Review of International Standards Related to the Design for Control Rooms on Nuclear Power Plants

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<ul><li><p>Review of International Standards Related to the Design</p><p>for Control Rooms on Nuclear Power Plants</p><p>Masashi KITAMURA1;,y, Yushi FUJITA2, and Hidekazu YOSHIKAWA1</p><p>1Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-85012Technova, Inc., 1-1-1 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011</p><p>(Received July 11, 2004 and accepted in revised form January 7, 2005)</p><p>The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) hasbeen accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standar-dized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is requireddue to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP inrecent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedomto design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and soft-ware of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPPhave been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standardsand guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standardssuch as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the internationalstandards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design,considering the undergoing revision work and their application.</p><p>KEYWORDS: international standard, IEC, ISO, human machine interface, human system interface, maincontrol room, main control board, ergonomic design, nuclear power plants, safety related software</p><p>I. Introduction</p><p>The main control room of a nuclear power plant is a keystation for monitoring and controlling the plant. In order toprovide an optimal design of main control rooms which as-sumes maximum utilization of the capabilities of human andmachine and achieve the maximum plant safety and availa-bility, particular attention should be paid to human factorsprinciples and human characteristics.</p><p>The improvement of Human Machine Interface (HMI) de-sign for control rooms especially for the main control roomon Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) have been accomplishedworld wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident, because hu-man error due to misunderstanding the indication of maincontrol boards was reported one of the causes of the acci-dent. The design process and guidelines are standardizedin IEC609641,2) and supplemental standards by InternationalElectrotechnical Commission (IEC) as international stand-ard. IEC60964 was published in 1989 and is the main IECstandard for the design of the main control rooms of NPP.It is a well-known standard by designers or safety authori-ties, used as a reference or as a guideline and has been ap-plied, fully or partly, for design and review in several pro-jects. It is the first international standard systematically de-fined the design principles, design process, and guidelines,incorporating human factors, for the design of control rooms.After the issue of IEC60964, supplemental standards to cov-er the more detailed design phase are published. On the other</p><p>hand, International Standard Organization (ISO), another in-ternational standard making body, issues ergonomic stand-ards in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) for general in-dustrial use. ISO9241 series are the first HCI related ISOstandards. ISO11064 series specify procedures and processesto be followed in the ergonomic design in the process controlsystems including nuclear and chemical plants etc. In partic-ular ISO11064-1,2,3) issued in 2000 as an international stand-ard, can be a good reference for designers, because it speci-fies the general ergonomic requirements and procedures forergonomic HMI design of control rooms on larger complexautomated plants. In the developing of ISO11064, the basiswas provided by IEC60964.</p><p>The international standards are developed slowly, by con-sensus, using extensive consultation and development proc-ess. However, when they are issued as international stand-ards, standards provide definitive statement of good designand means to share a common understanding.4) For HMI de-sign, standards are becoming more important because inno-vations in information technology leading the increased useof automation and centralized supervisory control in the de-sign of HMIs and their associated operational environments,for more reliable and efficient operations. Several types ofHMI can be adopted by applying computerized systems.Moreover, standard related to control rooms is needed for re-liable design due to the fact that the operator has retained acritical role in monitoring and supervising the behavior ofthese complex automated systems.</p><p>The use of computerized control and monitoring equip-ment and systems in control room on NPP has been grownin recent years. Thus, after more than ten years sinceIEC60964 publication, some improvement could be madeas technological update and links with other IEC standards.