School med handbook for teachers

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This is the first product of the Grundtvig partnership for learning SCHOOL-MED . The project was financed by European Commission but CE can not be made responsible for its content .

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  • 1. Handbook for teachers INTRODUCERE Conflictul este o parte fireasc, normal, a vieii sociale el nu pot fi eradicat dininteraciunile umane, dar asta nu nseamn c ar trebui ignorat. Abordat constructiv, el poatedeveniun factor de schimbare social i de dezvoltare personal. coala, ca mediu social care dezvolt istimuleaz interaciunea indivizilor, constituie i ea cadrul de manifestare a conflictelor.Rezolvarea nepotrivit a acestora determin deteriorarea relaiilor dintre elevi, a celor dintre elevi iprofesori, copii i prini i apariia unor manifestri violente.Pentru dezvoltarea unei coli mai sigure, bazate pe colaborarea dintre toi actorii implicai:elevi, profesori, prini, manageri, personal administrativ i comunitate, ne-am propus realizareaunui proiect Grundtving, School Med: European Learning partnership on the scholasticmediation nperioada 2011-2013. Colegiul Tehnic Gh. Cartianudin Piatra Neam, este partener n acest proiect cu instituiisimilare din Italia, Cipru i Letonia.Prin compararea experienelor din cele patru ri am stabilitcteva strategii eficiente de prevenire i rezolvare a conflictelor din coli. Unul din obiectivele acestor strategii este i crearea unui ghid pentru profesori. Ne-am propusca prin acesta s sprijinim eforturile profesorilor de prevenire i rezolvare a conflictelor din coal. 1

2. INTRODUCTION Conflict is a natural part, normal social life he can not be eradicated from humaninteractions, but that does not mean that you should ignore. Constructive approach, it canbecome a factor of social change and personal development. School environment that developsand promotes social interaction of individuals, it is also the manifestation of conflict. Solvingthem wrong cause deterioration of relations between students, those between students andteachers, children and parents and the emergence of violent events. For the development ofsafer schools, based on collaboration between all stakeholders: students, teachers, parents,managers, staff and community, we proposed a project Grundtving, Med School: EuropeanLearning Partnership on the scholastic mediation in 2011-2013. Technical College "GhCartianu "in Piatra Neamt, is a partner in this project with similar institutions in Italy,Cyprus and Latvia. By comparing the experiences of the four countries have established someeffective strategies to prevent and resolve conflicts in schools. One of the objectives of thisstrategy is the creation of a guide for teachers. We proposed that these teachers to supportefforts to prevent and resolve conflicts in school.2 3. CONFLICTULCe este conflictul? Termenului de confict este adesea definit prin cuvinte precum, ceart, disput, disensiune, lupt,rzboi, care fac referire la prezena unor dispute verbale, agresiuni sau acte violente. Definirea acestuiaprin termeni similari violenei are legtur i cu etimologia cuvntului conflict care provine de la verbullatinesc confligo care se traduce prin a se lupta, a se bate ntre ei. Cercetrile mai recente asupra conflictului nuaneaz i lrgesc definirea acestuia. Astfel,enciclopedia Encarta(A. Constantin, 2004, p.18) identific patru arii de referin a conflictului:conflictul militar rzboiul, conflictul ca diferen-dezacord ntre idei, principii sau oameni,conflictulpsihologic-lupta dintre dorine, nevoi, impulsuri simultane i conflictul literar-cel dintre personaje saufore opuse. n cadrul acestei lucrri, ne vom opri doar asupra conflictului interpersonal cel care poate fidefinit ca disput sau competiie ntre dou sau mai multe persoane care au nevoi, idei, credine,convingeri, sistem de valori, scopuri foarte diferite sau chiar opuse.(A. tefan, 2009, p.73) Aadar, conflictul implic: -prezena a dou sau mai multor pri(persoane sau grupuri); -existena real sau doar perceput a unor diferene, incompatibiliti la nivelul scopurilor, trebuinelor caracteristicilor individuale; -apariia unei stri de tensiune ce se cere descrcat. n cele mai multe cazuri, oamenii au tendina de a atribui conflictului o conotaie negativ, fiindconsiderat ca ceva neplcut, nedorit care trebuie evitat, sau rezolvat ct mai rapid. Noile perspective deanaliz a conflictului au artat c, nu conflictul n sine este problema ci modalitatea de abordare aacestuia. Rezolvat nt-un mod constructiv, conflictul, poate antrena abilitile de rezolvare a problemelor icele de luare a deciziilor, s sprijine autocunoaterea i intercunoaterea, poate s duc la mbuntirearelaiilor inerpersonale i creterea capacitii de adaptare i inserie social. n abordarea distructiv a conflictului, participanii comunic defectuos, nu admit interpretareadiferit a situaiei, se dezvolt emoii negative, disfuncionale exprimate adesea inadecvat, este afectat 3 4. imaginea de sine a celui nvins i, relaiile interumane se deterioreaz, apar probleme de adaptaresocial;E necesar s