Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Rob Horner, Steve Newton, & Anne Todd University of Oregon Bob Algozzine & Kate Algozzine University of North Carolina.

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<ul><li><p>Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) </p><p>Rob Horner, Steve Newton, &amp; Anne ToddUniversity of Oregon</p><p>Bob Algozzine &amp; Kate AlgozzineUniversity of North Carolina at Charlotte</p></li><li><p>Background InformationGrant Enhancing Data-based Decision Making in SchoolsFunded by U. S. Department of Educations Institute of Education Sciences4-year project*</p></li><li><p>Project GoalsDevelop assessment instrument to measure decision making &amp; problem solving of PBS TeamsDevelop problem-solving model (TIPS) to enhance data-based decision makingConduct initial workshops and do field testing in Oregon &amp; North CarolinaGet feedback from field testers &amp; reviseConduct 2 rigorous research studies Does instruction in use of TIPs actually enhance teams data-based decision making?</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Themes &amp; AssumptionsDecision making is aided by access to data (data-based decision making- DBDM)PBS Team meetings are a major context for DBDMProviding instruction on how to embed DBDM in a problem-solving model (TIPS) will result in problem solving that is ThoroughLogicalEfficientEffectiveStructure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency and effectiveness</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Collect and UseData</p><p>Develop Hypothesis </p><p>Discuss andSelectSolutions</p><p>Develop andImplementAction Plan</p><p>Evaluate andReviseAction Plan</p><p>Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model</p><p>Identify Problems</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Collect and UseData</p><p>DevelopHypothesis </p><p>Discuss andSelectSolutions</p><p>Develop andImplementAction Plan</p><p>Evaluate andReviseAction Plan</p><p>Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model</p><p>Identify Problems</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Problem-Solving FoundationsStructure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency &amp; effectiveness</p></li><li><p>Well begun is half done.Aristotle, quoting an old proverb </p></li><li><p>Important Structural ComponentsRegular meetings &amp; regular attendanceThe right peopleThe right rolesFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystActive Team MembersAccomplishments Products of successful meetingMeeting Minutes (record of decisions &amp; tasks concerning administrative/general issues)Problem-Solving Action Plan (record of decisions &amp; tasks concerning problems identified by team)(Well discuss these in more detail later in this workshop)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>Before the MeetingRoom reservedNew business items solicited for agendaAgenda produced Team member roles determinedData reviewed by Data Analyst; Analyst ready to lead team through discussion of (a) possible new problems and (b) effects of in-process solutions on old problemsComputer reserved; access to SWIS online database assuredLCD projector reserved &amp; set up to project data (or team has some other strategy for ensuring team members can review data at meeting)Team members have individual TIPS Notebooks to bring to meeting (Well review the (a) before-meeting, (b) during-meeting, and (c) after-meetings responsibilities of individual team members later in this workshop)</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>At Close of and After MeetingMeeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan completed (more on this later in this workshop)Copy of Meeting Minutes &amp; Problem-Solving Action Plan distributed to each member within 24 hrs.