfemales.[56]

    Tigers are strong swimmers, and are often found bathing in ponds, lakes, and rivers. Among fellow big cats, only thejaguar shares with the tiger a similar fondness for and capability in the water.[57] They may also cross rivers up to 6to 7 km (3.7 to 4.3 mi) across and can swim a distance of up to 29km (18mi) in a day.[55] During the extreme heatof the day, they often cool off in pools. They are able to carry prey through or capture it in the water.

    Tigers for the most part are solitary animals.

    The relationships between individuals can be quite complex, andapparently tigers follow no set "rule" with regards to territorial rightsand infringing territories. For instance, although for the most part tigersavoid each other, both male and female tigers have been documentedsharing kills, usually with others of the opposite sex, or cubs. GeorgeSchaller observed a male tiger share a kill with two females and fourcubs. Females are often reluctant to let males near their cubs, butSchaller saw these females made no effort to protect or keep their cubsfrom the male, suggesting the male might have been the sire of thecubs. In contrast to male lions, male tigers will allow the females andcubs to feed on the kill first. Furthermore, tigers seem to behave

    relatively amicably when sharing kills, in contrast to lions, which tend to squabble and fight. Unrelated tigers havealso been observed feeding on prey together. This quotation is from Stephen Mills' book Tiger, as he describes anevent witnessed by Valmik Thapar and Fateh Singh Rathore in Ranthambhore National Park:[58]

    A dominant tigress they called Padmini killed a 250kg (550lb) male nilgai a very large antelope. They found her at the kill just after dawn with her three 14-month-old cubs and they watched uninterrupted for the next ten hours. During this period the family was joined by two adult females and

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    one adult male all offspring from Padmini's previous litters and by two unrelated tigers, one female theother unidentified. By three o'clock there were no fewer than nine tigers round the kill.

    When young female tigers first establish a territory, they tend to do so fairly close to their mother's area. The overlapbetween the female and her mother's territory tends to wane with increasing time. Males, however, wander furtherthan their female counterparts, and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area. A young male will acquireterritory either by seeking out a range devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male'sterritory until he is old and strong enough to challenge the resident male. The highest mortality rate (3035% peryear) amongst adult tigers occurs for young male tigers which have just left their natal area, seeking out territories oftheir own.[58]

    Tiger dentition (above), compared with that of anAsian black bear (below): The large canines areused to make the killing bite, but they tear meat

    when feeding using the carnassial teeth.

    Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within theirterritories than females are of other females. For the most part,however, territorial disputes are usually solved by displays ofintimidation, rather than outright aggression. Several such incidentshave been observed, in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat byrolling onto its back, showing its belly in a submissive posture.[59]

    Once dominance has been established, a male may actually tolerate asubordinate within his range, as long as they do not live in too closequarters.[58] The most violent disputes tend to occur between twomales when a female is in oestrus, and may result in the death of one ofthe males, although this is a rare occurrence.[58][59]

    To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying of urine[60]

    and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat. Malesshow a grimacing face, called the Flehmen response, when identifyinga female's reproductive condition by sniffing her urine markings. Like the other Panthera cats, tigers can roar. Tigerswill roar for both aggressive and nonaggressive reasons. Other tiger vocal communications include moans, hisses,growls, and chuffs.

    Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. The populations of tigers were estimated in thepast using plaster casts of their pugmarks. This method was criticized as being inaccurate.[61] Attempts were made touse camera trapping instead. Newer techniques based on DNA from their scat are also being evaluated. Radiocollaring has also been a popular approach to tracking them for study in the wild.

    Hunting and diet

    Ernst Rudolf's "The Tiger Hunt"

    In the wild, tigers mostly feed on large and medium-sized animals,with most studies indicating a preference for native ungulates weighing90kg (200lb) at a minimum.[][62] Sambar, chital, barasingha, wildboar, gaur, nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo, indescending order of preference, are the tiger's favoured prey in India.[]

    Sometimes, they also prey on other predators, including other largespecies, such as leopards, pythons, sloth bears, and crocodiles. InSiberia, the main prey species are manchurian wapiti and wild boar(the two species comprising nearly 80% of the prey selected) followedby sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer.[] In Sumatra, sambar,muntjac, wild boar, and Malayan tapir are the predominant prey.[63][64]

    In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, Caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses.

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    Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowl, other large,ground-based birds, hares, porcupines, and fish.[]

    Adult elephants are too large to serve as common prey, but conflicts between tigers and elephants, with the hugeelephant typically dominating the predator, do sometimes take place.[65] A case where a tiger killed an adult Indianrhinoceros has been observed, although adult rhinoceroses are often ignored as potential prey due to a combinationof very large size, a short temper, and very thick skin, which render them a laborious and very difficult kill.[66]

    Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. Tigers also sometimes prey on domesticated animals, suchas dogs, cattle, horses, and donkeys. These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typicalgame-killers.[67]

    Old tigers, or those wounded and rendered incapable of catching their natural prey, have turned into man-eaters; thispattern has recurred frequently across India. An exceptional case is that of the Sundarbans, where healthy tigers preyupon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet.[68]

    Tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fiber, the fruit of the slow match tree being favoured.[67]

    A Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with Indian Pangolin(Manis crassicaudata)Tadoba Tiger Reserve, Maharastra

    Tiger with kill

    Tigers are thought to be nocturnal predators,hunting at night.[69] However, in areaswhere humans are typically absent, theyhave been observed via remote-controlled,hidden cameras, hunting during the daylighthours.[70] They generally hunt alone andambush their prey as most other cats do,overpowering them from any angle, usingtheir body size and strength to knock theprey off balance. Successful hunts usuallyrequire the tiger to almost simultaneouslyleap onto its quarry, knock it over, and grabthe throat or nape with its teeth.[55] Evenwith their great masses, tigers can reachspeeds of about 4965km/hr (3540mi'hr),although they can only do so in short bursts,since they have relatively little stamina;consequently, tigers must be relatively closeto their prey before they break their cover. Ifthe prey catches wind of the tiger's presencebefore the moments of the pounce, the tigerwill usually abandon the hunt rather thanchase prey or battle it head-on. Tigers havegreat leaping ability; horizontal leaps of upto 10m (33ft) have been reported, althoughleaps of around half this amount are more

    typical. However, only one in 20 hunts, including any instances of stalking in proximity to potential prey, ends in asuccessful kill.[55][69] An adult tiger can go up to two weeks without eating, but then can gorge on up to 34kg (75lb)of flesh at one time. In captivity, adult tigers are fed 3 to 6 kg (6.6 to 13 lb) of meat a day.[55] Due to their lowhunting success rate, ability to go prolonged periods without food, and naturally low population densities, tigerstypically have little to no deleterious effect on the populations of the species on which they prey. Several other largecarnivores, such as gray wolves, spotted hyenas, and lions, live in groups and need to capture relatively greaterquantities of prey to feed and maintain stability in their respective packs, clans, or prides.[55]

  • Tiger 12

    When hunting large prey, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their extremely powerful forelimbs to hold onto theprey, often simultaneously wrestling it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies ofstrangulation.[14] By this method, gaurs and water buffalos weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighingabout a sixth as much.[71] Although they can kill healthy adults of large bovids weighing at least 1,000kg (2,200lb),tigers often select the calves or infirm of very large species.[15] Large prey can be quite dangerous to tackle, with thegreat bulk and massive horns of large bovids, the strong legs and antlers of mature deer, and the long, powerful tusksof boars all being potentially fatal to the tiger. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large ontheir own.[72][73] Whilst hunting sambars, which comprise up to 60% of their prey in India, tigers have reportedlycalled out a passable impersonation of the male sambar's rutting call to attract them.[][67] With small prey, such asmonkeys and hares, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing thejugular vein or common carotid artery.[74] Though rarely observed, some tigers have been recorded to kill prey byswiping with their paws, which are powerful enough to smash the skulls of domestic cattle,[67] and break the backsof sloth bears.[] After killing their prey, tigers sometimes drag it to conceal it in vegetative cover, usually pulling itby grasping with their mouths at the site of the killing bite (on the throat in large prey, on the nape in smaller prey).This, too, can require great physical strength. In one case, after it had killed an adult gaur, a tiger was observed todrag the massive carcass over a distance of 12m (39ft). When 13 men simultaneously tried to drag the same carcasslater, they were unable to move it.[55]

    During the 1980s, a tiger named "Genghis" in Ranthambhore National Park was observed frequently hunting preythrough deep lake water,[75] a pattern of behaviour that had not been previously witnessed in over 200 years ofobservations. Moreover, he appeared to be extraordinarily successful for a tiger, with as many as 20% of huntsending in a kill.


