the Wolf &the Dog - ?· The first dogs probably evolved from wolf breeds in Asia, which were smaller…

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SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, Front CoverFinished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 100 lb. cover, white theWolf & theDog:F I R S T F R I E N D T O B E S T F R I E N D08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page FC1SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, Pages 2-3Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteJackMillsJack Mills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page 23Dogs have long been known as mans bestfriend, but that title doesnt go far enough. Wetrust dogs to protect our children, our families,and our homes. We turn to dogs as partners inworkfrom herding livestock to detecting drugs orexplosives. We share our lives with dogs and enjoytheir steadfast friendship. Dogs are loved, cherished,honored members of our families.Many of the qualities that we value in ourdogsincluding loyalty, intelligence, kindness,and couragecome directly from their wolfancestors. Yet even as dogs have become awelcomed part of our society, the wolf hasbeen the victim of unfounded persecution anda target for execution.Defenders of Wildlife has long worked toprotect wolves from those still determined toharm themand we are very proud of ourlong history of success. Our admiration for the wolfand its role in nature is so strong we feature it in ourlogo. And it serves as a constant reminder of one ofour most magnificent wild species. There is a great deal to admire in the wolf, and wesee much of it reflected every day in our steadfastdomestic companions who greet us each evening witha wagging tail.Humans have a love affair with dogs. As youenjoy this book, we hope it will illustrate foryou why wolves are just as deserving of ouradmiration, and our protection.Rodger SchlickeisenPresidentA Message from Defenders of Wildlife JackMillsk Mills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:12 PM Page 34SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 4-5Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whited37 MILLIONYEARS AGO:Evolution ofthe first canids9 MILLION YEARS AGO:Evolution of Eucyon,forebearer of wolf, dogand coyote 1 MILLIONYEARS AGO:Evolution of thegray wolfTimeline Schematic O F W O L F/ D O G E V O L U T I O NRichardOlsenius/NATIONALGEOGRAPHICIMAGECOLLECTION/GettyImagesCoyoteWolf howlingCanid skull14,000 - 100,000YEARS AGO:Evolution of thedomesticated dogSiberian husky12,000 YEARS AGO:Human buried withpup. Wolf or dog?No one knowsbutthe affectionseems undeniable.JackMills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 45At some point, long before recorded history, wolvesand humans established a special relationship. Noone knows if wolves took the initiative andingratiated themselves with mankind while scavengingat camp sites, or if humans actively adopted lessaggressive wolf pups. But at some point, a particularlyfriendly pup probably bonded with a human, acceptingthat man or woman as part of its pack.Once a wolf became accepting of humans, its benefitsto those humans were unquestionable. Deeply loyal, awolf could use its keen senses to warn when troubleapproached. It could help chase down prey, and itcould guard families.Scientists once thought the evolution of wolves intodogs was complete roughly 12,000 to 14,000 yearsagobut new evidence suggests it could have beenmuch earlier than thatperhaps 100,000 years ago.The first dogs probably evolved from wolf breeds inAsia, which were smaller than the gray wolves weknow today in North America. Over time, peoplebegan to realize the advantages of improving on theirdogs natural assets, and selective breeding began. The very first species of dogs were the greyhoundbredin the deserts of Africa for their speed in bringingdown preyand the mastiff, first seen in northernEurope and created as especially powerful guard dogs.1886: First dog show,founded by Charles Cruft1884: Establishment ofthe American Kennel Club1570: First known attempt to classify dogsDe Canibus Britannicisby Dr. John CaiusMIDDLE AGES: Dogsbred for specifichunting traits3,000 - 4,000YEARS AGO:Development ofdistinct dog breedsLong, Long Ago . . .Jack MillsRichardOlsenius/NATIONALGEOGRAPHICIMAGECOLLECTION/GettyImagesGreyhoundLabrador retrieverPembroke Welshcorgi West Highland white terrier08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 56SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 6-7Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteWhen wolves were sufficiently evolved tobecome dogs, human hunting methodschanged. Once the best hunting techniquewas to hit the prey with a stone axea dangerousstrategy. But as soon as humans had dogs aspartners, they began to employ weapons that couldkill from further away, including spears or arrows.These weapons were less likely to kill at first blow,but a dog could track a wounded animal and bring itto bayeven fight it if necessary.Perhaps one of the most significant gifts that dogs havegiven to humanity is this partnership that helped ourspecies to advance and prosper. Working TogetherJackMillsJackMills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 67JackMillsJackMills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 78SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 8-9Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteFor centuries dogs were what wed today callmongrelsunspecific breeds that tended to followthe coloration and size of the wolves from whichthey descended. But eventually humans began to takeadvantage of the fact that some dogs had superbherding instincts, some were better hunters, and somewere natural guardians, and they began to breedspecific types of dogs.The mastiff and the greyhound were bred intoexistence