</p><p>Corresponding author, Tel. +81-78-686-4361, Fax. +81-78-682-6366, E-mail:</p><p>yPresent address: Mitsubishi Electric Co., 1-1-2 Wadasaki-cho,Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8555</p><p>Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 406417 (April 2005)</p><p>406</p><p>REVIEW</p></li><li><p>Therefore, the working group of IEC associated to controlrooms on NPP, in which we are participating, is going tostart the revision work. On the other hands, standards andguidelines for computerized HMI design of control roomson NPP have been developed recently in each body as fol-lows. IEEE1023 is under revision. NUREG-700 is revisedin 2004 in USA. In Japan industry association level guidelinefor HMI designs of computerized main control rooms hasbeen developing. IEC standards cover hardware and soft-ware of I&amp;C systems, including software of computerizedHMI of control rooms, have been systematically developed.Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines relatedto control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only forrevision of the international standards such as IEC60964,but also for users of the standards and guidelines. WhileHMI design is the main part of a control room design, hard-ware and software design of equipment in a control room isnecessary. In particular, software reliability is important incomputerized control room.</p><p>In this paper, we reviewed international standards relatedto the design for control rooms on NPP, in the point of HMIdesign and hardware and software design of computerizedcontrol rooms, including the relationship and current statusof related standards. In Chap. II, we reviewed in the point ofHMI design, for example the state of international activitiesfor revising IEC60964, the state of ISO11064 series, and thestate and relationship to the related standards. In Chap. III,we reviewed in the point of hardware and software designof computerized main control rooms, including the standardsrelated to digital control and protection systems, becausecomputerized main control room is integrated system withinstrumentation and control systems.</p><p>II. Human Machine Interface Design of NPP</p><p>1. International Standards for HMIIn the late 1970s, the kind of concern about the ergonom-</p><p>ics of visual display terminals (also called visual displayunits) became more widespread. The new subcommitteeISO/TC159/SC4 Signals and Control was formed in the er-gonomics committee ISO/TC159. After nearly 7 years, thefist part of ISO9241 was published by ISO, and all 17 partswere published at 2000. ISO9241 is focused on office tasks(word processing, spreadsheet, etc.) rather than process con-trol applications. Table 1 shows the parts of ISO9241 andrelationship with HCI design activities.</p><p>2. International Standards for HMI in the Main ControlRooms of NPP</p><p>(1) IEC60964 Design for Control Rooms of NPPThe international standard for control room design on</p><p>NPP is IEC60964 issued by IEC. Its scope is the design ofcontrol rooms of nuclear power plant and it is the only inter-national standard specified to the control room design onNPP. It is also the first international standard covers the de-sign of the main control room of large plants such as NPP aswell as incorporates cognitive and ergonomics design princi-ples. IEC60964 was provided by the working group A8 ofIEC/TC45/SC45A. TC45 is the committee of nuclear in-</p><p>strumentation, and SC45A is the sub-committee of TC45 as-sociated to reactor instrumentation. The activity of workinggroup A8 is providing standards for control rooms of NPP.The working group A8 was originally organized for develop-ing the design guideline for control rooms of NPP;IEC60964. The convener of the working group A8, the sec-ond author is the convener of the working group now, hasbeen provided by Japan and has been managing the workinggroup. IEC60964 consists of four parts as follows.(a) Design Principles</p><p>Design principles of the control room are defined:Main objectives of the main control room; Functionaldesign objective; Safety principles; Availability princi-ples; Human factors engineering principles; Utility op-erating principles etc.</p><p>(b) Functional DesignA system based approach to the functional design of acontrol room is shown. The following four steps are re-quired: Functional analysis Functional assignment Verification and validation assignment Job analysis.</p><p>(c) Functional Design SpecificationThe functional design requirements for the control roomsystem and equipment that perform the assigned moni-toring and control functions are specified:Provision of data base on human capabilities and char-acteristics; Location, environment, and protection;Space and configuration; Panel layout; Location aids;Information system; Controls; Control-display integra-tion; Communication system etc.</p><p>(d) Verification and Validation of the Integrated ControlRoom SystemThe process and general evaluation criteria of verifica-tion and validation are specified.</p><p>Overall design process is summarized in Fig. 1. The de-sign process shown in this figure is also the basis of the de-sign process of ISO11064-1.