</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>Activity #1On the TIPS Foundations ChecklistComplete Checklist Items 1 through 9, andChecklist Items 10a through 10e *</p></li><li><p>The TIPs ModelIdentify Problems</p></li><li><p>We are all continually faced with a series of great opportunities, brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems.John Gardner </p></li><li><p>Collect and UseData</p><p>DevelopHypothesisDiscuss andSelectSolutions</p><p>Develop andImplementAction Plan</p><p>Evaluate andReviseAction Plan.</p><p>Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelIdentify Problems</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Problems &amp; Problem SolvingPBS Teams focus on social and academic problemsProblem Difference between expected/desired student behavior &amp; current student behaviorProblem identification - Finding a difference &amp; making decision about whether it is significant enough to require team action nowProblem solving Figuring out how to eliminate or reduce difference *</p></li><li><p>Lets Practice Finding Differences(Identifying Problems)Look for Difference Betweenschools average Major ODRs per school day per month, andnational average for other schools of comparable enrollment size*</p></li><li><p>SWIS summary 2008-2009 (Majors Only)3,410 schools; 1,737,432 students; 1,500,770 ODRs*</p><p>Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school dayK-62,162450.34 = about 1 Major ODR every 3 school days, or about 34 every 100 days6-9602657.85 = a little less than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 85 every 100 days9-122158871.27 = more than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 127 every 100 daysK-(8-12)4314081.06 = about 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 106 every 100 days</p></li><li><p>Comparing a Specific Elementary School to the National Average*</p><p>Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school dayK-62,162450.34 = about 1 Major ODR every 3 school days, or about 34 every 100 daysIf your elementary school has 150 students, it has ____ times more than 100 students? (150/100 = 1.5 times more)</p><p>So you might expect Major ODRs per school day to be about 1.5 times greater than .34 (1.5 X .34 = 0.51 ODRs per school day, for a school with 150 students)</p><p>Now compare schools Major ODRs per school day per month against national average of 0.51 ODRs per school day per month for elementary school with 150 students. Judge whether difference is significant enough to be a problem. Lets take a look</p></li><li><p>This Elementary School has 150 StudentsIs there a problem?*</p><p>Chart1</p><p>0.350.51</p><p>0.50.51</p><p>0.28</p><p>0.98</p><p>0.75</p><p>0.85</p><p>1.25</p><p>1.15</p><p>1.4</p><p>1.3</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 0.51</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>NatAvgElem</p><p>Elementary School 150 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs</p><p>Sep0.35</p><p>Oct0.50</p><p>Nov0.28</p><p>Dec0.98</p><p>Jan0.75</p><p>Feb0.85</p><p>Mar1.25</p><p>Apr1.15</p><p>May1.40</p><p>Jun1.30</p><p>National Avg. = 0.51</p><p>00.51</p><p>10.51</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34</p><p>0.51</p><p>NatAvgElem</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 