The domestication of the dog: An unrivalled alliance

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<ul><li><p>Abstracts e7(LGDs) that confront wolves, with emphasis on LGDsvocalizations. We hypothesized that barks play a major roleamong LGDs, especially when facing predators like wolves.We plan to playback different types of barks and then tomeasure their influences on LGDs behaviors (postures,moves, vocalizations) and physiological changes (heartrate, glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels). The LGDsthreat barks will be played back in the direction of otherLGDs, captive wolves and wild wolves, in the hope that wecan identify vocalizations which will modify wolves be-haviors to make them leave as part of a preventative strategy.</p><p>Key words: behavior; communication; vocalization;livestock guarding dogs; wolf</p><p>THE DOMESTICATION OF THE DOG: AN UNRIVALLEDALLIANCEJ.-M. Giffroy*University of Namur, Belgium*Corresponding author: jean-marie.giffroy@fundp.ac.beattention-getting behaviors, 3) the requirement of an audi-ence to exhibit the behaviors. Taking these 3 criteria as a ref-erence, we analyzed how pet dogs engage in communicativebehaviors in the presence of their owner when the dogs toyis out of reach. Observations were performed when only thetoy, only the owner or both the toy and the owner were pre-sent to control for motivational (vs. intentional) and referen-tial nature of the behaviors. Gaze alternation between thehidden target and the owner, and the position of the dogsin relation to the location of the target were analyzed. Theresults show that, as in chimpanzees, gaze alternation wasused, by the dogs, as an apparent functionally referentialand intentional communicative behavior. The dogs appar-ently also used their own position as a local enhancementsignal. We concluded that part of the criteria to assess appar-ent referential and intentional communicative behaviors ingaze alternations and locations in space, is found in dogs.</p><p>Key words: dog; humandog interaction; referentialbehaviors; intentional behaviors; communication</p><p>Reference</p><p>Leavens, D.A., Russell, J.L., Hopkins, W.D., 2005. Intentionality as</p><p>measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by</p><p>chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Child Dev. 76, 291306.</p><p>LIVESTOCK GUARDING DOGS COMMUNICATIONSTRATEGIES AND BEHAVIORS IN FRONT OF WOLVESM. Gete*, J.-M. LandryInstitut pour la Promotion et la Recherche sur lesAnimaux de Protection, Martigny, Suisse*Corresponding author: maud.gete@laposte.net</p><p>This study sought to identify the behavioral mechanisms andcommunication strategies among livestock guarding dogsBased on archeozoology research andmolecular genetics thewolf is its main ancestor of dogs. Domestication occurredbefore 15,000 BP, at least 5,000 years before the domesti-cation of any other species. The supposed site or sites of thefirst dog domestication are disputed, but likely situatedeither in Europe or in Asia. The genetic modification of dogshas led them to an understanding of visual cues from humansand to more efficient communication with humans. Thisseems to be confirmed by studies on a silver fox populationwhich was selected according to a process similar to the onethat was used at the time of the domestication.</p><p>Key words: domestication; dog; human-animal interaction</p><p>OBSERVING SIGNS OF ANXIETY IN PUPPY: ANINDICATION OF FUTURE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS?M. Godbout1,*, D. Frank21Centre Veterinaire Daubigny, 3349 BoulevardWilfrid-Hamel, Quebec, QC, Canada G1P 2J32Universite de Montreal, Faculte de MedecineVeterinaire, Centre hospitalier Universitaire Veterinaire,C.P. 5000. St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6*Corresponding author: mgodbout@daubigny.qc.ca</p><p>Many studies have shown that temperament testing mightbe useful to assess a puppys skills for a specific task as anadult, but such tests usually fail to predict development ofspecific adult behavior. The first veterinary examination isusually performed between 8 and 16 weeks of age, sogeneral practitioners are well placed to detect any abnormalpuppy behavior. Unfortunately, unlike medical disorders,there are few published data on the range of normal puppybehavior and on behavioral changes during the dogsdevelopment. Excessive mouthing (continuous desire tobite a human hand during handling) is one of the biggestconcerns of new puppy owners, and they wonder whetherthis behavior is a predictor of future aggressive behaviors.As a new approach to evaluate a puppys future behavior,the authors proposed observation of the puppys emotionalstate. Behavior of 102 8 to 16 week-old puppies of variousbreeds was investigated in 3 different contexts within theveterinary clinical environment (observation of the puppyfree on the floor, physical examination on a table andvarious manipulations on the floor). The distribution of thebehavioral response was wide but most puppies behaved ina similar fashion. Approximately 10% of puppies behavedvery differently (outliers) compared to the others byshowing a high level of signs compatible with anxiety. Aprospective study comparing these puppy behaviors withthose observed one year later in the same contexts showedthat most puppy behaviors tend to persist in adulthood.Signs of anxiety showed the highest correlation betweenthe 2 data collection sessions. As fear and anxiety seem toplay an important role in development of behavioralproblems in dogs, early detection may help prevent someunwanted behaviors.</p><p>Outline placeholderReference</p></li></ul>

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