Teaching Literacy across the

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Teaching Literacy across the. Teaching students who have literacy comprehension difficulties : Building the oral language component. John Munro. What is literacy ?. Literacy is the knowledge students use to convert written information to knowledge. Things you do. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • **Teaching Literacy across the

    John MunroTeaching students who have literacy comprehension difficulties :

    Building the oral language component

  • **What is literacy ?

    Literacy is the knowledge students use to convert written information to knowledge

  • **Things you do

    You look for sentence meanings You look at word meanings You look for the topic meaning You look for discourse meaning text threadYou look for the topic meaning You look for sentence meanings You look for sentence meanings You look for sentence meanings You look for discourse meaning text threadComprehending strategies : readers use employ a range of actions to comprehend text and to learn from it. What is the difference between comprehending and comprehension ?

    Re-read parts of the text more than onceLink the text with what they knowWork out its topicSay parts of it in their own wordsUse what they know about grammar to take the sentences apartUse punctuationLink what two or more sentences saywork out what words mean in the context.Try to summarize or review every so often

  • **Comprehension versus comprehendingComprehension : what you know about a text having read itComprehending : what you do while reading to comprehend a text.Our focus : on comprehending

  • *Reader Manage and direct the reading activityWhat knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? Integrate the outcomes What does it tell me ?What do the words and phrases in the text tell me ?

    What is it about ? What is its topic ?

    What does each paragraph tell me ? What is the story threat ?

    What is the text about altogether ? What do I know now that I didnt know earlier

    What does each sentence tell me ?

    What is the purpose or disposition of the text? What is its genre ?

  • **Existing knowledge scaffolds readingTwo main forms of our general knowledge scaffold our reading activity: our

    what words mean, how they are said, sounds in wordshow ideas are linked into sentences, grammar.how ideas are linked into networks.how a topic or theme operatesthe attitudes and values of the writer towards the ideas in the text.experiences, visual imagery knowledgeaction, motor knowledgeknowledge of symbols

    oral language knowledge

    experiential knowledge

  • **Review : The types of literacy knowledgeWe can show each type of reading knowledge

    text units we can recognise automaticallycomprehending actions or reading strategies we can useatttidues, values or beliefs we have about each level

    Level of text informationThe whats; knowledge units in the textThe hows; actions to use on the textThe whys; beliefs about what workswordsentenceconceptualtopicdispositionHow we manage and direct our reading activityYour existing knowledgeOral languageExperiential

  • **Planning the literacy teachingWe can show each type of reading knowledge

    text units we can recognise automaticallycomprehending actions or reading strategies we can useatttidues, values or beliefs we have about each level

    Phase of readingwordsentencediscoursetopicdispositionGKR

    While reading

    Review consolidate

  • **What are the High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures?A set of explicit procedures that teach readers to

    get their knowledge ready for reading and learningread text aloud use and learn new vocabularyparaphrase and visualise the textlink the text with questions it answerssummarize the textreview, consolidate and automatize what was read.Why high reliability ? Each teaching procedure has substantial research support for its use

  • **How do you build these into your teaching ?

    Beginning a lesson:

    Get knowledge ready GKR

    While reading +learning

    Teach new ideas

    new vocabulary new sentence ideasnew main ideasnew topicnew attitudes and dispositionsReview + consolidate

    Review new meanings, ideas, link with synonyms and imagesStore in memoryAutomatise recall , use of meanings

  • Getting ready or orienting actions **

    Focus on possible topic of text. The teacher guides the students to link text with what the readers knows by using the title, the cover, pictures in the text or blurb. What do I think the text is about? What pictures do I make in my mind when I hear the title/look at the cover.. What might happen ? Link ideas in text with what the reader already knows, use mapping, networking. What ideas could it mention ? If it is about .. what else might it say ? Focus on how the ideas (such as pictures, key words they have identified) might be said : How can I say these ideas in sentences ?Focus on questions it might answer: What are some who / what/ how/ why/ when/ where questions I could ask about it ? Focus on possible words that might be in the text. What words might be in the text ? How would they be spelt ? What other words might be used (synonyms for them) ? Focus on possible reasons or purposes for writing it. What are different ways of thinking about this topic ? Why might the author have written this text ? How might its purpose affect how it is written ?Readers say how they will read, the actions (strategies) they will use. "What will I do as I read/ if I come to a part that I dont understand ? Focus on readers self efficacy as a reader Am I ready to read? What more do I need to know before I begin to read ?