some 4,000 years ago. But the practice ofselective breeding really took off with the rise of thearistocracy in the Middle Ages. Members of thenobility considered it a sign of prestige to maintain dogpacks created to hunt a variety of prey. Beagles werebred to bay loudly while tracking foxes and otherspecies so a hunting party could follow them by ear.Hounds were developed with enhanced senses of smellCreating a Breed ApartJack MillsJeff Foott/Discovery Channel Images/Getty ImagesWolfJean Baptiste Charpentier/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 89to pursue even cold trails. Terrierstremendousdiggerswere created to go after animals that tended tohide underground.Retrievers were bred in part for their gentle mouths thatdont crush prey when they return with it. Labradorsdeveloped as exceptional swimmers and water lovers,and so are useful for duck hunting. Boarhounds,wolfhounds, elkhoundseach was created to be used inhunting one specific prey.By the Renaissance, companion breeds had beendeveloped. These were dogs too small and delicate to beused as work partners, and were designed simply aspetsa luxury only the rich could afford. Workingbreeds continued to become more specialized, withcollies and shepherds for herding, pit bulls and bulldogsfor fighting and protection, and a dazzling array ofother dogs for hunting.In the 1800s, the first dog shows popularized theconcept of pure-bred dogs. Today the American KennelClub recognizes well over 150 breeds, and there are anestimated 300-400 breeds of dogs in existence. Todaythere are dogs in every part of the human-inhabitedworld, and most dog owners regard their pets as farmore than a luxurythey are necessities and belovedmembers of our family.k Mills Siberian huskyFox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty ImagesJean Baptiste Charpentier/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 910SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 10-11Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteDomestication produced some quite universalresults. Because they dont have to survive inthe wild, domesticated dogs are often smallerand less cunning than wild wolves. They also tend tohold on to juvenile behaviors longer. For example, wolfpups will play but rapidly outgrow the desire to do so.Dogs, on the other hand, are eager to play almostthroughout their lives.But on a genetic level, dogs and wolves areextremely similar. The DNA differencebetween the two is less than 1% (thatincludes comparing wolves to Chihuahuas,Great Danes or huskies). Meanwhile, forcomparison, there is an approximate 6%difference between wolves and coyotes.Of course there are very significantdifferences between wolves and dogs.Most importantly, dogs are tamable and trainable,while wolves (and all wild canines) are generallynot. Dogs are willing to accept a position in ahuman pack, and generally exhibit docility, acomparative lack of fear, and a high tolerance forstress. Wolves have a much quicker reaction tostress, and reach a fight or flight point muchmore rapidly than dogs. Physical differences are some of the mostobvious distinguishing characteristics betweenwolves and dogs. Wolves tend to remainroughly consistent in size within theirsubspecies (that is, gray wolves dont varygreatly in size, although they are considerablylarger than most other wolf species), and whiletheir coat color can range from pure white toinky black, their coats textures are the same.A Dog is not a WolfJackMillsNewfoundland08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 10Dogs exhibit a wide range in size, from toy breeds just afew inches high to the mighty Newfoundland and theIrish wolfhound, which stand 30 inches tall or higher atthe shoulder. A Maltese has a dramatically long, silkycoat, a poodle sports curly hair, a huskys coat is similarto a wolfs, and a bulldog wears an extremely shortcoat. There are even hairless dogs and dogs like thekomondor with corded coats.JackMills1108SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:13 PM Page 1112SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 12-13Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteCommunication in Wolves and DogsWolves use vocalizations, body language andtheir incredible senses of sight, smell, andhearing to communicate. Posture and tailposition are extremely important in establishingorder in a wolf pack; the alpha (or leader) wolfstands straight with tail elevated, while subservientwolves cringe, put their tails down, and refrain fromlooking the leader in the eye. Wolves use scentmarkings to establish their home territory. Andwolves call out with howls to get the attention ofother wolves that might be nearby or miles away.But wolves almost never bark.Dogs use each of the same senses to communicate, butselective breeding has altered the standard forms ofwolf communication. Many dogs bred for their ultra-shaggy or silky coats are less able to see visual cuesforexample, an English sheepdog relies as much onhearing as on sight. Dogs like the basenji, which arebred to have very curly tails, are less able to expressJackMillsJackMills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 1213emotions with their tails. Pugs have extremelyforeshortened noses, and that has diminished theirsense of smell. And dogs barkand bark and barkto indicate awarning, excitement, eagerness, or a wide variety ofother emotions. Dogs also howl, although some speciesare more prone to do so than others. And dogs oftenharken back to the old call of the wild when they howlalong with a siren, a violin or singing. Interestingly,while wolves rarely bark in the wild, they can learn tobark when kept with dogs.BasenjiOld English sheepdog08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 1314SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 