    A tigress with her cubs in the Kanha TigerReserve, India

    A Bengal tigress with her cubs at theBandhavgarh National Park, India

    Mating can occur all year round, but is generally more commonbetween November and April.[55] A female is only receptive for threeto six days and mating is frequent during that time period. A pair willcopulate frequently and noisily, like other cats. The gestation periodcan range from 93 to 112 days, although the average is 104106days.[55] The litter size usually consists of one to six cubs, though twoor three are usually the norm. Cubs can weigh from 680 to 1,400 g (1.5to 3.1 lb) each at birth and are born blind and helpless.[55] The femalesrear them alone, with the birth site and maternal den being sheleteredlocations such as thickets, caves and rocky crevices. The father of thecubs generally takes no part in rearing them. Unrelated wandering maletigers may even kill cubs to make the female receptive, since thetigress may give birth to another litter within five months if the cubs ofthe previous litter are lost.[55] The mortality rate of tiger cubs is fairlyhigh about half do not survive more than two years.[55] Few otherpredators attack tiger cubs due to the diligence and ferocity of themother tiger. Beyond humans and other tigers, common causes of cubmortality are starvation, freezing, and accidents.[73]

    Generally, a dominant cub emerges in each litter, which tends to bemale, but may be of either sex.[75] This cub generally dominates itssiblings during play and tends to be more active, leaving its mother

    earlier than usual. The cubs open their eyes at six to 14 days old. At eight weeks, the cubs may make short ventures out of the den with their mother, although they do not travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older.

  • Tiger 13

    The cubs are nursed in total for a period of three to six months. Around the time they are weaned, they start regularlyengaging in territorial walks with their mother. During this stage, the tigress' young are also taught how to hunt. Thecubs are often capable (and nearly adult size) hunters by the time they are 11 months old.[55] The cubs becomeindependent around 18 months of age, but it is not until they are around 22 years old that they fully separate fromtheir mother. Females reach sexual maturity at three to four years, whereas males reach sexual maturity at 45 yr.[55]

    Over the course of her life, a female tiger will typically give birth to an approximately equal number of male andfemale cubs. Tigers breed well in captivity, and the captive population in the United States may rival the wildpopulation of the world.[] The known limit for lifespan in captivity is 26 years, and while captive animals usuallyoutlive wild ones, although a wild adult tiger, with no natural predators as long as does not run afoul of humans, canlikely live to a comparable age.[55]

    Interspecific predatory relationships

    Tiger hunted by wild dogs (dholes) as illustratedin Samuel Howett & Edward Orme, HandColoured, Aquatint Engravings, published

    London 1807

    Tigers usually prefer to eat prey they have caught themselves, but arenot above eating carrion in times of scarcity and may even pirate preyfrom other large carnivores. Although predators typically avoid oneanother, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor isencountered, displays of aggression are a regular occurrence. If theseare not sufficient, the conflicts may come turn violent and tigers maykill such formidable competitors as leopards, striped hyenas, pythonsand even crocodiles on occasion.[76][77][78][79] In some cases, ratherthan being strictly competitive, the attacks by tigers on other largecarnivores seem to be predatory in nature. Situations where smallerpredators, such as badgers, lynxes, and foxes are attacked, are almostcertainly predatory.[] Interestingly, this species' closest living relative,the lion, deals with competing predators very differently, undoubtedlybecause it lives in large prides. Lions do not treat other predators as prey, as do tigers, but invest a good deal of timeproactively tracking down other predators and killing them, then leaving their bodies uneaten. Lions kill competitorsfrom honey badgers to spotted hyenas and, in protected areas of Africa, are the leading cause of mortality for Africanwild dogs and cheetahs. The tiger does not spend as much time tracking down other predators.[][80]

    Occasionally, a large crocodile may attempt to prey upon a tiger. When seized by a crocodile, a tiger will strike atthe reptile's eyes with its paws.[67] When killing crocodiles, after stunning them about the face, tigers will flip thereptile's body over and disembowel it through the softer belly rather try to penetrate the thick, well-armored upperhide.[81] Eighteenth-century physician Oliver Goldsmith described the frequent conflicts between mugger crocodilesand tigers that occurred during that time. Thirsty tigers would frequently descend to the rivers to drink and onoccasion were seized and killed by the muggers, though more often the tiger escaped and the reptile was disabled.[82]

    Mature mugger crocodiles may target much the same prey as the tiger, including sambar and water buffalo.Occasionally, a mugger and a tiger will try to claim a carcass killed by either one, resulting in a "tug of war" at thewater's edge until one of them comes away with it.[83] A potentially more formidable foe is the larger, moreaggressive Saltwater Crocodile, which the tiger rarely encounters outside of estuarian regions of eastern India. Thefirst confirmed case of a saltwater crocodile predating an adult tiger occurred in that region in 2011.[84] There is asecond-hand account of a tiger killing a "small" saltwater crocodile.[81]

    The considerably smaller leopard dodges competition from tigers by hunting in different times of the day and hunting different prey.[85] In Indias Nagarhole National Park, most prey selected by leopards were from 30 to 175 kg (66 to 390 lb) against a preference for prey weighing over 176kg (390lb) in the tigers. The average prey weight in the two respective big cats in India was 37.6kg (83lb) against 91.5kg (202lb). With relatively abundant prey, tigers and leopards were seen to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or interspecies dominance

  • Tiger 14

    hierarchies that may be more common to the savanna (where the leopard may coexist with the lion).[86] Tigers havebeen known to suppress wolf populations in areas where the two species coexist, mainly via competitiveexclusion.[][] There four proven records of Siberian tigers killing wolves and not eating them.[87] Dhole packs havebeen observed to challenge the big cats in disputes over food and have even killed tigers in rare cases. However,tigers have also been observed killing multiple dholes at once, and dholes will typically only attack a tiger directly ifthe pack is quite large.[] Lone golden jackals expelled from their pack have been known to form commensalrelationships with tigers. These solitary jackals, known as kol-bahl, will attach themselves to a particular tiger,trailing it at a safe distance to feed on the big cat's kills. A kol-bahl will even alert a tiger to a kill with a loud pheal.Tigers have been known to tolerate these jackals: one report describes how a jackal confidently walked in and outbetween three tigers walking together a few feet away from each other.[] When in the presence of a tiger, a goldenjackal pack will emit a howl very different from its normal vocalization that is thought to function as a warning toother jackals.[88]

    Other than the rare large crocodile or large dhole pack, the only serious competitors to tigers are bears. Some bears,especially the brown bear of the north, will try to steal tigers' kills, although the tiger will sometimes defend its kill.However, in some cases, bears (especially cubs) are preyed upon by tigers. Although it hunts all its prey by ambush,tigers are especially cautious when handling bears, as many bears are capable of killing a tiger whilst defendingthemselves. Predation seems especially prevalent in India, where tigers may attack sloth bears. The sloth bears canbe quite aggressive and will sometimes displace young tigers away from their kills or successfully defend themselveswith counterattacks. Despite this, sloth bears are killed with some regularity and react fearfully to the presence oftigers or even stimuli related to them (i.e. the call of the sambar deer due to the tiger's impersonation of it).[3][67]

    Bears (Asiatic black bears and brown bears) make up 58% of the tiger's diet in the Russian Far East.[3] Someaccounts claim black bears more successfully avoid predation by tigers because they are skilled tree-climbers,although dietary research has contrarily indicated the smaller, less aggressive black bear (comprising 46.5% of thetiger's local diet) is the more common prey species than the brown bear (at 11.5% of the diet).[3][89] Siberian tigersand brown bears usually avoid confrontation, but can sometimes be competitors, with dominance seeminglydetermined by the age, sex, and size of the rivals rather than species. Older and larger males of both species tend todominate in this interspecies conflict.[3] Some brown bears, upon emerging from hibernation, follow tigers habituallyto steal their kills.[89] Tigers will kill brown bear cubs and even adults on some occasions, especially if they find thebears in their dens during the hibernation cycle or in periods of low prey density in the fall.[] There are also recordsof brown bears killing tigers up to the size of adult males, either in self-defense or in disputes over kills.[3][20] Tigersmay additionally prey upon the other bear species it encounters (or had encountered historically), which includesgiant pandas and sun bears, but information is very limited on such interactions.[90]

