Slavery and Empire1441-1770The Beginnings of African SlaveryThe African Slave TradeThe Development of North American Slave SocietiesAfrican to African AmericanSlavery and the Economics of EmpireSlavery, Prosperity, and FreedomConclusion
Chapter Focus QuestionsHow did the modern system of slavery develop?What was the history of the slave trade and the Middle Passage?How did Africans manage to create communities among the brutal slave system?
Chapter Focus Questions (contd)What were the connections between the institutions of slavery and the imperial system of the eighteenth century?How and why did racism develop in America?
North America and Stono, SC
American Communities:Rebellion in Stono, South CarolinaSouth Carolina rebellionSlaves go to Florida where freedom had been promisedEnslaved Africans greatly outnumbered white colonistsSense of desperation but also of communityHistory of community: oral accounts of the rebellion persisted into the 1930s
The Beginnings of African Slavery
A portion of the Catalan Atlas
The Beginnings of African SlaveryMoral implicationsMuslims and Africans slaves because not Christians1441: Portuguese brought slaves to sugar plantations on Madeira
African slaves operate a sugar mill
Sugar and SlaveryExpansion of sugar production increased demand for slaves.Portugal created brutal but profitable slave labor in BrazilDutch merchants financed and directed the sugar tradeFrance and later Britain developed own Caribbean sugar plantations
Sugar and Slavery (cont'd)Caribbean sugar and slavescore of the European colonial system.
West AfricansSlaves from well-established societies and local communities of West AfricaMore than 100 societies on West African coastSophisticated systems of farmingExtensive trade networks Household slavery an established institution
West Africans (cont'd)Slaves treated more as family than as possessionsChildren born freeAmerican slavery transformed, brutalized the African institution
The African Slave Trade
The Demography of Slave TradeMost slaves were transported to the Caribbean or South America.One in 20 were delivered to North America (600,000).Men generally outnumbered women two to one.
MAP 4.1 The African Slave Trade
FIGURE 4.1 Africans Imported to Mainland British North America, 16261800
A Global Enterprise All Western European nations participated in the African slave trade.The slave trade was dominated by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, the Dutch in the sugar boom of the seventeenth century, and the English who entered the trade in the seventeenth century.
A Global Enterprise (cont'd)New England slavers entered the trade in the eighteenth century.Of 10.5 million Africans who arrived in the Americas, 90% went to the sugar colonies.
MAP 4.2 Slave Colonies of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
The Shock of EnslavementEnslavement was an unparalleled shock.African raiders or armies often violently attacked villages to take captives.The captives were marched to the coast, many dying along the way.On the coast, the slaves were kept in barracoons where they were separated from their families, branded, and dehumanized.
The Middle PassageMiddle Passage Middle portion of the triangle tradeShelves 6 feet long and 30 inches highCrowded together spoon fashionLittle or no sanitation, food was poorDysentery and disease.Slaves resistance:jumping overboard, refusing to eat, revoltingOne in six slaves died during this voyage.
Portrait of Olaudah Equiano
Slaves below deck on the Portugese vessel Albaroz
Political and Economic Effects on AfricaSlavery enriched a few in Africa, but slave wars ravaged populations, spreading death and destruction far inland.Loss of population and access to cheap European goods led to economic stagnation and prepared the way for direct European colonization in the nineteenth century.
The Development of North American Slave Societies
Africans herded from a slave ship
FIGURE 4.2 Africans as a Percentage of Total Population of the British Colonies, 16501770
The Development of North American Slave Societies By 1770, Africans and African Americans numbered 460,000 in British North Americacomprising over 20% of the colonial population.
Slavery Comes to North America1619: first Africans in VirginiaFrom a society with slaves to a slave societyDecline in servant immigration Better opportunities for English servantsThe Royal English African Companylabor shortage was filled with slaves.Virginia: comprehensive slave code
Slavery Comes to North America (cont'd)17001710: More Africans imported than in the entire previous century
The Tobacco ColoniesTobacco: 25% of the value of all colonial exportsSlavery allowed expansion of tobacco productionUsing slave labor, tobacco grown on large plantations and small farms
The Tobacco Colonies (cont'd)Natural increase of slave population in Chesapeake1750s: 80% of Chesapeake slaves were country born, adding to planters capital.
