WSS, Livelihoods & Growth
RiPPLEResearch-inspired Policy & Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nile Region5 year research program focused on Water Supply & Sanitation (WSS) sector3 core themes (+ cross-cutting activities):- Governance & Planning- Finance- Growth3 regions; 6 focus woredasLearning and Practice Alliances (LPAs) linking research and implementation
RiPPLE conceptRiPPLE conceptual framework focuses on two overlapping sets of issues:- Money into water (effective planning, finance and delivery of WSS services on a sustainable basis)- Water into money (improved impact of WSS services on livelihoods & growth)
Theme 3 focusHow does investment in water supply and sanitation contribute to the governments wider objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction, and what are the implications for WSS sector policy and programming?
BackgroundLiterature review & concept paperScoping studies in 3 regionsStakeholder consultations (LPA)Identification of key issuesReview of research methodsDevelopment of research proposals
Ongoing research activitiesNational level analysisCase study: links between changing levels of access to WSS and patterns of economic growth and poverty reduction in EthiopiaLocal level analysisHH survey: relationship between WSS access, poverty & livelihoods (each region)Case study: economic costs & benefits of multiple use systems (MUS)Case study: links between WSS access & Food Security (FS) Long-term action research
Phase 2NationalRegional/woredaLocalMacro level case study of WSS access, poverty & growth (3 regions)HH survey on relationship between WSS access, poverty & livelihoods in each region(2 focus woredas)Long term action-research linked to ongoing programme implementation (e.g. MUS & FS)Case Study on WSS and Food SecurityCase Study on Multiple Use SystemsPhase 1Case Study onIssue XCase Study on Issue Y
Household SurveyPurpose - to characterise (quantitatively) the relationship between WSS access, poverty and livelihoods in rural EthiopiaMethods random sample of 1500 hhs in 20 kebele (High/lowland. Distance to market. WSS access). Statistically significant/representative. Expected results - detailed information on availability, access and use of WSS facilities and how this relates to health, welfare and productivity of poor hhsRelevance to MUS Group - statistical analysis to assess the effects of improved access to WSS on income, poverty and vulnerability, and the determinants of improved WSS access in different areas
Questionnaire Modules[See handouts for sample Qs]HH characteristicsAccess to water & sanitationHH income & expenditureWater, livelihoods & food securityLabour productivity[Nutrition not covered]
Relevance to MUS GroupEvidence/understanding ofsignificance/prevalence of multiple uses/sourcesfactors affecting demand for MUS in poor rural areascosts & benefits associated with changes in accessimplications for financing & management
What else? Ideas welcome!
Water :QuantityQualityReliabilityAccessibilityCosts:Investment costs O&M RehabilitationIndirect Support costsBenefits:Health benefitsEconomic benefitsWater useHardwareSoftwareImpact costsMUS Case StudyPurpose In depth analysis of costs and benefits of multiple use and the additional costs and benefits of multiple use as compared to single use.
Method/approach Assessing costs (investment, O&M, indirect support costs), water characteristics, water use and benefitsAt household level at service levelFor 3 cases:initial situation -> single use (domestic) -> multiple useinitial situation -> MUS initial situation -> single use (irrigation) -> multiple use
The 3 casesSame types of systems: spring, gravity systemsSimilar environment: highlandSame woreda (similar support structures)Implemented by the same local NGO (HCS)
The case study researchCarried out by Learning and Practice Alliance members (NGO and government representatives from zonal and woreda level)easy access to information, building capacity and ensuring uptake of lessons learntResearch activitiesGrey literature review, interviews with project and support staff, budget and expenditure reviews, community mapping, wealth ranking, focus group discussions, household record keeping, water measurements, yield measurements, use of the household survey data, etc. (research guidelines are under development)
Relevance to MUS GroupTesting methodology for determining actual costs and benefitsMore insight in actual (additional) costs and benefits of mus