    Conservation effortsThe tiger is an endangered species.[91] Poaching for fur and body parts and destruction of habitat havesimultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. At the start of the 20th century, it is estimated therewere over 100,000 tigers in the wild but the population has dwindled outside of captivity to between 1,500 and3,500.[92] Demand for tiger parts for the purposes of Traditional Chinese Medicine has also been cited as a majorthreat to tiger populations.[93][94] Some estimates suggest that there are less than 2,500 mature breeding individuals,with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals.[]

  • Tiger 15


    A Bengal tiger in a national park in southernIndia. Indian officials successfully reintroduced

    two Bengal tigers in the Sariska Tiger Reserve inJuly 2008.[95]

    India is home to the world's largest population of tigers in the wild.[96]

    According to the World Wildlife Fund, of the 3,500 tigers around theworld, 1,400 are found in India. Only 11% of original Indian tigerhabitat remains, and it is becoming significantly fragmented and oftendegraded.[97][98]

    A major concerted conservation effort, known as Project Tiger, hasbeen underway since 1973, initially spearheaded by Indira Gandhi. Thefundamental accomplishment has been the establishment of over 25well-monitored tiger reserves in reclaimed land where humandevelopment is categorically forbidden. The program has been creditedwith tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from roughly 1,200 in1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s. However, a tiger census carried out in2007, whose report was published on February 12, 2008, stated that the wild tiger population in India declined by60% to approximately 1,411.[99] It is noted in the report that the decrease of tiger population can be attributeddirectly to poaching.[]

    An Indian tiger at Guwahati Zoo in Assam, India.

    Following the release of the report, the Indian government pledged$153 million to further fund the Project Tiger initiative, set up a TigerProtection Force to combat poachers, and fund the relocation of up to200,000 villagers to minimise human-tiger interaction.[100]

    Additionally, eight new tiger reserves in India were set up.[101] Indianofficials successfully started a project to reintroduce the tigers into theSariska Tiger Reserve.[102] The Ranthambore National Park is oftencited as a major success by Indian officials against poaching.[103]

    Tigers Forever is a collaboration between the Wildlife ConservationSociety and Panthera Corporation to serve as both a science-basedaction plan and a business model to ensure that tigers live in the wild forever. Initial field sites of Tigers Foreverinclude the world's largest tiger reserve, the 21,756km2 (8,400sqmi) Hukaung Valley in Myanmar, the WesternGhats in India, Thailand's Huai Khai Khaeng-Thung Yai protected areas, and other sites in Laos PDR, Cambodia, theRussian Far East and China covering approximately 260,000 km2 (100,000sqmi) of critical tiger habitat.[104]

    RussiaThe Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals in the wild in the 1940s. Under theSoviet Union, anti-poaching controls were strict and a network of protected zones (zapovedniks) were instituted,leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. Poaching again became a problem in the 1990s, when theeconomy of Russia collapsed, local hunters had access to a formerly sealed off lucrative Chinese market, and loggingin the region increased. While an improvement in the local economy has led to greater resources being invested inconservation efforts, an increase of economic activity has led to an increased rate of development and deforestation.The major obstacle in preserving the species is the enormous territory individual tigers require (up to 450km2

    needed by a single female and more for a single male).[105] Current conservation efforts are led by local governmentsand NGO's in consort with international organisations, such as the World Wide Fund and the Wildlife ConservationSociety.[] The competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convincehunters in the Far East to tolerate the big cats, as they limit ungulate populations less than wolves, and are effectivein controlling the latter's numbers.[106] Currently, there are about 400550 animals in the wild.

  • Tiger 16

    ChinaDuring the early 1970s, such as in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, China rejected theWestern-led environmentalist movement as an impeachment on the full use of its own resources. However, thisstance softened during the 1980s, as China emerged from diplomatic isolation and desired normal trade relationswith Western countries. China became a party to the CITES treaty in 1981, bolstering efforts at tiger conservation bytransnational groups like Project Tiger, which were supported by the United Nations Development Programme andthe World Bank. In 1988, China passed the Law on the Protection of Wildlife, listing the tiger as a Category Iprotected species. In 1993, China banned the trade on tiger parts, which led to a drop in the number of tiger bonesharvested for use in traditional Chinese medicine.[]

    However, as the tiger bone trade was undermined by effective Chinese legislation in the 1990s, the Tibetan people'strade in tiger pelts emerged as a relatively more important threat to tigers. As wealth in the Tibetan areas increased,singers and participants in annual Tibetan horse races began to wear chuba (coats made out of Tiger skins) withlonger trims. Tiger pelt clothing became a standard of beauty, and even mandatory at weddings, with Tibetanfamilies competing to buy larger and larger pelts to demonstrate their social status.[] In 2003, Chinese customsofficials in Tibet intercepted 31 tigers, 581 leopards, and 778 otters, which if sold in the Tibetan capital of Lhasawould have netted $10,000, $850, and $250 respectively. By 2004, international conservation organizations such asWorld Wide Fund for Nature, Fauna and Flora International, and Conservation International were targeting Tibetansin China in successful environmental propaganda campaigns against the tiger skin trade. In the summer of 2005, theEnvironmental Investigation Agency sent undercover teams to Litang and Nagchu in order to film documentation ofTibetan violations of Chinese environmental law for submission to the Chinese CITES office. In April 2005, Carefor the Wild International and Wildlife Trust of India confronted the 14th Dalai Lama about the Tibetan trade, andhis response was recorded as "awkward" and "ambushed", with suspicion against the NGOs for trying to "dramatize"the situation as "mak[ing] it seem as if Tibetans were the culprit".[]

    Although popular accounts since the 1980s have portrayed the Tibetans as "having always lived in harmony with theearth", according to the Professor of Geography Emily Yeh, "None of the 14th Dalai Lama's seven books publishedbefore 1985, nor interviews that he gave from his arrival in India in 1959 through the mid-1980s, make reference toenvironmental issues or the relationship between Tibetan Buddhism and ecology". However, the NGO campaign inIndia threatened the goodwill of the Indian government towards the Dalai Lama's Central Tibetan Administration;the Indian environmentalist Maneka Gandhi even proposed on television to "throw all Tibetans out of India [as] eachone of them is a poacher".[] In May, the Dalai Lama was confronted in the United States by activists from theNational Geographic Society with evidence that Tibetans were the primary cause of the illegal tiger trade in China;he reacted as describing himself as "embarrassed". At the 2006 Kalachakra festival in India, he gave a speech to anaudience of 10,000, including 8000 Tibetans from China, in which he condemned "following the bad example of theostentatious garments made of tiger and leopard pelts worn by some protector deities such as Dgra lha" as"shameful". The speech made no reference to ethical or religious issues about killing animals, but instead focused onthe reputation of Tibetan exiles and their threatened status as citizens of India.[] The Dalai Lama later took credit in apress release for incidents of Tibetans burning their chubas, while decrying the arrest of those who complied withenvironmental regulations as a political statement in support of him.[107]

  • Tiger 17

    Population estimate

    Tiger headcount in 1990

    The global wild tiger population isestimated at anywhere between 3,062and 3,948 individuals. The WorldWide Fund for Nature estimates thetiger population at 3,200.[108] Theexact number of wild tigers isunknown, as many estimates areoutdated or come from educatedguesses. Few estimates are consideredreliable, coming from comprehensivescientific censuses. The table showsestimates per country according toIUCN and range countrygovernments.[109]

    Country Estimate

    Bangladesh 440

    Bhutan 75

    Cambodia 20

    China 45

    India 1,706

    Indonesia 325

    Laos 17

    Malaysia 500

    Myanmar 85

    Nepal 155

    North Korea n/a

    Russia 360

    Thailand 200

    Vietnam 20

    Total 3,948

  • Tiger 18


    OriginAlthough the term "rewilding" was used in conservation in other contexts since at least 1990,[110] it was first appliedto the restoration of a single species of carnivores by conservationist and ex-carnivore manager of PilanesbergNational Park, Gus Van Dyk in 2003.[citation needed]