The Lower SouthSouth Carolina: slave society from its foundingIndian slave trade.Rice and indigo Large plantationsslaves dominated.Georgia prohibited slavery
The Lower South (cont'd)1770: About 80% of the coastal population of South Carolina and Georgia was African American.
image of Mulberry Plantation, near Charleston, South Carolina, about 1800.
Slavery in the Spanish ColoniesPapacy denouncement, but basic part of the Spanish colonial labor systemVaried by regionCuba sugar plantations: brutalFlorida: Household slavery as in Mediterranean and African communities New Mexico: Mine labor, house servants, fieldworkers
Slavery in the Spanish Colonies (cont'd)Spain declared Florida a haven for runaway slaves from the British colonies and offered land to those who would help defend the colony.
Slavery in French LouisianaNatchez Rebellion 1629The Natchez Indians and the slaves of Louisiana joined together in an armed uprising killing 10% of the colonial population, but were crushedFrench Louisiana became a society with slaves.Slaves made up only about 1/3 of population
Slavery in French Louisiana (cont'd)Louisiana did not become an important North American slave society until the end of the eighteenth century.
Slavery in the NorthSlavery was legal and part of the labor system in some northern commercial farming areas but only made up ten percent of the rural population in these regions.In port cities, slavery was common.
Slavery in the North (cont'd)By 1750, the slave and free African populations made up 15 to 20% of the residents of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.Antislavery sentiment first arose among the Quakers of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
African to African American
A Musical Celebration in the Slave Quarters
The Daily Lives of SlavesAfricans were majority of plantation labor force As agricultural peoples, Africans were used to rural routines and most slaves worked in the fields.Slaves were supplied rude clothes and hand-me-downs from the masters family.Small plantations / farmsAfricans worked along side masters
The Daily Lives of Slaves (cont'd)Large plantationsPopulation necessary for the development of an African American culture.
Families and CommunitiesIn the development of African American community and culture, the family was the most important institution.Families were often separated by sale or bequest. Slaves created family structures developing marriage customs, naming practices, and a system of kinship.
Families and Communities (cont'd)Fictive kinship was used by slaves to humanize the world of slavery.
African American CultureEighteenth century: formative period of African American communityDevelopment of sustaining spiritually dance, music, religion, and oral tradition.Great Awakening conversionsDeath and burial important religious practicesFoundations of music and dance
African American Culture (cont'd)Gullah and Geechee languages
The Africanization of the SouthAcculturation occurred in two directionsEnglish influenced Africans and Africans influenced English.
The Africanization of the South (cont'd)Africanization was evident in:cooking: barbecue, fried chicken, black-eyed peas, and collard greensmaterial culture: basket weaving, wood carving, and architecturelanguage: goober, okay, tote, buddymusic and dance: banjoEven the Southern drawl may show African influence.
Violence and ResistanceSlave system based on force and violenceAfricans resisted by:Refusing to cooperate and malingering; mistreating tools and animals; Running awayRevolting (NYC, 1721; Stono, 1739)Fear of uprisings but slaves in North America rarely revoltedConditions for a successful revolt were not present
Violence and Resistance (cont'd)Slaves had also developed culture and communities and did not want to risk losing these things.
Fugitive slaves flee through the swamps in Thomas Morans Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia (1862).
Slavery and the Economics of Empire
Eighteenth-century ships being unloaded
MAP 4.3 Triangular Trade Across the Atlantic
Slavery and the Economics of EmpireThe slave trade was the foundation of the British economy.Created a large colonial market for exports that stimulated manufacturingGenerated huge profits that served as a source of investmentsSupplied raw cotton to fuel British industrialization
FIGURE 4.3 Value of Colonial Exports by Region, Annual Average, 176872
The Politics of MercantilismMercantilism First advanced in Louis XIVs France, later adopted in BritainColonies existed to benefit the mother countryThe economy should be controlled by the stateThe economy was a zero-sum game where profits for one country meant losses for another.