  • While reading actions **

    Sentence level reading strategies for literal comprehension of each sentencebreak text into digestible bits, decide where to pause. Where will I pause and ask : What has it told me ? listen to themselves as they read and paraphrase the text. What are other ways of saying this sentence ? How can I tell myself what it says ?act on ideas, put themselves in the context. What would I see /hear/do /feel If I were in the story ? visualize what was read. What picture can I make of the sentence ?monitor meaning at the sentence level. Does it make sense/fit in? Re-read if necessary.

    Conceptual level reading strategies for summarizing what has been read, monitoring and for inferential, evaluative and dispositional comprehension of text:review and consolidate, What do I know now? How does this fit with the topic ?What has happened so far?, underline, note down useful informationinfer, Why did that happen? Relate then to what they expectedthink ahead, predict, anticipate. What might happen next ? evaluate dispositional techniques. How has the text so far attempted to influence my view ? Word level reading strategies to work out unfamiliar wordsuse context of word + initial few sounds, word analysis and re-read. How can I say the word ? How will I work out how to say it ? How can I break it up ?work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. What does the word do in the sentence ? What does it tell me about ? What picture have I made of the sentence ? What is another word I could say for it?

  • Getting ready or orienting actions **

    Link positive emotion response with the text How I liked the text? Were ideas useful /interesting? Did I feel happy / sad ? How could it have grabbed me better ? Review understanding of the text at the various levels. What did the text tell me? The text didnt say this but if . ? Why was the text written ? Did it say what I expected it to say ? How well did it achieve its purpose ?How can the text be interpreted from different points of view or perspectives ? What was the writers purpose in writing this text ? What techniques used to influence the reader to take a particular interpretation ? Review and evaluate the reading strategies used, particularly the strategies being learnt at the time. What reading actions did I use to help me understand the text ?Store in memory what has been learnt. What key new ideas have I learnt; how has my knowledge changed? How do they fit with what I know already ?Identify the new language and literacy knowledge that has been learnt What new ways of saying things have I learnt ? What new words were in the text ?Automatise and practise reading aloud and silently similar text to achieve increased fluency.

  • **How each reading action is taught.The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually.

    Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. are scaffolded to use strategysay it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future)Teaching sequence: studentssay they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the textSay without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it

    use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know.

  • Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategiesAny topic Automatize the key ideas we have learnt. Link with related ideas we havelearnt earlier

    What questions might the text answer for you ? What words might come up in the text ? Spell them, synonyms Look at the text. Say the title in other ways.Tell yourself what thepictures show.What will you do as you read it ? Read a sentence aloud. Listen to yourself as you read it. Tell yourself what it says What do you think .. means ? Work out what it could mean fromthe sentence. What are some other words you could use ? What are other ways of saying the sentence ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ?

    What questions do these sentences answer for us about women in ancient Egypt? What are the main ideas / vocabulary we have learnt today ? Other ways of saying them / images ? Recall experiences and imagery knowledge,use pictures and reallife contexts What is the main idea in the paragraph ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? GKR : experiencesGKR : languageGKR : bridge to textRead aloudvocabularySentences : paraphrase and visualiseWhat questions does sentence/paragraph answer ?Summarize paragraph Review and consolidateAutomatize

  • **Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategiesWomen in ancient Egypt Automatize the key ideas we have learnt. Link with related ideas we havelearnt earlier

    What questions might the text answer for you ? What words might come up in the text ? Spell them, synonyms Look at the text. Say the title in other ways.Tell yourself what thepictures show.What will you do as you read it ? Read a sentence aloud. Listen to yourself as you read it. Tell yourself what it says What do you think .. means ? Work out what it could mean fromthe sentence. What are some other words you could use ? What are other ways of saying the sentence ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ?

    What questions do these sentences answer for us about women in ancient Egypt? What are the main ideas / vocabulary we have learnt today ? Other ways of saying them / images ? Imagine you are talking to a woman living in ancient Egypt. What would you see /hear ?

    What is the main idea in the paragraph ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? GKR experiencesGKR languageGKR bridge to textQuestion linksRead aloudvocabularySentence meaningsSummarize to paragraphsReview and consolidateautomatize

  • **How each reading action is taught.The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually.

    Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. are scaffolded to use strategysay it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future)Teaching sequence: studentssay they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the textSay without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it

    use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know.

  • **Contrast the strategy teaching approach with the content teaching approachAAB Read the section about Women in ancient Egypt. Then answer the questions and well correct your work.

    Well read together the section about Women in ancient Egypt. As we go Ill ask you to think about what says. Then well answer the questions and well correct your work.Which teacher1.Takes account of individual differences in what students know at beginning of lesson ?2.Takes account of individual differences in how students think and learn during lesson ?3.Helps students feel more confident of what they are learning ?

    *****This is how the process might look as students try to convert the new vocabulary to personal knowledge. **********

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