0.51</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>NatAvgMiddle</p><p>Middle School 600 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs</p><p>Sep6.25</p><p>Oct8.00</p><p>Nov7.00</p><p>Dec12.00</p><p>Jan10.00</p><p>Feb13.00</p><p>Mar15.00</p><p>Apr11.00</p><p>May9.00</p><p>Jun8.00</p><p>National Avg. = 5.10</p><p>05.1</p><p>15.1</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85</p><p>5.1</p><p>NatAvgMiddle</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 5.10</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>MidThisLast</p><p>Middle School 700 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs This Year</p><p>Sep3.00</p><p>Oct6.00</p><p>Nov0.00</p><p>Dec0.00</p><p>Jan0.00</p><p>Feb0.00</p><p>Mar0.00</p><p>Apr0.00</p><p>May0.00</p><p>Jun0.00</p><p>School MonthsODRs Last Year</p><p>Sep6.00</p><p>Oct7.50</p><p>Nov6.90</p><p>Dec12.00</p><p>Jan10.00</p><p>Feb11.00</p><p>Mar15.00</p><p>Apr12.00</p><p>May9.00</p><p>Jun9.00</p><p>National Avg. = 5.95</p><p>05.95</p><p>15.95</p><p>School MonthsODRs This Year All</p><p>Sep3.00</p><p>Oct6.00</p><p>Nov4.00</p><p>Dec4.00</p><p>Jan5.00</p><p>Feb3.00</p><p>Mar3.00</p><p>Apr4.00</p><p>May2.50</p><p>Jun2.00</p><p>Months in graph8</p><p>Avg. no. days mo.23</p><p>Total days184</p><p>Avg. ODRs per day2.24</p><p>Total ODRs412.16</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85</p><p>5.95</p><p>MidThisLast</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 5.95</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>TrendElem</p><p>000</p><p>000</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>School, Previous Year Avg.</p><p>School, This Year Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 5.95</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>TrendMiddle</p><p>000</p><p>000</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>School, Previous Year Avg.</p><p>School, This Year Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 5.95</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>ProbBeh</p><p>Elementary School 200 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs This Year</p><p>Sep0.25</p><p>Oct0.35</p><p>Nov0.30</p><p>Dec0.45</p><p>Jan0.50</p><p>Feb0.00</p><p>Mar0.00</p><p>Apr0.00</p><p>May0.00</p><p>Jun0.00</p><p>National Avg. = 0.68</p><p>00.68</p><p>10.68</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34</p><p>0.68</p><p>ProbBeh</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 0.68</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>Location</p><p>Middle School 495 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs This Year</p><p>Sep3.00</p><p>Oct6.00</p><p>Nov3.50</p><p>Dec0.00</p><p>Jan0.00</p><p>Feb0.00</p><p>Mar0.00</p><p>Apr0.00</p><p>May0.00</p><p>Jun0.00</p><p>National Avg. = 4.21</p><p>04.21</p><p>14.21</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85</p><p>4.21</p><p>Location</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 4.21</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>Time</p><p>Master List, UnsortedMaster List, Sorted1</p><p>Problem BehaviorTypeFrequencyProblem BehaviorTypeFrequency</p><p>TardyMajor0TardyMajor0</p><p>Forge/TheftMajor0Forge/TheftMajor0</p><p>Dress CodeMajor0Dress CodeMajor0</p><p>TobaccoMajor0TobaccoMajor0</p><p>AlcoholMajor0AlcoholMajor0</p><p>CombustiblesMajor0CombustiblesMajor0</p><p>BombMajor0BombMajor0</p><p>ArsonMajor0ArsonMajor0</p><p>WeaponsMajor0WeaponsMajor0</p><p>OtherMajor0OtherMajor0</p><p>UnknownMajor0UnknownMajor0</p><p>DrugsMajor0DrugsMajor0</p><p>TechMajor0TechMajor0</p><p>Iapp