q// g Déformation faciale et ostéolyse maxillaire chez une ... ?· Déformation faciale et ostéolyse…

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  • Dformation facialeet ostolyse maxillairechez une jumentpar Valrie Deniau, Anne Courouc-Malblanc et coll.

    Nombre de cas Rfrences

    Amriquedu Nord

    tats-Unis 26 [2, 3, 10, 13, 16, 20, 29, 32, 35, 36, 45, 46, 49, 50, 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 65, 66]

    Canada 5 [4, 9, 12, 22, 44]

    Europe

    Allemagne 4 [37, 39, 62]

    Pays-Bas 3 [8, 34, 38]

    Royaume-Uni 3 [5, 7, 33]

    Suisse 2 [40, 44]

    Autriche 1 [47]

    Italie 1 [11]

    Asie Japon 4 [1, 54, 61, 68]

    Afrique gypte 1 [23]

    Amriquedu Sud Brsil 1 [17]

    Daprs [19, 27, 64 ou 69].

    Tableau 2 : Rpartition des cas dinfestation dquids Halicephalobus gingivalis rapportsdans le monde depuis 1954

    > Localise dans la rgion cervicale, laglande parathyrode est un organe majeurde lquilibre phosphocalcique de lorga-nisme. Les principaux effets de lhormoneparathyrodienne sont la rduction de lex-crtion urinaire du calcium et laugmenta-tion de celle du phosphore, laugmentationde labsorption intestinale du calcium et lamobilisation du calcium osseux par aug-mentation de lactivit ostoclasique [63].Lhyperparathyrodie chez les quids atrois origines principales :- lhyperparathyrodie primaire. Les hyper-trophies ou tumeurs secrtantes de laglande parathyrode, responsables dhyper-parathyrodie primaire, sont trs rareset peuvent rester asymptomatiques ouentraner progressivement une ostolyseet une fibrose dformante, sur les os de laface principalement (ostodystrophiefibrosante), avec des signes cliniques etradiographiques trs proches de ceux

    observs lors dinfestation maxillaire nmatodes [24] ;- lhyperparathyrodie secondaire. Dori-gine nutritionnelle, elle est conscutive lingestion prolonge dune ration alimen-taire pauvre en calcium et/ou riche enphosphore, qui stimule la scrtion dhor-mone parathyrodienne avec les mmesconsquences long terme que les tumeursparathyrodiennes [14, 48, 67]. Une formeendmique de cette affection a t dcritedans un effectif de chevaux levs sur unepture trs pauvre et nourris avec une rationde crales taux lev de phosphore [14] ;- lhyperparathyrodie secondaire. Dori-gine noplasique, elle rsulte de la scr-tion de substances PTH-like par certainestumeurs viscrales, en particulier le lym-phosarcome, et sexprime plutt par descalcifications erratiques des tissus mous,principalement localises dans les reins, surles valves cardiaques ou la racine aortique.

    > Une suspicion dhyperparathyrodie peuttre tablie en sappuyant sur des signes cli-niques vocateurs et des anomalies desfractions dexcrtions urinaires du calcium(basse) et du phosphore (leve). Unehypercalcmie et une hypophosphormiesont trs frquentes en prsence dunetumeur parathyrodienne secrtante [24].En revanche, llvation la fois de la phos-phormie et de la fraction dexcrtion uri-naire du phosphore est trs vocatricedhyperparathyrodie secondaire doriginenutritionnelle [48].

    > La confirmation ncessite un dosagedhormone parathyrodienne circulante,dont la concentration sanguine est levedans les cas dhyperparathyrodie primaireou secondaire nutritionnelle. Lhyperpara-thyrodie paranoplasique ne peut tre ta-blie que par un dosage de peptidesPTH-like, peu disponible en France.

    Encadr : Dystrophie osseuse et hyperparathyrodie

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