The Politics of Mercantilism (cont'd)Competition between states was to hoard the fixed amount of wealth that existed in the world.
British Colonial RegulationState trading monopolies 16511696: Navigation Acts legal and institutional structure of Britains colonial system.Enumerated Articles such as sugar could only be sent to Britain.Wool, Hat, and Iron ActsGreat Britain did not allow colonial tariffs, banking, or local coinage.
British Colonial Regulation (cont'd)The increase in colonial trade led Britain to pursue a policy of salutary neglect.
Wars for EmpireThe English, French, and Spanish struggled for control over North America and the Caribbean in a series of wars that had their European counterparts.Wars in the southern region of the colonies focused on slavery.Wars in the northern region were generally focused on the control of the Indian trade.
Wars for Empire (cont'd)Down to 1744, the wars were a stalemate, with no nation winning the upper hand in the Americas.
The Colonial EconomyDespite wars, the colonial economy grew rapidly.The New England shipbuilding was stimulated by trade.Benefits for northern port cities Participation in the slave trade to the South and West Indies
The Colonial Economy (cont'd)Trading foodstuffs for sugar in foreign coloniesBetween the 1730s and 1770s, the commercial economies of the North and South were becoming integrated as well as part of the British Atlantic economy.
Slavery Prosperity and Freedom,,
Advertisement in the Virginia Gazette on September 14, 1769.
The Social Structure of the Slave ColoniesSlavery produced a highly stratified class society.Elite planters held more than half of the land and sixty percent of the wealth.Small planters and farmers made up half of the adult white male population.Many kept one to four slaves.
The Social Structure of the Slave Colonies (cont'd)Slavery produced a highly stratified class society.Throughout the plantation region, landless men constituted about forty percent of the population.Work included renting land, tenant farming, hiring out as overseers, or becoming indentured servants.
White Skin PrivilegeSkin color determined status.Legal and other racial distinctions were constant reminders of the freedom of white colonists and the debasement of all African Americans, free or slave.
White Skin Privilege (cont'd)Mixed-ancestry (mulattoes)Majority of mulattoes were slaves.Masters often fathered unacknowledged children with female slavesperhaps Jefferson with Sally Hemings.Racism created contempt between African Americans and colonists.
Slavery and Empire, 1441-1770Southern planters, Northern merchants and British traders were all equally involved in slavery.Slavery permeated colonial societies and made colonies profitable to the mother countries.Mercantilism supported and reinforced slavery as profits flowed back to England.
Slavery and Empire 1441-1770
**North America and Stono, SC*The Beginnings of African Slavery
*A portion of the Catalan Atlas, a magnificent map presented to the king of France in 1381 by his cousin, the king of Aragon, showing Iberia and north Africa, with the Straits of Gibralter connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. A depiction of Mansa Musa (131237), ruler of the Muslim kingdom of Mali, is bottom right. The accompanying inscription describes Musa as the richest, the most noble lord in all this region on account of the abundance of gold that is gathered in his land. He holds what was thought to be the worlds largest gold nugget. Under Musas reign, Timbuktu became a capital of world renown.*African slaves operate a sugar mill on the Spanish island colony of Hispaniola, illustated in acopperplate engraving published by Theodore de Bry in 1595. Columbus introduced sugar on hissecond voyage, and plantations were soon in operation. Because the native population wasdevastated by warfare and disease, colonists imported African slaves as laborers.*The African Slave Trade
*MAP 4.1 The African Slave Trade The enslaved men, women, and children transported to the Americas came from West Africa, the majority from the lower Niger River (called the Slave Coast) and the region of the Congo and Angola.*FIGURE 4.1 Africans Imported to Mainland British North America, 16261800 These statistics, generated by the computer database of all documented trans-Atlantic slave voyages, demonstrate the rising importance of the slave trade in the British mainland North American colonies.SOURCE: Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. http://www.slavevoyages.org (accessed 2010).*MAP 4.2 Slave Colonies of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth CenturiesBy the eighteenth century, the system of slavery had created societies with large African populations throughout the Caribbean and along the southern coast of North America.