    In 1978, the Indian conservationist Billy Arjan Singh attempted to rewild a tiger in Dudhwa National Park; this wasthe tigress Tara who had been born and reared in a zoo.[111] Soon after the release, a large number of people werekilled and eaten by a tigress who was subsequently shot. Government officials claim that this tigress was Tara, anassertion hotly contested by Singh and some other conservationists. Later on, this rewilding gained further disreputewhen it was discovered that the local gene pool had been sullied by Tara's introduction because she was partlySiberian tiger, a fact not known at the time of her release, ostensibly due to poor record-keeping at Twycross Zoowhere she had been raised.[112][113][114][115][116][117]

    Save China's Tigers

    A South China tiger of the Save China's Tigersproject with his blesbuck kill

    The organisation Save China's Tigers, working with the WildlifeResearch Centre of the State Forestry Administration of China and theChinese Tigers South Africa Trust, secured an agreement on thereintroduction of Chinese tigers into the wild. The agreement, whichwas signed in Beijing on 26 November 2002, calls for theestablishment of a Chinese tiger conservation model through thecreation of a pilot reserve in China where indigenous wildlife,including the South China Tiger, will be reintroduced. Save China'sTigers aims to rewild the critically endangered South China Tiger bybringing a few captive-bred individuals to South Africa forrehabilitation training for them to regain their hunting instincts. At thesame time, a pilot reserve in China is being set up and the tigers will be relocated and release back in China when thereserve in China is ready.[] The offspring of the trained tigers will be released into the pilot reserves in China, whilethe original animals will stay in South Africa to continue breeding.[]

    South Africa was chosen as a springboard thanks to its leadership in wildlife management, readily available land,and abundant game. SCT has also been working with the Chinese government to identify suitable sites for theestablishment of pilot reserves in China. The South China tigers of the project have since been successfully rewildedand are fully capable of hunting and surviving on their own.[] This project is also very successful in the breeding ofthese rewilded South China tigers and five cubs have been born in the project, these cubs of the second generationwould be able to learn their survival skills directly from their successfully rewilded mothers.[118]

  • Tiger 19

    Success story of rewilding

    A rewilded South China tiger of the Save China'sTigers rewilding project hunting blesbuck

    Save China's Tigers' South China tiger rewilding and reintroductionproject has been deemed a success. [citation needed] Recently, renownscientists have confirmed the role of Rewilding captive populations tosave the South China tiger. A rewilding workshop conducted in theOctober 2010, in Laohu Valley reserve, South Africa to access theprogress of the rewilding and reintroduction program of Save China'sTigers. The experts present includes Dr. Peter Crawshaw of CentroNacional de Pesquisa e Conservaco de Mamiferos Carnivoros,Cenap/ICMBIO, Dr. Gary Koehler, Dr. Laurie Marker of CheetahConservation Fund, Dr. Jim Sanderson of Small Wild CatConservation Foundation, Dr. Nobuyuki Yamaguchi of Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences ofQatar University, and Dr. David Smith of Minnesota University, Chinese government scientists as well asrepresentatives of Save China's Tigers.

    The tigers involved, were born in captive conditions, in concrete cages and their parents are all captive animals whoare unable to sustain in the wild. They were sent to South Africa as part of the Save China's Tigers project torewilding and ensure that they regain the necessary skills needed for a predator to survive in the wild.Results of the workshop confirmed the important role of the South China Tiger Rewilding Project in tigerconservation. "Having seen the tigers hunting in an open environment at Laohu Valley Reserve, I believe that theserewilded tigers have the skill to hunt in any environment." Dr. David Smith remarked. Furthermore, Save China'sTigers recovered natural habitat both in China and in South Africa during their attempt to reintroduce South Chinatigers back into the wild.[119]

    The goal is of preparing tigers born in captivity for introduction to wild habitat in China where tigers once livedseems to be very possible in the near future based on the success of the rewilding and reintroduction program.[120]

    Relation with humans

    Tiger as prey

    Tiger hunting on elephant-back, India, 1808.

    The tiger has been one of the Big Five game animals of Asia. Tigerhunting took place on a large scale in the early nineteenth andtwentieth centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by theBritish in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic classof the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India. A singlemaharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers intheir hunting career.[55] Tiger hunting was done by some hunters onfoot; others sat up on machans with a goat or buffalo tied out as bait;yet others on elephant-back.[121] In some cases, villagers beating drumswere organised to

  • Tiger 20

    Stereographic photograph (1903) of a captured man-eating tiger in the Calcuttazoo; the tiger had claimed 200 human victims.

    drive the animals into the killing zone.Elaborate instructions were available for theskinning of tigers and there weretaxidermists who specialised in thepreparation of tiger skins.

    Man-eating tigers

    Normally wild tigers, especially if they haveno prior contact with humans, will activelyavoid interactions with humans. However,according to some sources, tigers arethought to be responsible for more humandeaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal.[55] Attacks are occasionally provoked, as tigers will lashout after being injured while they themselves are hunted. Occasionally, attacks are provoked accidentally, as when ahuman surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young.[122] Occasionally human behaviorwill inadvertently provoke tiger attacks by triggering their natural instincts. In one case, a postman who deliveredmail on foot in a rural region of India where interactions with tigers are commonplace, was not bothered by them forseveral years despite many interactions. Soon after the postman started to use a bicycle, the man was attacked by atiger, theorically having been instinctively provoked by the chase.[123] Although humans are not regular prey fortigers, occasionally tigers will come to view people as prey. Such attacks tend to be particularly prevalent in areaswhere population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced wild prey for them.Most man-eating tigers are old and missing teeth, acquiring a taste for humans because of their inability to capturetheir preferred prey.[124] This was the case in the Champawat Tiger, a tigress found in Nepal and then India, that wasfound to have had two broken canines. She was responsible for an estimated 430 human deaths, the most attacksknown to be perpetrated by a single wild animal per the Guinness Book, by the time she was shot in 1907 by JimCorbett.[]

    Unlike man-eating leopards, even established man-eating tigers will seldom enter human settlements, usuallyremaining at village outskirts.[125] Nevertheless, attacks in human villages do occur.[126] Tigers treat humans as theydo other potential prey, engaging in a length stalking phase before pouncing from close range. Despite being mostlya nocturnal predator, tigers attack humans in daytime. According to Jim Corbett, arguably the greatest expert onman-eating tigers, he had never heard of a tiger attacking a human at night (unlike man-eating leopards, who attackhumans only at night, and are afraid of humans in daytime).[127] Attacks are also common when people are workingoutdoors and are physically engaged in distracting tasks, particularly when the work requires them to bend down(collecting firewood, working on field cultivation, or answering the call of nature). Thanks to their natural predatoryinstincts, such as their use of stealth and surprise and their tendency to attack partially isolated people, early writingstend to profile man-eating tigers and other similarly disposed big cats as "cowardly".[128] Due to the size and powerof the tiger, few humans survive when a predatory attack is carried out.Reportedly, in the Singapore area (where tigers are now extirpated) in the 1840s, an estimated 1,000 fatalities occurred from tiger attacks. Man-eaters have been a particular problem in recent decades in India and Bangladesh, especially in Kumaon, Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal, where some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans. Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to climate change, tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans.[129] The Sundarbans area reportedly had 129 human deaths from tigers from 1969 to 1971. In the 10 years prior to that period, according to Chakrabarti (1984), humans were preyed upon at an estimated rate of 100 per year in the Sudarban region, with a possible high of around 430 in some years of the 1960s.[55] Unusually, in some years in the Sundarbans, more humans are killed by tigers than vica versa.[55] In the year of 1972, India's production of honey and beeswax dropped by 50% when at least 29 people who gathered these materials were

  • Tiger 21


    Almost all tigers that are identified as man-eaters are quickly captured, shot, or poisoned. Current Indian wildlifeprotection laws state that animals must be saved unless the tiger is a repeat offender and no hope exists forrehabilitation. However, man-eating attacks may still lead to revenge killing of several tigers, including those notinvolved in the attack. On occasion, man-eating tigers are relocated to large nature preserves, with mixed success. In1986 in the Sundarbans, since tiger almost always attack from the rear, the idea was implemented that masks withhuman faces on them be worn to the back of the head, on the theory that tigers will usually not carry through attacksif seen by their prey. This temporarily decreased the number of attack, though the tigers appeared to becomehabituated to the masks and attacks again increased in the following years.[130]

    Tigers kept in captivity retain wild instinct and, especially those in privately owned collections where improperhandling is more common, may attack humans. An estimated 1.75 fatal attacks occur per year in captivity, with atleast 27 people killed or seriously injured in the United States by tigers from 1998 to 2001.[] In large, well-keptpublic zoos, tiger attacks on humans are very rare and tigers who associate with their zookeepers from birth may bedocile and even affectionate towards their handlers once fully grown. However, most zoos are rightfully cautiousand, when the tigers must be handled closely (such as medical procedures), it is a necessity to assure that tigers arefully unconsicous from anesthesia.[] Tatiana, a female tiger, escaped from her enclosure in the San Francisco Zoo,killing one person and seriously injuring two more before being shot and killed by the police. The enclosure hadwalls that were lower than they were legally required to be, allowing the tiger to climb the wall and escape.