affectionMajor0Iapp affectionMajor0</p><p>Out boundsMajor0Out boundsMajor0</p><p>Gang displayMajor0Gang displayMajor0</p><p>Inapp lanMajor1MinorMinor0</p><p>Agg/FightMajor1M-Prpty MisuesMinor0</p><p>LyingMajor1M-OtherMinor0</p><p>Prop damMajor1M-DressMinor0</p><p>VandalMajor1M-TechMinor0</p><p>HarassMajor3M-TardyMinor0</p><p>DisruptionMajor5M-UnknownMinor0</p><p>SkipMajor5Inapp lanMajor1</p><p>DisresptMajor15Agg/FightMajor1</p><p>MinorMinor0LyingMajor1</p><p>M-Prpty MisuesMinor0Prop damMajor1</p><p>M-OtherMinor0VandalMajor1</p><p>M-DressMinor0M-DisruptionMinor1</p><p>M-TechMinor0M-Inapp lanMinor2</p><p>M-TardyMinor0HarassMajor3</p><p>M-UnknownMinor0M-ContactMinor3</p><p>M-DisruptionMinor1M-DisresptMinor3</p><p>M-Inapp lanMinor2DisruptionMajor5</p><p>M-ContactMinor3SkipMajor5</p><p>M-DisresptMinor3DisresptMajor15</p><p>42</p><p>Master List, Sorted2</p><p>Problem BehaviorTypeFrequency</p><p>TardyMajor0</p><p>Forge/TheftMajor0</p><p>Dress CodeMajor0</p><p>TobaccoMajor0</p><p>AlcoholMajor0</p><p>CombustiblesMajor0</p><p>BombMajor0</p><p>ArsonMajor0</p><p>WeaponsMajor0</p><p>OtherMajor0</p><p>UnknownMajor0</p><p>DrugsMajor0</p><p>TechMajor0</p><p>Iapp affectionMajor0</p><p>Out boundsMajor0</p><p>Gang displayMajor0</p><p>MinorMinor0</p><p>M-Prpty MisuesMinor0</p><p>M-OtherMinor0</p><p>M-DressMinor0</p><p>M-TechMinor0</p><p>M-TardyMinor0</p><p>M-UnknownMinor0</p><p>Inapp lanMajor0</p><p>LyingMajor1</p><p>VandalMajor1</p><p>M-DisruptionMinor1</p><p>HarassMajor1</p><p>Prop damMajor2</p><p>M-Inapp lanMinor2</p><p>M-ContactMinor3</p><p>M-DisresptMinor3</p><p>SkipMajor3</p><p>DisresptMajor9</p><p>Agg/FightMajor12</p><p>DisruptionMajor14</p><p>52</p><p>Time</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Problem Behavior</p><p>Student</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Problem Behavior</p><p>Sheet3</p><p>LocationFrequency</p><p>Common0</p><p>Bathrm0</p><p>Library0</p><p>Bus Zn0</p><p>Park lot0</p><p>Special evt0</p><p>Other0</p><p>Unknown0</p><p>Office0</p><p>Locker rm0</p><p>Off-Campus0</p><p>Stadium0</p><p>Gym3</p><p>Caf5</p><p>Plygd11</p><p>Hall14</p><p>Bus38</p><p>Class82</p><p>153</p><p>LocationFrequency</p><p>Common0</p><p>Bathrm0</p><p>Bus Zn0</p><p>Park lot0</p><p>Special evt0</p><p>Other0</p><p>Unknown0</p><p>Office0</p><p>Locker rm0</p><p>Off-Campus0</p><p>Stadium0</p><p>Caf3</p><p>Library4</p><p>Hall9</p><p>Gym18</p><p>Class30</p><p>Bus38</p><p>Plygd64</p><p>166</p><p>Sheet3</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Location</p><p>NatAvgHS</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Location</p><p>TimeFrequency</p><p>7:00 AM0</p><p>7:15 AM0</p><p>7:30 AM3</p><p>7:45 AM1</p><p>8:00 AM14</p><p>8:15 AM1</p><p>8:30 AM0</p><p>8:45 AM1</p><p>9:00 AM1</p><p>9:15 AM0</p><p>9:30 AM2</p><p>9:45 AM1</p><p>10:00 AM8</p><p>10:15 AM2</p><p>10:30 AM4</p><p>10:45 AM2</p><p>11:00 AM2</p><p>11:15 AM5</p><p>11:30 AM4</p><p>11:45 AM6</p><p>12:00 PM3</p><p>12:15 PM0</p><p>12:30 PM2</p><p>12:45 PM15</p><p>1:00 PM3</p><p>1:15 PM5</p><p>1:30 PM12</p><p>1:45 PM7</p><p>2:00 PM3</p><p>2:15 PM4</p><p>2:30 PM8</p><p>2:45 PM0</p><p>3:00 PM9</p><p>3:15 PM4</p><p>3:30 PM6</p><p>3:45 PM0</p><p>4:00 PM0</p><p>4:15 PM0</p><p>4:30 PM0</p><p>4:45 PM0</p><p>5:00 PM0</p><p>138</p><p>TimeFrequency</p><p>7:00 AM0</p><p>7:15 AM0</p><p>7:30 AM3</p><p>7:45 AM1</p><p>8:00 AM8</p><p>8:15 AM0</p><p>8:30 AM0</p><p>8:45 AM1</p><p>9:00 AM1</p><p>9:15 AM0</p><p>9:30 AM2</p><p>9:45 AM1</p><p>10:00 AM15</p><p>10:15 AM2</p><p>10:30 AM4</p><p>10:45 AM2</p><p>11:00 AM2</p><p>11:15 AM5</p><p>11:30 