14-15Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteOver the millennia, the advances of civilizationhave left less and less wild lands available forwolves (and all wild species). But the expansionof humanity that has proven problematic for wolveshas been a boon to dogsa species that has benefitedfrom its inclusion in human society. There are now anestimated 10,50012,500 gray wolves in the UnitedStates, and more than 60 million pet dogs.Habitat loss is a very real threat to wolvesbutits important to understand how the actualextermination of wolves became such a highpriority for so long. The blame can be assignedpartly to livestock depredation, but also to folktales, legends, and childrens stories.The Three Little Pigs, Little Red Riding Hood,and countless other fairy tales use The Big BadWolf as the villain. Over time, this repeated andcolorful bias helped inflame public opinion againstwolves and harm the species. In the United States,wolves were declared vermin. So many were shotthat by the 1980s, the only population in thelower 48 states was a small pack in farnorthern Minnesota. It has taken a great deal of work and a goodmeasure of educational outreach to informthe public about the key roles wolves play innature and how they share many of thequalities we most admire in dogs.The Fall of the Wolf . . . The Rise of the Dog08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 14Jack Mills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 15SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 16-17Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteJack Mills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 1617For most of human history, we havent needed toconcern ourselves about sustaining the web oflife. But today, for the first time since theextinction of the dinosaurs sixty-five million years ago,were losing species faster than nature can create newones. And thats because of our relentless populationgrowth and development of modern technologies evermore capable of altering the natural world.Given current trends, it is estimated that by the time achild born today reaches his or her 30th birthday, oneof every five current species on Earth will be eitherdoomed or already extinct. After that, if present trendscontinue, the prospect will worsen.Because the wolf has endured such a long history ofpersecution, the campaign to reverse the governmentspolicies toward wolves makes that cause into a symbolof the larger struggle to upgrade our societys overallwildlife conservation values. If our society can alter itsattitudes and policies toward the wolf, thenwidespread adoption of a more beneficial conservationethic shouldnt be far behind.We should save wolves because its good for the wolf,it helps establish a conservation ethic that can saveother imperiled speciesand its good for theenvironment our children will inherit.Why Should We Save Wolves?All photographs this page, Jack Millsk Mills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 1718SQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, pages 17-18Finished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 80 lb. cover, whiteAremarkable thing happened as a consequence ofthe gray wolf being reintroduced withDefenders leadership to Yellowstone: a naturaldynamic balance was restored.Biologists call wolves a keystone species becausetheir absence or presence dramatically affects theoverall health of the ecosystem. The re-introduction ofwolves proved that point. When wolves returned, theyhunted elk which reduced their numbersandimportantlycaused them to spend less time in theriver valleys. With the elk dispersed, aspen and willowscould again grow and prosper along the rivers. This inturn provided food for beavers which returned, builtdams and created wetlands. Waterfowl and songbirdsthen also returned. And so on.One of our nations most popular and beloved parks isnow ecologically healthier and more vibrant because ofthe return of just one critical species. This success, oneof the greatest wildlife conservation victories of thetwentieth century, is worth celebratingand worthlearning from.Wolves return to Yellowstone National ParkJackMills08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:14 PM Page 1819Jack Mills, wildlife photographer, has apassion for wildlife conservation in general,and wolves in particularand it shows. Hisphotographs capture both the beauty andessential wild nature of the magnificent graywolf. Its no wonder that his work is publishedregularly in books, calendars, magazines, andweb sites.B i b l i o g ra p h y o f Re fe re n c e Wo r ksHow the Wolf Became the Dog, John Zeaman, Franklin Watts, a division of Grolier Publishing, 1998Behavior of Wolves Dogs and Related Canids, Michael W. Fox, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1971The Domestic Dog, its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people, James Serpell, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1995The Wolf Within, David Alderton, Howell Book House, 1998Wild Dogs Past & Present, Kelly Milner Halls, Darby Creek Publishing, 2005The Early Evolution of the Domestic Dog, Darcey F. Morey, American Scientist Magazine, Volume 82Stalking the Ancient Dog, Christine Mlot, Science News, vol. 151, June 28, 1997JackMillsJack MillsAbout the Photographer08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:15 PM Page 191130 Seventeenth Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 200361.800.385.9712 / www.defenders.orgSQN job no: 0607053 Client: Defenders of Wildlife Project: Wolf Book Date: 08SEP06 Stage: Final Component: Book, Back CoverFinished size: 8.5 x 8.5 inches Ink: 4/4 (4 color process) Stock: 100 lb. cover, whiteJack MillsCover image, Jack MillsReaders DigestAmericasBest WildlifeCharity08SEP_Wolf_Book_FINAL.qxp 3/29/07 2:15 PM Page 20

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