    Commercial hunting and traditional medicineHistorically, tigers have been hunted at a large scale so their famous striped skins could be collected. The trade intiger skins peaked in 1960s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. By 1977, a tiger skin in anEnglish market was considered to be worth $4,250 American dollars.[55]

    Many people in China and other parts of Asia have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties,including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs.[131] There is no scientific evidence to support these beliefs. The use oftiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offenses inconnection with tiger poaching punishable by death. Furthermore, all trade in tiger parts is illegal under theConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and a domestic trade ban hasbeen in place in China since 1993.However, the trading of tiger parts in Asia has become a major black market industry and governmental andconservation attempts to stop it have been ineffective to date.[55] Almost all black marketers engaged in the trade arebased in China and have either been shipped and sold within in their own country or into Taiwan, South Korea orJapan.[55] The Chinese subspecies was almost completely decimated by killing for commerce due to both the partsand skin trades in the 1950s through the 1970s.[55] Contributing to the illegal trade, there are a number of tiger farmsin the country specialising in breeding the cats for profit. It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred,semi-tame animals live in these farms today.[132][133][134] However, many tigers for traditional medicine blackmarket are wild ones shot or snared by poachers and may be caught anywhere in the tiger's remaining range (fromSiberia to India to the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra). In the Asian black market, a tiger penis can be worth theequivalent of around $300 U.S. dollars. In the years of 1990 through 1992, 27 million products with tiger deriativeswere found.[55]

  • Tiger 22

    In captivity

    A captive tiger after undergoing surgery at one ofits paws.

    In recent years, captive breeding of tigers in China has accelerated tothe point where the captive population of several tiger subspeciesexceeds 4,000 animals, with a greater number of legally kept tigers inthat country alone than all populations of tigers in the wild combined.Three thousand specimens are reportedly held by 1020 "significant"facilities, with the remainder scattered among some 200 facilities. Thismakes China home to the second largest captive tiger population in theworld, after the USA, which in 2005 had an estimated 4,692 captivetigers.[135] In a census conducted by the US based Feline ConservationFederation in 2011, 2,884 tigers were documented as residing in 468American facilities.[136]

    Part of the reason for America's large tiger population relates to legislation. Only nineteen states have banned privateownership of tigers, fifteen require only a license, and sixteen states have no regulations at all.[137] The success ofbreeding programmes at American zoos and circuses led to an overabundance of cubs in the 1980s and 1990s, whichdrove down prices for the animals. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals of Texas estimate there arenow 500 lions, tigers and other big cats in private ownership just in the Houston, Texas.Wikipedia:Verifiability Aprivate zoo in Zanesville, Ohio owned 18 Bengal tigers, all of which were shot dead by Ohio authorities after theirowner released them, along with many other dangerous animals, before committing suicide on October 18, 2011.Genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions was assessed by using Bayesian analysis anddiagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. Ofthe 105 captive tigers, 49 specimen were assigned to one of five subspecies; 52 specimen had admixed subspeciesorigins.[138]

    The Tiger Species Survival Plan devised by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums has condemned the breeding ofwhite tigers on the allegation that they are of mixed ancestry, hybridized with other subspecies and are of unknownlineage. The genes responsible for white colour are represented by 0.001% of the population. The disproportionategrowth in numbers of white tigers points to the relentless inbreeding resorted to among homozygous recessiveindividuals for selectively multiplying the white animals. This progressively increasing process will eventually leadto inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability.[139]

  • Tiger 23

    Cultural depictions

    19th century painting of a tiger byKuniyoshi Utagawa.

    The Bengal tiger is the national animal of India and Bangladesh. [citation needed] TheMalaysian tiger is the national animal of Malaysia.[] The Siberian tiger is thenational animal of South Korea.

    The tiger replaces the lion as King of the Beasts in cultures of eastern Asiarepresenting royalty, fearlessness and wrath.[] Its forehead has a marking whichresembles the Chinese character , which means "king"; consequently, manycartoon depictions of tigers in China and Korea are drawn with on theirforehead.

    Of great importance in Chinese myth and culture, the tiger is one of the 12 Chinesezodiac animals. Also in various Chinese art and martial art, the tiger is depicted asan earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon the two representingmatter and spirit respectively. The Southern Chinese martial art Hung Ga is basedon the movements of the tiger and the crane. In Imperial China, a tiger was thepersonification of war and often represented the highest army general (or presentday defense secretary),[] while the emperor and empress were represented by adragon and phoenix, respectively. The White Tiger (Chinese: ; pinyin: BiH) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimescalled the White Tiger of the West ( ), and it represents the west andthe autumn season.[]

    In Buddhism, it is also one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger,with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.[]

    Goddess Durga riding a tiger

    The Tungusic people considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity andoften referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". The Udege andNanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger asHu Lin, the king.[]

    The widely worshiped Hindu goddess Durga, an aspect ofDevi-Parvati, is a ten-armed warrior who rides the tigress (or lioness)Damon into battle. In southern India the god Ayyappan was associatedwith a tiger.[140]

    The weretiger replaces the werewolf in shapeshifting folklore in Asia;[]

    in India they were evil sorcerers while in Indonesia and Malaysia theywere somewhat more benign.[]

    The tiger continues to be a subject in literature; both Rudyard Kipling,in The Jungle Book, and William Blake, in Songs of Experience, depictthe tiger as a menacing and fearful animal. In The Jungle Book, thetiger, Shere Khan, is the wicked mortal enemy of the protagonist,Mowgli. However, other depictions are more benign: Tigger, the tigerfrom A. A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh stories, is cuddly and likable. In

  • Tiger 24

    the Man Booker Prize winning novel "Life of Pi", the protagonist, Pi Patel, sole human survivor of a ship wreck inthe Pacific Ocean, befriends another survivor: a large Bengal tiger. The famous comic strip Calvin and Hobbesfeatures Calvin and his stuffed tiger, Hobbes.

    World's favourite animalIn a poll conducted by Animal Planet, the tiger was voted the world's favourite animal, narrowly beating the dog.More than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted in the poll. Tigers received 21% of the vote, dogs 20%, dolphins13%, horses 10%, lions 9%, snakes 8%, followed by elephants, chimpanzees, orangutans and whales.[][141][142]

    Animal behaviourist Candy d'Sa, who worked with Animal Planet on the list, said: "We can relate to the tiger, as it isfierce and commanding on the outside, but noble and discerning on the inside".[]

    Callum Rankine, international species officer at the World Wildlife Federation conservation charity, said the resultgave him hope. "If people are voting tigers as their favourite animal, it means they recognise their importance, andhopefully the need to ensure their survival," he said.[]

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    2012-08-05.[135] Nowell, K., Ling, X. (2007) Taming the tiger trade: China's markets for wild and captive tiger products since the 1993 domestic trade ban

    (http:/ / www. worldwildlife. org/ species/ finder/ tigers/ WWFBinaryitem15400. pdf). TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China.[136] Wildlife Watch Group (2011) Less than 3,000 Pet Tigers in America (http:/ / www. citesnepal. org/ download. php?id=18) . Wildlife Times

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    Bibliography Sankhala, K. (1997). Der indische Tiger und sein Reich. Bechtermuenz Verlag. ISBN3-86047-734-X. Abridged

    German translation of Return of the Tiger, Lustre Press, 1993.

