B O O K R E V I E W S 591
vention of Blindness, 1 7 9 0 Broadway, N e w York 19 , New Y o r k . )
(Signed) Franklin M . Foote, M.D. , Executive Director.
Editor, American Journal o f Ophthalmology:
For a long time I have been looking and listening in horrified silence, watching that poor inoffensive word "districhiasis" getting kicked around. I had almost become resigned to "districhiasis." But I was finally forced to take my pen in hand when an honored contemporary of T H E JOURNAL,
who shall be nameless, recently mangled that wretched word and made it come outso help me!"dystrichiasis" (issue of January, 1 9 5 5 , page 1 2 1 , right hand column, line 3 1 , first w o r d ) . Y o u must admit that this is a really distinguished example of perverted orthography which must not go unchallenged.
Apparently even among our most illustrious colleagues there is a tendency to relate "distichiasis" to "trichiasis" when actually there is no such connection. True, both refer to the lashes and both are derived from Greek roots. But there all similarity ends: "Trichiasis" is derived from the Greek ( thr ix) meaning a hair. "Distichiasis" is derived from the Greek ( d i ) meaning two and (stichos) meaning a row, hence two rows o f lashes. Obviously there is not the slightest etymological consanguinity between these twonot even under a left-handed bar sinister.
I realize that mine is a lone voice crying in the wilderness and I know that nothing will save "distichiasis" from the chaos of utter confusion which has already engulfed such words as "hemeralopia" and "nyctalopia," "homograft" and "isograft," "intraocular pressure" and "intraocular tension," and so forth.
But I had to try. (Signed) Sydney A . Fox ,
B O O K R E V I E W S * EVALUATION OF A D J U S T M E N T TO BLIND
NESS. By Edward A . Fitting. New York, American Foundation for the Blind, 1954 , Paperbound, 8 4 pages, bibliography. Price: $ 1 . 0 0 .
This study is the first product of the Research Fellowships sponsored by the American Foundation for the Blind. Rehabilitation services in this country are the outgrowth of increased public consciousness of the need for such service as the result of two world wars. The success achieved in veterans' centers resulted in the establishment of a number of civilian adjustment centers. The first rehabilitation center for the blind, St. Dun-stan's, was organized in England by Sir Arthur Pearson for the casualties of Wor ld W a r I and the famous center continued to render like service for the victims of Wor ld W a r II under the direction of Sir Ian Eraser. Similar programs in this country were influenced by this institution. In the United States the incidence of the visually disabled appears to be increasing. The first adjustment center, established in North Carolina, produced an outstanding record of job placement. Severe visual disability is not associated with severe personality disturbance in the overwhelming proportion of persons studied. "The well-adjusted blind per-' son recognizes that his physical disability imposes certain vocational limitations but,, at the same time, he does not excuse mediocre performance on the basis that special concessions must be made to him because of his disability."
RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS OF BLIND W I T H
SIGHTED CHILDREN . By Georgie L. Abel.
American Foundation for the Blind, New York , 1 9 5 4 . Paperbound, 5 8 pages, bibliography. Pr ice : $ 0 . 7 5 .
* The six publications here reviewed are available at the prices listed from the American Foundation for the Blind, 15 West 16th Street, New York 11, New York.
592 BOOK R E V I E W S
This compilation catalogues the materials needed in implementing a program for the education of the blind and partially blind with sighted children, and gives detailed suggestions for the best use of the equipment. The Talking Book reproducer should be equipped with headphones so that the children can work independently without disturbing others. The Braille books should be stored upright as stacking them might damage the Braille dots. For those with a visual acuity of 10/200 or better, the available magnifying and projection devices are listed. An eight-power prismascope which aids in the identification of street signs and busses and can be used at the theater is sold directly to the afflicted by Du Maurier Company, El-mira. New York, for $9.95.
T H E P I N E BROOK REPORT : NATIONAL W O R K
SESSION ON THE EDUCATION OF T H E
BLIND W I T H T H E SIGHTED . New York ,
American Foundation for the Blind, 1954. Paperbound, 72 pages. Pr ice: $0.90. The advent of retrolental fibroplasia as the
major cause of blindness among children of school age has extended greatly the education of the blind with the sighted within the past five years due to the insistent efforts of parents to keep their beloved blind children in the family life. The diverse patterns of this type of education utilize in varying measure the services of a qualified teacher of blind children. The blind child, consistent with his training, spends an appropriate part of his school day with sighted children. The everyday companionship with sighted classmates promotes the future development of a healthy maturity.
A S W I M M I N G PROGRAM FOR BLIND C H I L
DREN. By Robert Belenky. New York, American Foundation for the Blind, 1955. Paperbound, 44 pages. Pr ice: $0.45. This thorough and well-planned guide for
teaching swimming to sightless students is based on the author's personal experience. Swimming both affords enjoyment and promotes constructive body development. It is consequently taught to some extent in most schools and camps for the blind.
A STUDY OF T H E LIVING EXPENSES OF BLIND
PER.SONS. By Nathaniel J. Raskin. New York , American Foundation for the Blind, 1955. Paperbound, 44 pages. Pr ice: $0.50. The expenditures of the blind are com
pared with the sighted at various economic levels. In the low-income group the blind spend relatively more for food and housing, less for transportation, apparel, and medical care. At higher income levels these differences disappear except for a greater expenditure by the blind for medical care.
VOCATIONAL COUNSELING OF B L I N D STU
DENTS. By Nathaniel J. Raskin. New York , American Foundation for the Blind, 1955. Paperbound, 24 pages. Price $0.30. A counseling program is essential at the
secondary school level. This investigation shows that almost twice as many students were being counseled in 1953 than five years previously and that the 1953 students were given more detailed tests on intelligence, dexterity, interest, and personality. The schools are now providing vocational inforrnation more systemically and in greater quantity.
James E . Lebensohn.