The Changing balance of World Power: Out with the Old, in with the new
I. The Decline of the Old Order-The fall of the Abbasid Empire occurred when the last Caliph fell in 1258, when invaded by the Mongols. The infrastructure in disarray, the Arabs have never since recovered enough to unite all of their region under their own rule. -The fall of the Byzantine Empire happened 200 years later, in 1453, when the Capital, Constantinople, fell to Muslim Turks. -These had been the Major powers of the post-classical period, and for a time there was a power vacuum. It looked as though Ming China might exert its authority, but ultimately Europe rose as the major Global Power. A. Social and Cultural Change in the Middle East-The power shift in the Middle East by 1300 was led primarily by a rise in religion over science. With religious mysticism led by the Sufis, secular themes in art and literature gave way to religious themes, while reason and Aristotelian thinking gave way to religious ferver. -The Landlord peasant relationship changed as landowners took a tighter grips on the serfs working the land, choking out all that the land could yield without developing better agricultural methods. The result was a backwards development of middle eastern Society. An almost feudal like system developed as trade diminished.
I. The Decline of the Old Order (continued)B. A Power Vacuum in International Leadership-The Ottoman Turks and the Mongols both attempted a foothold in the region, thought the Mongol power base did not last, allowing China to take advantage of the Power vacuum that existed in the East.C. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal-The accomplishments of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) were unusual compared to the rest of Chinese History, in that the Mng attempted to expand China past her traditional borders, both militarily and through trade and commerce. By 1433, the Ming had established trade throughout the India Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the Red sea. -Despite the success that Zhenghe (The eunuch admiral of the Fleet) and the Imperial fleet had, the Chinese fleets disbanded in 1433 amid suggstions that too much money was being spent on sea trade when ther were wars to fight. -China Took steps away from globalism during the Ming Dynasty BUT maintained a strong trade throughout asia and the rest of the world, but rather than Chinese shipping expanding around the glbe, they gave way for a rise of European naval power.
Insert Monty Python(bring out your dead)
II. The Rise of the West-War, and social control of the Church kept Europe from experiencing much progress up to the 14th century, though there were some advances in navel and military technology.-The key event that occurs in the 1300s that radically changes the way of life for the People of western Europe is the Bubonic Plague. From 1348 to 1375, one third of Europes population died. Remember that Manorial system that Medieval Europe is based On? Well it doesnt run that well without serfs. With a massive part of the labor force dwindling, workers now have a slight upper hand, and the old feudal system starts failing as agricultural ventures give way to the rise of the merchant class. In short, there are not enough peasants working the land to support the agrarian system, therefore cities continue to grow, and Feudal power dwindles. A. Sources of Dynamism: Medieval Vitality -Though feudal power and the role of the aristocracy dwindles, Medieval Monarchies are strengthened and their governments become much stronger than earlier. Non-aristocratic solders are being recruited, lessening the need for the nobility that were essential in the feudal system. B. Imitation and International Problems -Trade imbalances between the East and the west meant that the west had to shell out gold for the spices and silks that they wanted, as the wool, tin, copper, honey and salt that the Europeans had on offer were not wanted in the east. This will lead to an attempt to find new, less expensive trade routes to the east, leading to an age of exploration
II. The Rise of the West (Continued)C. Secular Directions in the Italian Renaissance-The Italian Renaissance was a vital cultural and political movement that started in the late 1300s. It was known for realistic portrayals in art and secular, or nnon-religious themes in art, music, and literature. -With the rise of the merchant class in Italy, these wealthy merchants began patronizing artisans so that they would create beautiful art to adorn their cities. There began a rivalry amoung the city states as to which had the most beautiful art and architecture. Principal among these Italian leaders was Francisco De Medici. D. Human Values and Renaissance Culture-The cultural movement called Humanism was at the heart of the renaissance. This was a secular movement asserting that humankind was the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. -Humanism entered around the accomplishments of the classical period as opposed to the medieval /postclassical period, so Greek and Roman culture, art, and philosophy are important to the Renaissance thinkers. -Renaissance Painting focuses on realism, with three dimensional shapes and shading. There are typically secular themes pervading in renaissance Art. E. The Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission-The Reconquista-The provinces of Castile and Aragon were united by the Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, creating a strong Christian Kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula. This led to the reconquest of this land from the Muslims, and led to an enforcement of religious morality, culminating in the inquisition, later in the 15th century.
III. Western Expansion: The Experimental PhaseA. Early Explorations -The Genoese Vivaldi brothers were italian explorers in 1291 who sailed west, seeking a route to the indies (probably referring to India) and were never heard from again. However, this started a trend toward exploration of the Atlantic culminating int eh re-discovery of the Americas. -The canery Island and the Azores were discovered by the 1350s.B. Colonial Patterns-What happened on the Azores, Madeiras, and Canaries was a taste of things to come, as Europeans set up colonies, seizing control of the land, bringing in African slaves, and setting up commercial agricultural centers.-Prince Henry of Portugal was a student of astronomy and natural science who sponsored voyages by the Portuguese to explore the Atlantic and the African Coast.
IV. Outside the World NetworkWhat areas were not a part of international trade during this time?A. Political Issues in the Americas-What challenges faced the Aztec and Inca after 1400?B. Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia -Describe the Migration and conquest of Polynesia
IV. Outside the World Network (continued)C. Isolated Achievements by the Maoris -Describe the Settlement of New Zealand by the MaoriD. Adding Up the Changes -Describe the Technological change in the 1400s-What is Happening With Africa during this time?