AM4</p><p>11:45 AM6</p><p>12:00 PM20</p><p>12:15 PM0</p><p>12:30 PM2</p><p>12:45 PM4</p><p>1:00 PM3</p><p>1:15 PM5</p><p>1:30 PM12</p><p>1:45 PM7</p><p>2:00 PM3</p><p>2:15 PM4</p><p>2:30 PM3</p><p>2:45 PM0</p><p>3:00 PM9</p><p>3:15 PM4</p><p>3:30 PM22</p><p>3:45 PM0</p><p>4:00 PM0</p><p>4:15 PM0</p><p>4:30 PM0</p><p>4:45 PM0</p><p>5:00 PM0</p><p>155</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Time</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Time</p><p>StudentFrequencyStudentFrequency</p><p>1121</p><p>2131</p><p>3151</p><p>51101</p><p>101111</p><p>111131</p><p>121171</p><p>131201</p><p>171211</p><p>181231</p><p>201241</p><p>211341</p><p>221351</p><p>231371</p><p>241381</p><p>251391</p><p>341401</p><p>351421</p><p>371471</p><p>381481</p><p>391491</p><p>401501</p><p>421521</p><p>471541</p><p>481561</p><p>491571</p><p>501601</p><p>521621</p><p>541721</p><p>561731</p><p>571751</p><p>601781</p><p>621791</p><p>651851</p><p>721861</p><p>731881</p><p>751891</p><p>781931</p><p>791941</p><p>851971</p><p>861991</p><p>8811001</p><p>891981</p><p>931871</p><p>941671</p><p>961261</p><p>971551</p><p>991361</p><p>1001411</p><p>952252</p><p>842952</p><p>912842</p><p>982912</p><p>873512</p><p>673653</p><p>264184</p><p>554128</p><p>517228</p><p>368969</p><p>4110116</p><p>609660107</p><p>CountSumCountSum</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Student No.</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Student</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>Student No.</p><p>Number of Referrals</p><p>Referrals by Student</p><p>High School 1800 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs</p><p>Sep5.00</p><p>Oct7.50</p><p>Nov11.00</p><p>Dec16.50</p><p>Jan11.50</p><p>Feb11.00</p><p>Mar15.50</p><p>Apr9.00</p><p>May10.50</p><p>Jun7.00</p><p>National Avg. = 18.90</p><p>018.9</p><p>118.9</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>0</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 18.90</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p></li><li><p>Comparing a Specific Middle School to the National Average*</p><p>Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school day6-9602657.85 = a little less than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 85 every 100 daysIf your middle school has 600 students, it has ____ times more than 100 students?(600/100 = 6 times more)</p><p>So you might expect Major ODRs per school day to be about 6 times greater than .92(6 X .85 = 5.1 ODRs per school day, for a school with 600 students)</p><p>Now compare schools Major ODRs per school day per month against national average of 5.1 ODRs per school day per month for middle school with 600 students. Judge whether difference is significant enough to be a problem. Lets take a look</p></li><li><p>This Middle School has 600 StudentsIs there a problem?*</p><p>Chart2</p><p>6.255.1</p><p>85.1</p><p>7</p><p>12</p><p>10</p><p>13</p><p>15</p><p>11</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>School Avg.</p><p>National Avg. = 5.10</p><p>School Months</p><p>Average Referrals Per Day</p><p>NatAvgElem</p><p>Elementary School 150 Students</p><p>School MonthsODRs</p><p>Sep0.35</p><p>Oct0.50</p><p>Nov0.28</p><p>Dec0.98</p><p>Jan0.75</p><p>Feb0.85</p><p>Mar1.25</p><p>Apr1.15</p><p>May1.40</p><p>Jun1.30</p><p>National Avg. = 0.51</p><p>00.51</p><p>10.51</p><p>Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data</p><p>Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34</p><p>0.51</p><p>NatAvgElem</p><p

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