*Portrait of Olaudah Equiano, by an unknown English artist, ca. 1780. His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789), was published in numerous editions, translated into several languages, and became the prototype for dozens of other slave narratives in the nineteenth century. In the book, Equiano described his capture in west Africa in 1756, when he was eleven years old, his middle passage voyage to America, and his eventual purchase by an English sea captain. After ten years as a slave, Equiano succeeded in purchasing his freedom and dedicated himself thereafter to the antislavery cause.SOURCE: Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter, Devon, UK/Bridgeman Art Library.*Slaves below deck on the Portugese vessel Albaroz, a sketch made by Lt. Francis Meynell of the British Navy shortly after his warship captured the slaver in 1845. Slaves were stowed so close, that they were not allowed above a foot and a half for each in breadth, wrote one observer. This practice of tight packing, which originated in the fifteenth century, continued to the end of the trade in the late 1860s.*The Development of North American Slave Societies
*Africans herded from a slave ship to a corral where they were to be sold by the cruel method known as the scramble, buyers rushing in and grabbing their pick. An engraving by William Blake in John Gabriel Stedman, Narrative of a Five Years Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (1796).*FIGURE 4.2 Africans as a Percentage of Total Population of the British Colonies, 16501770Although the proportion of Africans and African Americans was never as high in the South as in the Caribbean, the ethnic structure of the South diverged radically from that of the North during the eighteenth century.SOURCE: Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, by Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Copyright 1974 by Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.*Artist Thomas Coram painted this image of Mulberry Plantation, near Charleston, South Carolina, about 1800. The cabins of the slaves line the path to the mansion. Their steep roofs, an architectural feature introduced in America by enslaved African builders, kept living quarters cool by allowing the heat to rise and dissipate in the rafters.SOURCE: Thomas Coram, View of Mulberry Street, House and Street. Oil on paper, 10 17.6 cm. Gibbes Museum of Art/Carolina Art Association. 68.18.01.*African to African American
*A Musical Celebration in the Slave Quarters*Fugitive slaves flee through the swamps in Thomas Morans Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia (1862). Many slaves ran away from their masters, and colonial newspapers included notices urging readers to be on the lookout for them. Some fled in groups or collected together in isolated communities called maroon colonies, located in inaccessible swamps and woods.SOURCE: Thomas Moran (American, 18371926), Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia, 1862. Gift of Laura A. Clubb, 1947.8.44. 2008 The Philbrook Museum of Art, Inc.,Tulsa, Oklahoma.*Slavery and the Economics of Empire
*Eighteenth-century ships being unloaded of their colonial cargoes on Londons Old Custom House Quay. Most of the goods imported into England from the American colonies were produced by slave labor.SOURCE: Samuel Scott, Old Custom House Quay Collection. V&A IMAGES, THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, LONDON.*MAP 4.3 Triangular Trade Across the Atlantic The pattern of commerce among Europe, Africa, and the Americas became known as the triangular trade. Sailors called the voyage of slave ships from Africa to America the Middle Passage because it formed the crucial middle section of this trading triangle.*FIGURE 4.3 Value of Colonial Exports by Region, Annual Average, 176872 With tobacco, rice, grain, and indigo, the Chesapeake and Lower South accounted for nearly two-thirds of colonial exports in the years preceding the American Revolution.SOURCE: Shipping, Maritime Trade and the Economic Development of Colonial America, James J. Shepherd, and Gary M. Walton, Eds. Copyright 1972 Cambridge University Press. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.*Slavery, Prosperity, and Freedom
*Thomas Jefferson placed this advertisement in the Virginia Gazette on September 14, 1769. Americans need to seriously consider the historical relationship between the prosperity and freedom of white people and the oppression and exploitation of Africans and African Americans.*Slavery, Prosperity, and Freedom