    External links 21st Century Tiger (http:/ / www. 21stcenturytiger. org/ ): information about tigers and conservation projects Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography (http:/ / www. biodiversitylibrary. org/ name/ Panthera_tigris) for

    Panthera tigris Truth about Tigers (http:/ / truthabouttigers. org/ ): Website with a lot of answers to the conservation issues faced

    by tigers Save The Tiger Fund (http:/ / www. savethetigerfund. org/ ): Program of the National Fish and Wildlife


  • Tiger 27

    Tiger Canyons Homepage (http:/ / www. jvbigcats. co. za/ ): information about tigers and the Crossbred TigerRewilding project

    Tigers in Crisis (http:/ / www. tigersincrisis. com/ ): Information about Earth's Endangered Tigers WWF Tigers (http:/ / www. panda. org/ about_wwf/ what_we_do/ species/ about_species/ species_factsheets/

    tigers/ index. cfm) Tiger Stamps (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090605030601/ http:/ / www. stampsbook. org/ subject/ Tiger.

    html): Tiger images on postage stamps from many different countries. Save China's Tigers (http:/ / english. savechinastigers. org/ ): information about tigers and the South China Tiger

    rewilding project in Africa Sundarbans Tiger Project (http:/ / www. sundarbanstigerproject. info/ ): research and conservation of tigers in the

    largest remaining mangrove forest in the world Explore T.I.G.E.R.S (http:/ / www. tigerfriends. com/ ): The Institute of Greatly Endangered and Rare Species EIA in the USA (http:/ / www. eia-global. org/ species_in_peril/ ): reports etc. Tale of the Cat (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1964894-1,00. html); Mar. 01, 2010; By

    Andrew Marshall; TIME Magazine (in partnership with CNN) BBC Year of the tiger (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ nature/ collections/ p0063wt7) video collection highlighting the

    plight of the Tiger. Produced in celebration of the 2010 Year of the Tiger. Watch more tiger (Panthera tigris) video clips from the BBC archive on Wildlife Finder (http:/ / www. bbc. co.

    uk/ nature/ species/ Tiger) Dr. Pralad Yonzon : Is this the last chance to save the tiger? (http:/ / www. ekantipur. com/ the-kathmandu-post/

    2010/ 11/ 19/ features/ is-this-the-last-chance-to-save-the-tiger/ 215040/ ) Feature regarding tiger conservationpublished by The Kathmandu Post, 19 November 2010.

