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  • REDD+

    D

    V

    REDD

    CIFOR

  • 2012 by the Center for International Forestry Research.All rights reserved.

    Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Sunderlin, W.D. and Verchot, L.V. (eds) 2012 Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

    A.M.W.D.L.V... 2015. REDD+.(CIFOR)

    ISBN 978-602-1504-63-5

    Cyril Ruoso/Minden Pictures1. Habtemariam Kassa, 2. Manuel Boissire, 3. Douglas Sheil1 10 Yayan Indriatmoko 2 Neil Palmer/CIAT 3 12 Yves Laumonier 4 Brian Belcher 5 Tony Cunningham 6 16Agung Prasetyo 7 Michael Padmanaba 8 Anne M. Larson 9 Amy Duchelle 11 Meyrisia Lidwina 13 Jolien Schure 14 Csar Sabogal 15 Ryan Woo 17 Edith Abilogo 18 Ramadian Bachtiar

    CIFOR REDDCIFOR

    CIFORJl. CIFOR, Situ GedeBogor Barat 16115Indonesia

    T +62 (251) 8622-622F +62 (251) 8622-100Ecifor@cgiar.org

    cifor.orgForestsClimateChange.org

    CIFOR

    CIFOR

    (CIFOR)CIFORCIFOR(CGIAR)

    mailto:cifor@cgiar.orghttp://cifor.orghttp://ForestsClimateChange.org

  • 16

    REDD+ V

    REDD+()

    REDD+

    16.1(forest reference level;RL)(forest

    referenceemissionlevel;REL)REDD+

  • 278 | : REDD+

    (businessasusual;BAU)(UNFCCC2011c)1

    ()()

    REDD+

    REDD+

    (financial incentives benchmark; FIB)

    REDD+

    ()(

    )

    (UNFCCC 2011cBox 16.1)

    (Huettner et al. 2009;Obersteiner et al. 2009; Estrada 2011)

    (MeridianInstitute2011b;Romijnetal.2012)

    (2)()

    1 (RL)(REL)

    REDD+

  • | 279REDD+

    Box 16.1UNFCCC COP17

    UNFCCC (2011c)

    UNFCCC

    UNFCCC

    UNFCCCREDD+

    (Grassietal.2008)

    NGO

    2004

    REDD+(FIB)

    UNFCCC (2011cBox 16.1)

    VCSREDD+(14)

  • 280 | : REDD+

    UNFCCC(Box 16.1)Meridian Institute (2011a;

    2011b)REDD+

    14

    REDD+

    16.2

    16.3

    3

    16.4

    16.2

    16.2.1

    (BAU)REDD+

    (crediting baseline) (Angelsen 2008a)

    (compensation baseline)(Meridian Institute 2011b) (financial

    incentivebenchmark;FIB)(Ecofys2012)

  • | 281REDD+

    i) REDD+

    ii)

    UNFCCC

    (UNFCCC 2009a: Decision 4/CP.15)

    (national circumstances)

    (16.1)

    ()

    16.1

    (BAU)

    (FIB)

    ()

    ()

    ()

  • 282 | : REDD+

    ()16.3.6

    16.2.3

    16.2.23

    (GutmanandAguilar-Amuchastegui2012)

    1. (10)

    (AmazonFund)10

    5

    2.

    3.

    (Huettneretal.2009)

    ()

    Soares-Filhoetal.(2006)

    Ecofys (2012)

    3

    (Box16.2)

  • | 283REDD+

    IIASAGLOBIOMOSIRIS(Martinetetal.2009)

    REDD+

    UNFCCCREDD+

    16.2.3 Ecofys (2012)

    3

    (16.1)

    UNFCCC(CBDRRC)

    REDD+

    CBDRRC

    (REDD+)

    REDD+

    REDD+REDD+

    (Angelsen2008a;MeridianInstitute2009)

    REDD+

  • 284 | : REDD+

    Box 16.2

    1a

    ()2(3)

    3()

    16.2

    3

    ()(0.57)(0.51)

    (0.21)1

    16.21

    0.571

    95%0

    16.2

    95

    0.8 1.0 1.20.60.40.20-0.2-0.4-0.6-0.8

    (GDP)

    GDP

  • | 285REDD+

    16.4

    (0.350.06

    0.03)

    (Mather andNeedle1998;Mather et al. 1999)

    ()

    Ecofys(2012)

    a ()

    ()

    (log-log)

    ()1

  • 286 | : REDD+

    16

    .1

    (Box

    16.

    3

    )

    1

    2

    3

    IPCC

    1(

    )

    2(

    )

    3(

    )

    IPCC

    2

    3(

    )

    IPCC

    3(

    )

    IPCC

    Tier1(

    )

    Tier2

    3

    Tier2

    3(

    )

    Tier2

    3(

    )

    (

    )

    (

    )

    (RED

    D+

    3

    )

  • | 287REDD+

    REDD+

    1

    2

    5

    REDD+

    (

    )

    5

    REDD+

    (

    )

    IPCC

  • 288 | : REDD+

    Box 16.3

    REDD+

    REDD+

    REDD+Meridian (2009)COP16 (UNFCCC2010)

    1

    2

    3

    ()

    IPCC

    REDD+

    (IPCC 2003)

    1

    22

    3

  • | 289REDD+

    () Tier

    ()

    Tier()

    Tier 1()

    Tier 2()

    Tier 3

    ()

    COP17(12/CP.1710

    ()

    )()

    1RL

    2

    3

    16.2

  • 290 | : REDD+

    16.3

    16.3.1UNFCCC(2011c)REDD+

    (Box

    16.3)REDD+REDD+

    (Herold2009;Romijnetal.2012)

    IPCC(GPG)

    (Box16.315

    )(16.1)

    16.3.2

    1

    1

    1

    ()()

    ()100 tC/ha

    10

    5(Amazon Fund 2009)

    (BAU)200209

    100tC/ha(

    2011)

  • | 291REDD+

    2

    1(

    Tier 2)

    10

    (Ecofys 2012)

    Box 16.22

    23(Box16.4)

    32

    2

    3

    (Soares-Filho et al. 2006)REDD+

    (GOFC-GOLD2011)

    (UNFCCC2009a)

    16.3.3

    (Meridian Institute 2011b; Romijn et al. 2012)UNFCCC

    IPCC GPG (IPCC 2003)

    COP Decision 1./

    CP.16 (UNFCCC 2010)(LULUCF)

  • 292 | : REDD+

    1

    23IPCC

    23

    16.3.4UNFCCC

    (

    )()()

    ()

    Box 16.2Meridian

    Institute (2011b)

  • | 293REDD+

    Box 16.4

    (PhamandKei2011;Sugardiman2011)

    (Indonesian National Carbon Accounting

    System, INCAS)AUSAID

    (NFI)

    LandsatTM/ETM

    30(2000200320062009

    )

    (

    )

    5

    (2)

    UN-REDD5

    NFI

    2010

    5REDD+(MRV)

    REDD

    MRV

    MRV

    2012

    2014REDD+3(Box 16.3)

    UNFCCC(

    UNFCCC(4/CP.15)

    )

  • 294 | : REDD+

    16.3.5

    REDD+3

    3

    16.3.6REDD+

    REDD+(UNFCCC2011c)

    (15)

    IPCC

    REDD+

    16.4

    ()

    (1)(

  • | 295REDD+

    16

    .2

    (E

    cofy

    s 20

    12)

    1.

    (

    )

    2

    3

    2.

    13

    3.

    (