(2) Supplemental Standards of IEC60964</p><p>IEC60964 has been effectively used since it was issued in1989, and the supplemental standards have been issued tospecify more detail requirements or to follow the technicalinnovations which have been applied to control room design.These supplemental standards are shown in Table 2.</p><p>IEC62241 is the developing standard in the working groupA8 of IEC/TC45/SC45A. The FDIS of IEC62241 is provid-ed by the project leader, the first author is the project leaderof the developing work of IEC62241, reflecting NationalComments, due to the positive result of voting to theCDV. The object of IEC62241 is to establish a common in-ternational understanding of the underlying functional de-sign basis of alarm systems for control rooms, covering thecorresponding functional requirements, the human factorsrequirements and design guidelines for the alarm functionsand alarm presentation for the main control room of NPP.It specifies the alarm functions and presentation for compu-terized alarm systems using Visual Display Unit (VDU)based alarm displays as well as for the conventional alarm</p><p>Review of International Standards Related to the Design for Control Rooms on Nuclear Power Plants 407</p><p>VOL. 42, NO. 4, APRIL 2005</p></li><li><p>systems using alarm fascia and tile.(3) Revision of IEC60964</p><p>While preparing the supplemental standards, it has beendiscussed whether the revising of IEC60964 is necessaryor not, because IEC60964 has been used more than ten yearssince its publication. Therefore, the working group A8 madea questionnaire survey by circulating a questionnaire fromNational committees, and answers from designers, safety au-</p><p>thorities and vendors were collected from seven countries.The result was published as the technical reportIEC62247TR.10) As a result, IEC60964 is used effectivelyand should be maintained, however some improvementcould be made such as the links with other IEC standards,the technological update, the use for partial modificationsand more detail about the methodology. It was also provedthat IEC60964 is a well-known standard by designer or safe-</p><p>Table 1 Parts of ISO9241and relationship with HCI design activities</p><p>HCI activity Relevant part of ISO9241 Contents</p><p>Analyzing and definingsystem requirement</p><p>ISO9241-11:1998Guidance on usability</p><p>The definition of usability andexplanations how to identify theinformation when specifying orevaluating usability.</p><p>ISO9241-10:1996Dialogue principles</p><p>General ergonomic principles that applyto the design of dialogues betweenhumans and information systems.</p><p>ISO9241-14:1997Menu dialogues</p><p>Recommendations for the ergonomicdesign of menus of computer dialogues.</p><p>Designing user-system dialoguesand interface navigation</p><p>ISO9241-15:1998Command dialogues</p><p>Recommendations for the ergonomicdesign of command languages.</p><p>ISO9241-16:1999Direct manipulation dialogues</p><p>Recommendations for the ergonomicdesign of direct manipulation dialogues.</p><p>ISO9241-17:1998Form-filling dialogues</p><p>Recommendations for the ergonomicdesign of form-filling dialogues.</p><p>ISO9241-3:1992Display requirements</p><p>Ergonomics requirements for displayscreens that ensure that they can be readcomfortably, safety, and efficiency.</p><p>Designing or selectingdisplays</p><p>ISO9241-7:1998Requirements for displayswith reflections</p><p>Methods of measurement of glare andreflections from the surface of thescreens.</p><p>ISO9241-8:1997Requirements for displayedcolors</p><p>Requirements for multicolor displays.</p><p>ISO9241-12:1998Presentation of information</p><p>Specific recommendations forpresenting and representing informationon visual displays.</p><p>ISO9241-4:1998Keyboard requirements</p><p>Ergonomics design characteristics of analphanumeric keyboard.Designing or selecting</p><p>keyboards and otherinput devices</p><p>ISO9241-9:2000Requirements for nonkeyboard input devices</p><p>Ergonomics requirements for nonkeyboard input devices.</p><p>Designing workplacesfor display screen users</p><p>ISO9241-5:1998Workstation layout and posturalrequirements</p><p>Ergonomics requirements for a visualdisplay terminal workplace.</p><p>ISO9241-6:1998Guidance on the work environment</p><p>Ergonomics requirements for the visualdisplay terminal working environment.</p><p>Supporting andtraining users</p><p>ISO9241-13:1998User guidance</p><p>Recommendations for the design andevaluation of user guidance attributes ofsoftware user interfaces.</p><p>Designing jobs and tasksISO9241-2:1992Guidance on task requirements</p><p>Deals with the design of tasks and jobsinvolving work with visual displayterminals.</p><p>Note ISO: International Organization for Standardization,</p><p>HCI: human-computer interaction.</p><p>ISO9241-1 is general intdoduction.</p><p>408 M. KITAMURA et al.</p><p>JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY</p></li><li><p>ty authorities, used as a reference or as a guideline and hasbeen applied, fu...</p></li></ul>


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