acordm o atenie special conflictului deoarece exist mereu pericolul ca acesta sse amplifice, s se ajung la folosirea violenei.Escaladarea conflictelor implic:scderea capacitii de control a efectelor conflictului;diminuarea alternativelor de aciune care stau la dispoziie;folosirea violenei din ce n ce mai mult;o personificare a conflictului;emoiile devin mai importante dect raiunea;distrugerea devine scopul principal al aciunlor ntreprinse. n mod obinuit, conflictul este asociat cu violena, dei aceasta este doar una din direciile,consecinele modului n care evolueaz conflictul, ca atare violena nefiind pentru conflict nicidefinitorie, nici termen sinonim. Este important s nu reducem conflictul la ceart sau lupt. Lupta, cusau fr violen i agresiunea fizic i verbal sunt posibile rspunsuri la conflict sau manifestri aleconflictului.Violena este dezorganizarea brutal sau continu a unui sistem personal, colectiv sau social, i carese traduce printr-o pierdere a integritii, ce poate fi fizic, psihic sau material. Aceastdezorganizare poate s se opereze prin agresiune, prin folosirea forei, contient sau incontient, nspoate exista i violen doar din punctul de vedere al victimei, fr ca agresorul s aib intenia de aface ru.Agresivitatea, pe de alt parte, este orice form de conduit orientat cu intenie ctre obiecte,persoane sau ctre sine, n vederea producerii unor prejudicii, a unor rniri, distrugeri i daune. (N.Mitrofan, 2003) Agresivitatea este un comportament sau o serie de comportamente provocatoare, pe cnd violena estedeja traducerea n fapt a inteniilor, respectiv vtmarea.Violena este concretizarea agresivitii, stadiul superior i decisiv al acesteia. Disocierea termeniloreste convenional, n comportamentul concret fiind foarte dificil de trasat o linie net de demarcaie.De cele mai multe ori cele dou atitudini se ntreptrund, cu trecere rapid de la vorb la fapt,agresivitatea pregtind violena.coala este un spaiu n care se manifest att conflicte ntre copii dar i ntre aduli copii, de aicicomplexitatea formelor de manifestare a violenei i agresivitii. 4 5. What is conflictConfict term is often defined by words like, quarrel, dispute, dissent, fight, war, referring to thepresence of verbal disputes, assaults and violent acts. Defining it in similar terms related violence andconflict etymology comes from the Latin verb confligo which means "to fight", "to beat one another".More recent research on conflict nuances and broaden its definition. Thus, Encarta encyclopedia (A.Constantin, 2004, p.18) identifies four reference areas of conflict: military conflict, war, conflict,disagreement as a difference between ideas, principles, people, psychological conflict, strugglebetween desires, needs, impulses and the simultaneous literary conflict between characters or opposingforces. In this paper, we will focus only on the interpersonal conflict can be defined as a dispute orcompetition between two or more people who needs, ideas, beliefs, beliefs, value system, for verydifferent or even opposite. (A. Stephen, 2009 p.73) Thus, the conflict involves:-presence of two ormore parties (individuals or groups);-existence of real or just perceived differences, incompatibilities inthe goals, needs individual characteristics;-emergence of tensions that requires low. In most cases,people tend to assign a negative connotation conflict is considered as something unpleasant,undesirable and should be avoided or resolved quickly. New insights of conflict analysis showed thatconflict itself is not the problem but how to deal with it. Resolved strengthen a constructive way,conflict can lead to problem-solving skills and decision making, support and intercunoaterea self-5 6. knowledge can lead to improved relations and increased inerpersonale adaptation and socialintegration. In addressing destructive conflict, participants communicate poorly, do not allow differentinterpretation of the situation, develop negative emotions, dysfunctional cast often inadequate selfimage is affected by the beat and deteriorating interpersonal relationships, social adjustment problems,is necessary pay special attention to conflict because there is always a danger that it might increase, toreach the use of violence. Escalation involves: decreased ability to control the effects of conflict; reducing action alternatives are available; use of violence becoming more a personification ofconflict; emotions become more important than reason; destruction becomes The main purpose ofaction. Typically, conflict is associated with violence, although this is only one of the directions, theconsequences of how evolving conflict, the conflict itself is not any defining violence or synonym. It isimportant to reduce the conflict to argue or fight. Fight with or without violence and physical andverbal aggression are possible responses to conflict and manifestations of conflict. The violence isbrutal and prolonged disruption of an individual, collective or social, which translates into a loss ofintegrity, which can be physical, mental or physical. This disruption can be operate by aggression, byforce, consciously or