166 G. A. FOULDS
Superiority-Inferiority. On the other hand, using the modulus lOe - Me; - IOe - Sel, we get  -  = 0, i.e., S thinks he is neither superior nor inferior to most people in handling frustrating situations. This logical position receives some support from t.he following Spearman rhos: (50 neurotic women) - S:I Index and MMPI Hostility Scale (Seigal@)) -.02; S:I Index and a Hostility Scale derived from the TAT, -.05; on the other hand, the Se score correlations with the above Hostility measures were .28 and .31 respectively. The Hostility scales correlated .34.
Where S:I is positive, the conclusion is that S thinks that he handles frustrating situations better than most people and conversely where S :I is negative.
If the present results are confirmed, desirable next steps would be to see whether the S:I Index applies to other than frustrating situations and to alter the Most people column to, say lLHow would your spouse reply?; (HOW would your father reply?; How would most women reply?; TIOW would most Ruritanians reply?; HOW would most neo-behaviourists reply?; in a group therapy situation, How would most members of this group reply? after perha,ps two and again after ten sessions.
CONCLUSIONS A Superiority: Inferiority Index2 has been devised to measure the extent to
which a person feels that he is superior or inferior to most people in dealing with frustrating situations. The ranking of clinical samples in ascending order from in- feriority to superiority was : Melancholies, Neurotic Depressives, Obsessionals, Anxiety States, Hysterics, Hysteroid Psychopaths, Alcoholic Psychopaths.
REFERENCES 1. ROSENZWEIG, S., CLARKE, H. J., GARFIELD, M. S. and LEHNDORFF, A. Scoring samples for the
2. SEIGAL, S. M. The relationship of Hostility to Authoritarianism. J. abnorm. SOC. Psychol., 1956,
3. SWEET, I,. Measuremenl of personal attitude in younger boys. New York: Association Press
Rosenzweig Picturt-Frustration Study. J. Psych.ol., 1946, 21, 45-72.
(National Council of the YMCA), 1929.
2Free copies of the test, scoring instructions and record forms are available from the aut.hor for research purposes.
SECURITY-INSECURITY AND THE DIRECTION OF AGGRESSIVE RESPONSES TO FRUSTRATION
CARSON M. BENNETT AND THOMAS E. JORDAN
Washington University Bal l State Teachers College
INTRODUCTION The present study attempts to determine the relationship of the direction of
aggressive responses to frustration, as measured by the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustra- tion Study(2), to feelings of security-insecurity as measured by Maslows S-I In- ventory (l), an instrument designed to measure inner conscious feelings of security or insecurity. It is hypothesized that persons having high scores on security meas- ures will tend to be impunitive; while those having low scores will tend to be extra- punitive or intropunitive.
PROCEDURES The S-I Inventory and the P-F Study were administered to 109 college students
and scored. Higher scores on the S-I Inventory indicate a greater amount of in- security. The P-F Study was scored for direction of aggressive response to frustra-
SECURITY-INSECURITY AND THE DIRECTION OF AGGRESSIVE RESPONSES 167
tion by categorizing each of the twenty-four responses as E, extrapunitive, M, im- punitive or I , intropunitive, and computing the percentages of each. The data were analyzed using both correlational and discriminative measures. It should be noted that results from both measures are probably affected by the interdependence of the size of E, M and I percentages. The size of two of the percentages limits the size of the third. Pearson r coefficients were computed between the S-I scores and E, M and I percentages. Then the fifteen highest scores and the fifteen lowest scores on the S-I Inventory were selected. Student-Fisher t tests were made to determine if these scores differed significantly with regard to E, M and I percentages.
RESULTS Insignificant correlations were obtained between all variables as shown in
Table 1. TABLE 1. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN 6 1 SCORES AND
P-F STUDY SCORES
When t tests were applied to the E, M and I percentages for the high and low groups on the S-I Inventory, significant differences were found.
TABLE 2. STUDENT-FISHER TESTS BOR THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES OF MEAN PERCENTAGES OF
INSECURE G n o u p s E, M AND I RESPONSES FOR TUE SECURE AND
*Significant at the .05 level.
The insecure group was significantly more extrapunitive a t the .05 level than the secure group. The secure group was significantly more impunitive at the .05 level than the insecure group. The secure and insecure groups did not differ significantly in intropunitiveness. In this study, the hypotheses that secure individuals are more im- punitive and that insecure individuals are more extrapunitive are accepted ; while the hypothesis that insecure individuals are intropunitive is rejected.
SUMMARY Scores were obtained for 109 students on the Maslow S.1 Inventory and the
P-F Study. Correlations were computed and found to be low. t tests revealed sig- nificant differences between secure and insecure students with regard to P-F Study scores.
REFERENCES 1. MASLOW, A. H., et al. The S-I Inventory. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1945. 2. ROSENZWEIG, SAUL. Rosenzweig P-F Study. Author, 1948.