  • Article Sources and Contributors 28

    Article Sources and ContributorsTiger Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=561172623 Contributors: $01734071290912$, $dollarz$, (jarbarf), 12345678910a111213141516171819, 16@r, 2112 rush, 21CT,334a, 4444hhhh, 5150pacer, 57.3, A. Parrot, A302b, A9gould1, ACBest, ARUNKUMAR P.R, Aayush gupta07, Abigail-II, Abomasnow, Acroterion, Adam Keller, Adamisababe67, Adghar,Adhawk, Adrian J. Hunter, Adrian.benko, AdultSwim, Aesopos, Agwin, Ahirwav, Ahoerstemeier, Ak2431989, Aksi great, Alan Millar, Ale jrb, Alex earlier account, Alexgt, AlexiusHoratius,Alfio, AllyUnion, Alphard08, Altaileopard, Alvesgaspar, AmbaDarla, Amcbride, Amelia Pound, AmiDaniel, Amren, Amritsingh3aa, Amur Tiger, Anaxial, And4e, Andonic, Andre Engels,Andreas Kaganov, Andrewprest, Andrewself, Andy Dingley, Andy Marchbanks, Andycjp, Andyjsmith, Anetheron, Animal578, Animum, AnnaFrance, Annieawesomegirl, Anomalocaris,Anonymous Dissident, AnotherNitPicker, Antandrus, Ante Aikio, Anthony Appleyard, Antreid, Anwar saadat, Apalaria, Apokalypze, AppleJuggler, Arianna.h.lee, ArielGold, Aristillus, Arjayay,Arjun01, Arjuna909, Armyspots, ArnoLagrange, Arsonal, Artaxiad, AshLin, Ashley Y, Asnatu wiki, Astropithicus, Atarr, Atulsnischal, Aulmer, Aurola, Autiger, Autodidactyl, AxelBoldt,AzaToth, B0bsp3lt8ackward, B9 hummingbird hovering, BD2412, BJK1903, Bachrach44, Baconstrip007, Badagnani, Bagger007, Ballawjordan23, BanyanTree, Barek, Barneca, Battoe19,Bayerischermann, BazookaJoe, Bbartlog, BeaverWithChainsaw, Bee328, Beeswaxcandle, Bekuletz, Belsavis, Bencannon, Berkserker, Betterthansushi, Beve, Beyazid, Beyond My Ken,BhagyaMani, Bibliomaniac15, Big smile 21, BigrTex, Billare, Bitrot, Bizwhiz22, Bkmays, Bkonrad, Black Stripe, BlackGothFaerie, Blacklake, Blake03, Blake3522, Blanche of King's Lynn,Blue520, Bmicomp, Bns1320, Bob98133, Bobet, Bobisbob, Bobisbob2, Bobo192, Boffob, Bokan, Bongwarrior, Booger567, Borbrav, Borisblue, Borislav, Bosmon, Boston, Box266,Bpkavoossi.crm, Brabblebrex, Bradish, Brainbark, Brainmachine, BrainyBabe, Brandmeister, Branlin, Brat32, Brazilian Tiger, Brewerb11, Brian.gratwicke, Brian8710, Briangotts, BrokenSegue,Bruce1ee, Bruinfan12, Bryan Derksen, Bsediojr, Bshcytsgn, Burbridge92, Butsonator16, Bylescla, C0nanPayne, CIreland, CSimon275, CWY2190, Cabiria, Cafzal, Calaschysm, Caliga10,CambridgeBayWeather, Cameron Nedland, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canadian-Bacon, Cantara, Cantus, CapeVerdeWave, CapitalLetterBeginning, Casliber, Catalaalatac, Catbar, Cavrdg,Ccacsmss, Cdc, Cenarium, Centrx, Ceranthor, Cessator, Chameleon, Chandraguptamaurya, Chanhee920, Chem Lady, Chensiyuan, Childzy, Chipmunkdavis, Chitomcgee, Chong shao wei,Chowbok, Chris 73, Chris Conway, Chris huh, Chris the speller, Chris65536, ChrisGualtieri, Chrisfreeland, Christopher Thomas, Chriswaterguy, Chun-hian, CiaPan, Circeus, Cithara,Claidheamohmor, Clasqm, Coasterlover1994, Codenametiger, Coekon, Coelacan, Colin Keigher, ColinClark, Collieuk, Comatmebro, Commander Shepard, CommonsDelinker, Condem,ConradPino, Conversion script, Cooldudelee, Coolfrood, Coolguy10101111, Coredesat, Corvettecrazy262, Corwin MacGregor, Cory38, Coulpet, Crazy monkey001, Crazy4metallica, Creeper10,Creidieki, Crisco 1492, Cromwellt, Csigabi, Csink, CuriousEric, Curlyadam, CyberClaw, Cybercobra, DHN, DSRH, DVD R W, Dabomb87, Dan D. Ric, Dan Koehl, DanMS, Danakil,Dancethroughlife, DancingPenguin, Daniel Brockman, Daniel Mietchen, Daniel Olsen, Daniel5127, DanielCD, Danny, Danogo, Danski14, Daqingzhao, Dar-Ape, Dark hyena, Darorcilmir,DarthVader, Dastryaize, Davewild, David Sher, David Sneek, David.Mestel, Dawn Bard, Dayfled2, Dbtfz, DeadEyeArrow, Delldot, Deltae 67, Demirjih, Dendroaspis, Deor, DerHexer,Derivadow, Derrylwc, DevastatorIIC, Dharmabum420, Dibyendu Ash, Digitalme, Dinosaurier, Dlohcierekim, Doc Taxon, Doc glasgow, DocWatson42, Doct.proloy, Donnyt, Donovaan,Donreed, Dora Nichov, Dr. Blofeld, DrDaveHPP, DrMicro, DrParkash, Dreadstar, DreamGuy, DrumstickJuggler, Dskluz, Dstallman, Dubidub, Dude11, Dustinlull, Dycedarg, DynamoDegsy,Dysmorodrepanis, E71, EG SOS, Edderso, Edward, Egil, Eigenwijze mustang, Ekabhishek, Elaragirl, Elconde, Eliezg, Elijahwengl1101, ElinorD, Elockid, Eloh, Emeraldcityserendipity,Emilyonemillion, EmperadorElijah, Emre D., Enchanter, Enric Naval, Enviro2009, Epbr123, Epicbobman10, Eraserhead1, Erechtheus, Eric Silva, Eryomar, Esprit15d, Esv216, Etxrge,EugeneZelenko, Evandaeman, EventHorizon, Everyking, EvocativeIntrigue, FDD19, FKmailliW, Fabreece1, Fabricationary, Falsebadger101, Fan-1967, Fanatix, Fanghong, Fangusu, FarkasJnos, Fashinqueen92, Fatboobies, Fatbuu1000, Fberghella, Felsenst, Feywild, Ff4eva, Fightthepower94, Figma, Fireice, First Light, Fistful of Questions, Flapdragon, Flavio.brandani, Flubajubboy, Fluri, Flutoo, Footballfan190, Fowler&fowler, Fragglet, Francisco Valverde, FrancoGG, Fraslet, Fratrep, Fredbauder, Freelolita101, FrenchIsAwesome, FreplySpang, Frickeg, Funnyhat,FuriousFreddy, Fusker111, Fvw, G. Campbell, Gaiaeuropa, Gaius Cornelius, Gajaad, Galoubet, Gamepinoy, Ganeshk, Gareth E Kegg, Gaurav, Gazza54, Gdg9, Gdo01, Gene Nygaard, Georgecowie, GeorgeLouis, Georgeryp, Ghetto booty, Gigabake, Gigemag76, Gik, Gilliam, Gilmeister27, Gilo1969, Gimboid13, Gippers322, Gman124, Gmaxwell, Goblin, Gogo Dodo, Gombo, Goodfriend100, GoonerDP, GraemeL, Graham87, Grapplequip, Green day holic, GregorB, Gregory Benoit, Griffinofwales, Gscshoyru, Gurch, Gurubrahma, GusF, Gwernol, Gyuhi, HCA, HTO,Hadal, Hadez47, Hairy Dude, Hanchi, HappyTreeBuddies, Hapsiainen, Harami2000, Hargle, Haris360, Harshad1313, Hasek is the best, Hattie.salzman, Haukurth, Hawkestone, Hazabaza5,Hdt83, Headrush06, HeheheXDXD, Heimstern, Hellboy2hell, Hemanshu, HenryLi, Hephaestos, Hersfold, Hibernian, Hiimsmart, Hilda11, Hobson.michael, Hojimachong, Hopfrog,Hornymanatee, Hottentot, Howcheng, Howellb01, Hughcharlesparker, Humbug18, Hypoxvi, IRelayer, Ian Dalziel, Ian T, Icarus3, Iccaldwell, Idleguy, Ihaveabigpen15, Imagine Reason, Imc,Imheretohelppeople2, Imnotminkus, Imperialles, Indon, Inept, Inforazer, Infrogmation, Insineratehymn, Inter16, Interchange88, Invertzoo, Ioscius, Irandokhstal, Iridescent, Isewell, Ives.vdf,Ixfd64, J. Patrick Fischer, J.delanoy, J04n, JFreeman, Jacek Kendysz, Jaganath, Jagged 85, Jahangard, JanetteDoe, Jannex, Jarble, JayHenry, Jcrook1987, Jcw69, Jdforrester, Jdorje, Jeancey,Jengod, Jexes23, Jfcarrots, Jfetteroll, Jfpm9d, Jim Douglas, Jim Fitzgerald, Jimfbleak, Jimokay, Jj137, Jni, JoeBlogsDord, Joelr31, Joepdb, John, John Cline, John Quincy Adding Machine,John254, John9834, JohnCD, JohnWittle, Johnh123, Johnpseudo, Jojit fb, Jon Cates, Jonathandeamer, Jondel, Joostjodel, Jose77, JoshuaZ, Jossi, Jozsefs, Jpcoles, Jrockley, JukeBox, Jwinius,Jwissick, JzG, KJS77, Kaarel, Kaisershatner, Kalyanvarma, KampferXeon, Kandar, Kane5187, Karin127, Katalaveno, Katyism, Kazvorpal, Kbdank71, Keilana, Keivan.f, KennethHan, Kerotan,Kesac, Ketih King, Kevinmin45, Kevyn, Khaosduke, Khazar2, Khoikhoi, Khukri, Kickibutt3437, Kikos, Killerbites, Kilo-Lima, Kimelea, Kimiko, King Lopez, King Zebu, King of Hearts,KingSlothx, Kinu, Kitch, Kivaan, Kjkrum, Kkevinn6, Klemen Kocjancic, Klilidiplomus, Koavf, Konman72, Koomy, Kpforizzle, Krich, Kufan121314, Kungfuadam, Kurakuraku, Kuru, Kwertii,KyraVixen, LA2, LOL, Lachatdelarue, Lady of the dead, Lairweb, Lambos4, Lancevortex, Land of loving, Lasius, Lateg, Laurascudder, Lb34, Lbokma, LcawteHuggle, Leandrod, Lee M,LeeHunter, Lengis, LeoGard, LeoTigris, Leptosome, Lightdarkness, Lighthope, Lights, Linear, Liongear, Lisamh, Lissoy, LittleJerry, Lkjhgfdsa 0, Lo2ol, Local yokel, Locoluis, Lohusalu,Lolz2000, London Steam, Looxix, Lor772, Lordofthe9, Lorenzarius, Lothar von Richthofen, Lotje, Lowellian, Lpgeffen, Lucyin, Luna Santin, M.O.X, MARQUIS111, MJCdetroit, MJGR, MKar,MKoltnow, MONGO, MPF, Mac Dreamstate, MacedonianBoy, Madchester, Magentic Manifestations, Magister Mathematicae, Majorly, Makgraf, Malachi007, Malamockq, Malix, Malo,Mandeep7540, Mandel, Mani1, Manuel Anastcio, Marco Krohn, MarcoTolo, Marcus334, Mareino, Mariomassone, Markdr, Markhurd, Marskell, Martin Kozk, Master of Puppets,Materialscientist, Matt Adore, Matt Crypto, Matt1985, Matt1999, Matthew Proctor, Matthew Woodcraft, Matthew.stoltz, MatthewLiberal, Mav, Maxim, Mazin07, Mbc362, Mbertsch,Mbralchenko, Mbz1, McCann, Mcelite, Meerkittyz, Megalodon99, Meleh, Melicans, Menah the Great, Mendaliv, Mesohorny6901, Metallicafan8888, Metanoid, Mgiganteus1, Michael Devore,Michaelsbll, Mike Rosoft, Millahnna, Mintleaf, Miranda, Mirimax Maiden, Mirv, Missionary, Misza13, Miwanya, Miwolverine94, Mlewan, Mliedberg, Mo0, Modster, Modulatum, MoeFe,Moeron, Mogism, Mombourquette, Monica Singh, Montrealais, Moormand, Moreschi, Moriel, Moriori, Morphh, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Movingimage, Mozaque, Mr. Lefty,Mr.Z-man, MrFish, MrKIA11, Mrnaz, Mstrojny, Mtl1969, Mufka, Mugunth Kumar, Muhammad Mahdi Karim, Muke, Munci, Mushroom, Musicpvm, Mustafa Mustamann, Mwng, Myanw,Mycroft7, Mzsabusayeed, NHRHS2010, Naahar, Naddy, Nadeemise, Nakon, Nancytoby, Nasarius, Natalie Erin, Nath.hermosa, Nathan Laing, Natl1, Naval Scene, Navhus, Ndteegarden, Neelix,Nehrams2020, Neil916, NeilN, Nekura, Nenohal, NeoAlastor, NewEnglandYankee, Nibid, Nick&naka, NickelKnowledge, Nickiatkins9, Nickj, Niduzzi, NigelR, Nigholith, Nikkul, Nilmerg,Nixeagle, No Guru, Nogai Khan, Noodle boy, Notinasnaid, Novil Ariandis, Nownownow, Ntk53s, Nuggetboy, Nunquam Dormio, O, Oatmeal batman, Obradovic Goran, Octane, Od Mishehu,Oda Mari, Ohnoitsjamie, Olivier, Olliepark, Omicronpersei8, Onanoff, Onilturtle, Only, Oranjecrush, Ori.livneh, Orin04, Orthologist, Oscarthecat, OttoMkel, Ours18, Oxymoron83, OzSpinner, Ozzieboy, P. 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  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 29