unconsciously, but violence can exist only in terms of the victim, not theaggressor to have intended to harm. Aggression, on the other hand, is any conduct intentionallydirected towards objects, people or by themselves to produce some damage, some injuries, destructionand damage. (N. Mitrofan, 2003) Aggression is a behavior or a series of challenging behaviors, whileviolence is already translating into practice the intentions, or injury. Violence is the materialization ofaggression, upper stage and its critical. Dissociation is conventional terms, the actual behavior isdifficult to draw a line dividing the net. Most of the times the two attitudes are interwoven with rapidtransition from word to deed, preparing aggressive violence. School is a place where the conflict occursbetween children and between adults - children, hence the complexity of forms of violence andaggression.6 7. Violena n coal este orice form de manifestare a urmtoarelor comportamente: exprimare inadecvat sau jignitoare, cum ar fi: poreclire, jignire, tachinare, ironizare, imitare, ameninare, hruire; agresiune fizic: bruscare, mpingere, lovire, rnire; comportament care intr sub incidena legii: viol, consum/comercializare de droguri, vandalism (provocarea de stricciuni cu bun tiin), utilizare de arme, furt; ofens adus statutului/autoritii cadrului didactic (limbaj sau conduit ireverenioas fa de cadrul didactic); comportament colar neadecvat: ntrzierea sau fuga de la ore, prsirea clasei n timpul orei, refuzul ndeplinirii sarcinilor, indisciplin, fumatul n coal i orice alt comportament care contravine flagrant regulamentului colar n vigoare (M. Jigu, 2006, p.5);Violence in schools is any manifestation of the following behaviors: inappropriate or offensivespeech, such as nicknames, insult, teasing, irony, imitation, threatening, harassing, physicalaggression: bullying, pushing, hitting, injury, conduct covered by the law: rape, consumer /marketing of drugs, vandalism (deliberately causing damage), use of weapons, theft, offensestatus / authority of the teacher (language or disrespectful behavior toward teacher) inappropriate school behavior: the delay or flight hours, leaving the classroom during class,refusing tasks, indiscipline, smoking in school and any other behavior that contradicts schoolregulations in force (M. Jigau, 2006, p.5); 7 8. Surse ale conflictuluiDei exist nenumrate conflicte, acestea au n mod surprinzator doar foarte puine surse (origini).Cele mai multe conflicte sunt legate de urmtoarele 6 surse:1.Nevoi fundamentale - sunt satisfcute de acele lucruri de care avem nevoie ca ssupravieuimprecum alimentele, aerul i apa.2.Valori diferite - exist cnd oamenii mprtesc credine diferite. De exemplu, oameni aparinndunor religii diferite pot avea valori diferite.3.Percepii diferite - apar cnd oamenii vd sau gndesc diferit un anumit lucru.De exemplu,doi oameni se pot certa pentru c nu se pot pune de acord ce fel de culoare are cmaacuiva. De fapt, se poate ntmpla ca ei s perceap culoarea diferit.4.Interese diferite - apar cnd oamenii au preocupri diferite. Doi elevi ar putea s se certe pentru cnu se pot hotr dac s mearg la o petrecere sau la un film.5.Resurse limitate se refer la cantitatea limitat n care se gsesc diferite lucruri. Nu suntem toibogai n lume deoarece banii sunt o resurs limitat.6.Nevoile psihologice sunt satisfcute cnd suntem mulumii de noi nine, cnd ne simim iubii,respectai, acceptai.(D. Shapiro,2008, p.23)8 9. Sourses of conflictAlthough there are many sources of conflict conflicts, they have surprisingly only very fewsources (roots). Most conflicts are related to the following six sources:1. Basic needs - are satisfied with the things we need to survive such as food, air and water. 2.Valori different - there when people share their beliefs. For example, people belonging todifferent religions may have different values.3. Different perceptions - occur when people see or think differently one thing. For example, twopeople may argue that they can not agree what color is the shirt to someone. In fact, it mayhappen that they perceive color differently.4. Different interests - occur when people have different concerns. Two students may argue thatyou can not decide whether to go to a party or a movie.5. Limited resources - refers to the limited amount are different things. We are not all rich peoplebecause money is a limited resource.6. Psychological needs - are satisfied when we are satisfied with ourselves, when we feel loved,respected, accepted. (D. Shapiro, 2008, p.23) 9 10. Fazele conflictuluiOricare ar fi tipul de conflict, acesta nu poate dura la nesfrit, la un moment dat apar factori saucondiii, presiuni care conduc fie la escaladare, fie la soluionarea lui.O mare importan o are intervenia nc din faza de preconflict; cu ct semnele sau simptomele subcare se ascund viitoarele conflicte vor fi mai bine diagnosticate i cunoscute, cu att va creteprobabilitatea soluionrii acestora.Ca simptome sau faze ale conflictului sunt considerate urmtoarele: disconfortul, incidentele,nenelegeri...

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