THE ADRENAL GLAND. The Adrenal Gland  The adrenal medulla  catecholamine  The adrenal cortex  corticoids.

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    02-Jan-2016

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<ul><li><p>THE ADRENAL GLAND</p></li><li><p>The Adrenal Gland</p></li><li><p>The Adrenal GlandThe adrenal medulla catecholamine The adrenal cortex corticoids</p></li><li><p>Anatomy of Adrenal Cortexzona glomerulosasecretes aldosterone zona fasciculatasecretes glucocorticoids zona reticularissecretes androgens</p></li><li><p>Adrenocortical hormone</p></li><li><p>Renal and Circulatory effects of AldosteroneAldosterone Increases Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Na+ and Secretion of K+ Excess Aldosterone ECF ABP Small effect on plasma Na+ Concentration</p></li><li><p>Renal and Circulatory effects of aldosteroneK+ concentrationAldosterone Hypokalemia and Muscle Weak-nessAldosterone Hyperkalemia and Cardiac ToxicityMild Alkalosis: Aldosterone adrenal glands suddenly stop secreting aldosteronesalt are lost in the urineECF blood volume circulatory shock causes death within a few days (without treatment)</p></li><li><p>Glucocorticoids Function</p><p>:inhibit NADH oxidation which is necessary for glycolysis :FFA</p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunctionPoor wound healingnot most other cells</p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunction: same with mobilization of amino acid from muscle glucose uptake in adipose cell </p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunctionCushings syndrome</p></li><li><p>Cushings syndromeBuffalo-like torso Rounded face, moon-face.</p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunction Resisting stressTrauma , infection, intense heat or cold, surgery</p></li><li><p>Resisting stressBrain Anterior pituitary (ACTH)Sympathetic nervous systemAdrenal cortexAdrenal medullaGlucocorticoidsNE,E</p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunction </p></li><li><p>GlucocorticoidsFunction </p></li><li><p>Summary of glucocoticoid action</p><p>GsHepatic gluconeogenesisInsulin actionBG GlucocoticoidAdrenal diabetesPro-teinCatabolism (especially in muscle)anabolism Amino acid in blood plasmadifficult of wound healingFat Fat mobilization Fat redistributionacetone body Glucocoticoidcentral obesityCushings syndrome H2O and Na+Similar with aldosteroneADH GFR (1/400 of aldosterone)GlucocoticoidWater Intoxication</p></li><li><p>Blood cellhematopoiesislymphopoiesislung and spleen eosinophil storageRBCTBClymphocyteneutrophileosinophil Leuke-miaGastric shieldgastric acid and peptic enzyme gastric mucosafall off of gastric epithelia cell ulcer Circulat-ionpermisivienesssglucocoticoidBPCNSexcitabilitylesseuphoria morerestlessness, insomnia</p></li><li><p>Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneHypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis</p></li><li><p>Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneAction of CRHSynthesis and release of ACTH Action of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin hormone )control Cortisol secretionhypertrophy and proliferation of the adrenocorticol cells </p></li><li><p>Large amount administration of exogenous glucocoticoid , prohibit to stop using it suddently?</p></li><li><p>Regulation of Secretion of Adrenocortical HormoneRegulation of cortisol SecretionNegative feedback effect of cortisol</p></li><li><p>Diseases of Adrenal GlandsCushings DiseaseHyper-active adrenal cortexrounded face &amp; obesityThin, frail skin poor wound healingAddisons DiseaseHypo-active adrenal cortexDecreased appetite, weight lossCold intoleranceStress susceptibility</p></li><li><p>The adrenal medulla</p></li><li><p>The adrenal medulla</p></li><li><p>The adrenal medulla</p></li><li><p>The adrenal medulla</p></li><li><p>Insulin Insulin Small protein 51 AAReceptorTyrosine kinase</p></li><li><p>Insulin</p></li><li><p>Insulinacetoaceticacid is also converted into b-hydroxybutyric acid andacetone.ketone bodies: Acetoacetic, b-hydroxybutyric acid ,acetone</p></li><li><p>Insulin</p></li><li><p>Insulin</p></li><li><p>Glucagon </p></li><li><p>Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism</p></li><li><p>Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Polypeptide </p></li><li><p>Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Funtion : increase the calcium concentrationBone Stimulate osteoclast to remove Ca 2+ from the bone matrix Kidney: Increased Ca2+ reabsorption, PO42- excretionSmall intestineIncreased Ca2+ reabsorption</p></li><li><p>Parathyroid hormone (PTH)</p></li><li><p>CalcitoninProduced by the C cells of the thyroid gland.Function plasma Ca 2+ and PO42-RegulationConcentration of Ca 2+ increased ,The calcitonin increased.</p></li><li><p>Vitamin D3Function intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption.renal calcium and phosphate excretion.Coordinate with PTH increase Ca 2+ .</p></li><li><p>Summary </p></li><li><p>Summary</p><p>Zona glomerulos zona fasciculata zona reticularis*Androgen glucocorticoid*gluconeogenesis*torso*Striae bruisability with ecchymose**leukemia***cortisol*</p></li></ul>

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