    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributorsfile:Tigerramki.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tigerramki.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Anantfile:Status iucn3.1 EN.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Status_iucn3.1_EN.svg License: unknown Contributors: Pengo, 2 anonymous editsfile:Tiger_map.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_map.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Abujoy, Eleassar, MPF, 2 anonymous editsFile:Tiger distribution3.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_distribution3.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: Abujoy, Bryan Derksen, Flash Gordon1,MPF, Quadell, Roke, Trelio, 4 anonymous editsFile:TigerSkelLyd1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TigerSkelLyd1.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Abujoy, Airelle, Citron, Kersti Nebelsiek, Lyzzy,Shyamal, 2 anonymous editsFile:MSU V2P2 - Panthera tigris altaica skull.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MSU_V2P2_-_Panthera_tigris_altaica_skull.png License: Creative CommonsAttribution 3.0 Contributors: N. N. KondakovFile:Ranthambore Tiger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ranthambore_Tiger.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: KoshykFile:Tiger 032.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_032.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Kabir BakieFile:Tiger in the water.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_in_the_water.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: B_cool from SIN,SingaporeFile:Panthera tigris sumatran subspecies.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Panthera_tigris_sumatran_subspecies.jpg License: Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Monika BetleyFile:Tiger in the snow at the Detroit Zoo March 2008 pic 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_in_the_snow_at_the_Detroit_Zoo_March_2008_pic_2.jpgLicense: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: MJCdetroitFile:Siberian Tiger sf.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Siberian_Tiger_sf.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors:Brocken InagloryFile:2012 Suedchinesischer Tiger.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2012_Suedchinesischer_Tiger.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0Contributors: J. Patrick FischerFile:BaronOscarVojnich3Nov1911Ti.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BaronOscarVojnich3Nov1911Ti.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Oskar VojnichFile:Panthera tigris sondaica 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Panthera_tigris_sondaica_01.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andries Hoogerwerf (29August 1906 5 February 1977)File:Panthera tigris virgata.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Panthera_tigris_virgata.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Conscious, FunkMonk, Jeanhousen,Kevmin, Kilom691, Mollsmolyneux, ToB, File:White tiger bangalore.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:White_tiger_bangalore.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Jeanhousen, Muhammad Mahdi Karim,Roland zhFile:Singapore Zoo Tigers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Singapore_Zoo_Tigers.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 UnportedContributors: Nachoman-auFile:Golden tiger 1 - Buffalo Zoo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Golden_tiger_1_-_Buffalo_Zoo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dave PapeFile:Tiger-2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger-2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Hans StieglitzFile:Sumatraanse Tijger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sumatraanse_Tijger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dick MuddeFile:037tiger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:037tiger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Robert Armitage SterndaleFile:Ernst Rudolf The Tiger Hunt.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ernst_Rudolf_The_Tiger_Hunt.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fatbuu1000, UtcurschImage:A Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with Indian Pangolin(Manis crassicaudata) Tadoba Tiger Reserve Maharastra.jpg Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_Bengal_Tiger_(Panthera_tigris_tigris)_with_Indian_Pangolin(Manis_crassicaudata)_Tadoba_Tiger_Reserve_Maharastra.jpg License: GNUFree Documentation License Contributors: Dibyendu AshFile:Hunting Tiger Ranthambore.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hunting_Tiger_Ranthambore.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0Contributors: RhaessnerFile:Tigeress with cubs in Kanha Tiger reserve.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tigeress_with_cubs_in_Kanha_Tiger_reserve.jpg License: Creative CommonsAttribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: WikigringoFile:India Tiger cubs.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:India_Tiger_cubs.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Brian GratwickeFile:Tigerdholes.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tigerdholes.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Samuel Howett & Edward OrmeFile:Tiger in South India.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiger_in_South_India.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Steve EvansFile:An Indian Tiger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:An_Indian_Tiger.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Mandeep7540File:1990tiger.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1990tiger.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was ZooFari at en.wikipediaFile:Flag of Bangladesh.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKoppFile:Flag of Bhutan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bhutan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: (original uploader), the author of xrmap (improvedversion)File:Flag of Cambodia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cambodia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Open Clip Art Library, first uploaded byNightstallion; redraw the towers of Angkor Wat by User:Xiengyod.File:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public Domain Contributors:Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370 Recode by cs:User:-xfi- (code), User:Shizhao (colors)File:Flag of India.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_India.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, MifterFile:Flag of Indonesia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Indonesia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten byUser:GabbeFile:Flag of Laos.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Laos.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKoppFile:Flag of Malaysia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Achim1999, Ah Cong Strike, AnonMoos,Arteyu, Avala, Cycn, DarknessVisitor, Denniss, Dschwen, Duduziq, Er Komandante, Fastily, Fibonacci, Fred J, Fry1989, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Juiced lemon, Klemen Kocjancic,Ludger1961, Morio, Nick, Odder, Ranking Update, Reisio, Rocket000, SKopp, Sarang, SiBr4, Tryphon, VAIO HK, Zscout370, , 20 anonymous editsFile:Flag of Myanmar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Myanmar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: *drew, AnonMoos, CommonsDelinker, Cycn,Duduziq, Fry1989, Gunkarta, Homo lupus, Idh0854, Josegeographic, Klemen Kocjancic, Legnaw, Mason Decker, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Pixeltoo, Rfc1394, Rodejong, SeNeKa, SiBr4,Stevanb, ThomasPusch, UnreifeKirsche, Vividuppers, WikipediaMaster, Winzipas, Xiengyod, Zscout370, , 10 anonymous editsFile:Flag of Nepal.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Nepal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:Pumbaa80, User:Achim1999File:Flag of North Korea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_North_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370File:Flag of Russia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Russia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Zscout370File:Flag of Thailand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Thailand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370File:Flag of Vietnam.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Vietnam.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lu Ly v li theo ngun trnFile:Stud 327 with Blesbuck.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stud_327_with_Blesbuck.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors:Save China's Tiger. Original uploader was China's Tiger at en.wikipediaFile:Tigerwoods chasing blesbucks.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tigerwoods_chasing_blesbucks.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5Contributors: Save China's Tiger. Original uploader was China's Tiger at en.wikipediaFile:ElephantbackTigerHunt.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ElephantbackTigerHunt.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Thomas Williamson

  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 30

    File:Maneater calcutta1903 stereoscopic.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maneater_calcutta1903_stereoscopic.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Ricalton, JamesFile:Congenital-deformity-of-the-paw-in-a-captive-tiger-case-report-1746-6148-8-98-S2.ogv Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Congenital-deformity-of-the-paw-in-a-captive-tiger-case-report-1746-6148-8-98-S2.ogv License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors:Rahal S, Volpi R, Teixeira C, Machado V, Soares G, Neto C, Linn KFile:Kuniyoshi Utagawa, Tiger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kuniyoshi_Utagawa,_Tiger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abujoy, Jonkerz,Petrusbarbygere, Red devil 666File:Durga Mahisasuramardini.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Durga_Mahisasuramardini.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Abhishekjoshi, Chaoborus,Durga, Ekabhishek, Jonkerz, LilHelpa, Ranveig, Redtigerxyz, Roland zh, Wiki-uk

    LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

    TigerTaxonomy and etymologyCharacteristics and evolutionCharacteristicsSubspeciesExtinct subspeciesHybridsColour variationsWhite tigersGolden tigersOther colour variations

    Distribution and habitatBiology and behaviourTerritorial behaviourHunting and dietReproductionInterspecific predatory relationships

    Conservation effortsIndiaRussiaChinaPopulation estimate

    RewildingOriginSave China's Tigers

    Success story of rewilding

    Relation with humansTiger as preyMan-eating tigersCommercial hunting and traditional medicineIn captivityCultural depictionsWorld's favourite animal

    ReferencesBibliographyExternal links