THE ORIGINS OF MIDDLE ENGLISH How Middle English came into existence.

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    17-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • THE ORIGINS OF MIDDLE ENGLISH How Middle English came into existence
  • Slide 2
  • THE VERY BEGINNING Middle English, just as Modern English and Old English, is an INDO-EUROPEAN language That, however, doesnt tell us a lot: Indo-European languages include 443 languages and idiom spoken by roughly three billion humans, Indo-European languages include languages as diverse as Bengali, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish
  • Slide 3
  • INDOEUROPEAN LANGUAGES (from 4000 BC up to 1000 BC)
  • Slide 4
  • CENTUM AND SATEM There are two major groups of INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SATEM CENTUM INDO- EUROPEAN
  • Slide 5
  • SATEM LANGUAGES The Satem languages show the characteristic change of the so-called Proto- Indo-European palato-velars (* , * , * ) into affricate and fricative consonants articulated in the front of the mouth. For example, * became Sanskrit [ ], Latvian, Avestan, Russian and Armenian s, Lithuanian [ ], and Albanian th [ ]. At the same time, the protolanguage velars (*k, *g, *g ) and labio-velars (*k , *g , *g ) merged in the Satem group, the latter losing their accompanying lip-rounding. The Satem shift is conveniently illustrated with the word for '100', Proto-Indo- European *(d) m tm, which became e.g. Avestan sat m (hence the name of the group), Persian sad, Sanskrit atam, Latvian simts, Lithuanian imtas, Old Church Slavonic s to etc. The Satem languages show the characteristic change of the so-called Proto- Indo-European palato-velars (* , * , * ) into affricate and fricative consonants articulated in the front of the mouth. For example, * became Sanskrit [ ], Latvian, Avestan, Russian and Armenian s, Lithuanian [ ], and Albanian th [ ]. At the same time, the protolanguage velars (*k, *g, *g ) and labio-velars (*k , *g , *g ) merged in the Satem group, the latter losing their accompanying lip-rounding. The Satem shift is conveniently illustrated with the word for '100', Proto-Indo- European *(d) m tm, which became e.g. Avestan sat m (hence the name of the group), Persian sad, Sanskrit atam, Latvian simts, Lithuanian imtas, Old Church Slavonic s to etc.
  • Slide 6
  • CENTUM LANGUAGES In the Centum languages, the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *g ). Most of the Centum languages preserve Proto-Indo- European labio-velars (*k , *g , *g ) or their historical reflexes as distinct from plain velars; for example, PIE *k : *k > Latin c /k/ : qu /k /, Greek /k/ : /p/ (or /t/ before front vowels), Gothic /h/ : /h /, etc. The name Centum comes from the Latin word centum '100', < PIE * m tm, illustrating the falling together of *k and * . In the Centum languages, the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *g ). Most of the Centum languages preserve Proto-Indo- European labio-velars (*k , *g , *g ) or their historical reflexes as distinct from plain velars; for example, PIE *k : *k > Latin c /k/ : qu /k /, Greek /k/ : /p/ (or /t/ before front vowels), Gothic /h/ : /h /, etc. The name Centum comes from the Latin word centum '100', < PIE * m tm, illustrating the falling together of *k and * .
  • Slide 7
  • CENTUM vs. SATEM
  • Slide 8
  • GERMANIC LANGUAGES Between 1500 BC and 1000 BC: the Nordic Bronze Age develops the pre-Proto-Germanic languages. Between 1000 BC500 BC: the formative phase of Proto Germanic. After 500 BC: we assume that the Proto Germanic language is now a separate language, which will later develop and diversify into the present-day Germanic languages
  • Slide 9
  • GERMANIC LANGUAGES The most important sound change which made Proto Germanic different from all other Indo-European languages was the so-called GRIMMS LAW: P>F, T>TH, K>X (later H): e.g. Latin pes,pedis > MnE fot; Latin tertius > MnE third; Latin canis > MnE hound B>P, D>T, G>K: e.g. Latin verber > MnE warp; Latin decem> MnE ten; Latin gelu > MnE cold B h >B, D h >D, G h >G: e.g. Sanskrit bhrata > MnE brother; Sanskrit dwar > MnE door; Russian > MnE goose
  • Slide 10
  • Slide 11
  • TIMELINE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
  • Slide 12
  • ENGLISH IN ITS INFANCY English is traditionally associated with the British Isles, however during the first four centuries of the first millennium AD there was no trace of English anywhere in the British Isles: 55 BC ROMANS ARRIVE 410 AD ROMANS DEPART C. 449 AD JUTES SETTLE IN KENT 449 ANGLES SETTLE IN NORTHUMBRIA AND MERCIA 447 SAXONS SETTLE IN SUSSEX, ESSEX, MIDDLESEX AND WESSEX EACH TRIBE SPOKE A DIALECT OF INGVAEONIC, A PROTO LANGUAGE WITHIN THE WEST-GERMANIC BRANCH OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES.
  • Slide 13
  • ANGLO-SAXON INVASION
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  • THE CELTS THE CELTS OUTNUMBERED THE NEWCOMERS, THEY WERE TECHNOLOGICALLY SUPERIOR AND HAD A VERY ADVANCED MILITARY DOCTRINE. HOW DID THE NEWCOMERS SURVIVE AND EVENTUALLY PREVAIL?
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  • TWO LITTLE GUYS THAT MADE ENGLISH POSSIBLE Two forms of the plague bacterium: THE CELTS WERE DECIMATED BY THE PLAGUE. THE NEWCOMERS WERE NOT IN CONTACT WITH THEM, SO THEY SURVIVED AND WITH THEM SO DID THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
  • Slide 16
  • OLD ENGLISH Four distinct dialects formed: Kentish (Jutes); few extant texts Northumbrian (Angles), dominant in late 7th century Mercian (Angles), dominant in early 8th century (West) Saxon, dominant in 9th& 10th centuries; most extant texts are Saxon Northumbrian (8th C) : Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard, Metuds maecti end his modgidanc, Uerc uuldurfadur, sue he uundra gihuaes, Eci dryctin, or astelid. West Saxon (11th C) : Nu we sceolan herigean heofonrices weard, Metodes mihte 7 his modgeanc, Wera wuldorfder, swa he wuldres gehws, Ece drihten, ord onstealde. Translation: Now we shall praise the keeper of the heavenly kingdom, the power of the lord of destiny and his imagination, the deeds of the glorious father, when of every glorious thing he, the eternal lord, ordained the beginning
  • Slide 17

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