Putting Into Context the Value of UD_p21516tip

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AR413A: Planning 2 Lecture Notes Putting into Context the Value of Urban Design Arch. Eduardo F. Bober, Jr. Urban Design [definition review] - the art of creating and shaping cities and towns, giving form and character through the design of public spaces - involves arrangement of public spaces, buildings, transport systems, services, amenities - traditionally a subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture - designing of cities without designing buildings(Barnett) - the art of making places (Cowan) - CONNECTS: o people and places o movement and urban form o natural and built environment - TRANSCENDS: o planning and transportation policy o building and landscape design o engineering o development economics Urban Design [relation to planning] - the element in the planning process that is concerned with finding an appropriate physical framework for human activities in cities. Urban Design [theory] - Urban design theory deals primarily with the planning and design of the public realm public realm = public space, public domain Urban Design [scope: public realm] Urban Design [scope: private spaces] - Some aspects private spaces contribute to defining public spaces: o building facades o private gardens o front yards/backyards - These can be manipulated or controlled through prospective development/ design guidelines Urban Design Controls Incentive Zoning - allowing builders and developers more space if they provide certain desirable features and amenities such as plazas, arcades, and other open spaces Cluster Zoning - creating special zoning policies and regulations for medium to large sized controlled developments Floor Area Ratio (FAR) - The proportions between the built area and the lot area. Floor Space Index (FSI) - established by dividing the area of the total floor space of the buildings by the site area, including half the area of any roads adjoining it. Architectural Guidelines - building heights - setbacks - building bulk - architectural character Urban Design [scale] - The scale of urban design work ranges from city/town plans to as detailed as street furniture and environmental art Creates a sense of place (place-making) Urban Design [examples of projects] o streetscapes o mixed-use redevelopment o parks and open spaces o environmental graphics/way-finding o environmental art o urban renewal o historic preservation o township creation o waterfront developments o environmental lighting Urban Design [best practices] - The best practices in UD can be associated with the following concepts/movements: new urbanism landscape urbanism smart growth sustainable street network heritage conservation transit-oriented development (TOD) Common Themes Character, image and response to context places which have their own character and which are well related to their context Spatial coherence and townscape structure buildings which have a collective value and create places which are distinctive and understandable Building design quality and external appearance buildings which are designed to be visually appropriate, attractive and fit for purpose providing architectural quality Movement, linkages, permeability and accessibility developments and places which support good connections and which are well integrated Security and safety designing places which are inherently safe in design Mixed-use, density and diversity promoting uses which add to vitality and variety Adaptability and flexibility ensuring places and buildings are robust Sustainability and eco-design buildings and schemes which are more energy efficient Design process and ongoing maintenance and management ensuring an effective design process starting with good analysis and ensuring ongoing care is considered Economic Value of Urban Design [premise] - Good urban design can be a factor for economic growth and regeneration o Assessment of what constitutes good design (refer to sample) o Identification of potential benefits o Formulating an overview of an impact assessment framework Economic Value [defined] o represents a measure of profit from a development o additional Gross Value Added created o measure of welfare or utility which incorporates economic, social and environmental considerations good design can be seen as a public good non-rival non-excludable Good urban design adds economic value by: o producing high returns on investments (good rental returns and enhanced capital values) o placing developments above local competition at little cost o responding to occupier demand o helping to deliver more lettable area (higher densities) o reducing management, maintenance, energy and security costs o contributing to more contented and productive work forces o supporting the life-giving mixed-use elements in developments o creating an urban regeneration and place marketing divided o differentiating places and raising their prestige o opening up investment opportunities, raising confidence in development opportunities and attracting grant monies o reducing the cost to the public purse of rectifying urban design mistakes Good urban design adds social and environmental value by: o creating well connected, inclusive and accessible new places o distributing mixed-use environments with a broad range of facilities and amenities available to all delivering development sensitive to its context o enhancing the sense of safety and security within and beyond developments Economic Value of Urban Design [rationale for government intervention in promoting good urban design] based upon issues on equity and unequal distribution of wealth economic efficiency, prevention of market failures welfare of society health and environmental impacts investments in regeneration to reverse physical and social decay, consequently reversing economic decline. Returns on investments would be: o economic job creation, business formation, market renewal o social improved community facilities, health, o environmental sustainability, health Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits Strong evidence of relationship to design Provides land savings and better efficiency in the use of space Utilizes infrastructure more effectively Attracts additional visitors and activity Helps achieve greater efficiency in use of resources Improves natural surveillance and security Increases choice and access to facilities and amenities Better meets the needs of users Encourages greater use of public space Increases participation in community and cultural activities Lowers use of car for local trips Encourages walking and cycling Evidence of relationship to design Increase viability of local facilities and businesses Positive impact on the image of an area Increases commercial property values Improves staff productivity and satisfaction Reduces whole life costs, including management and security costs Improves long-term economic performance of an area Enhances corporate image/brand Promotes greater levels of physical activity Increases diversity and duration of use of public space Helps to improve social relations and cohesion Enhances convenience Encourages commitment to undertaking further improvements Improves sense of personal safety Positive impact on physical and mental Reduces harmful emissions and pollutants Improved energy efficiency and sustainability Reduces reliance on vehicular transport Lowers level of energy consumption Contributes to area revitalization/regeneration Improves business performance and competiveness Increases residential property values Leads to greater land values Increases vitality of local businesses health Reduces levels of crime and fear of crime Helps to improve patient recovery rates Increases sense of community Assists in fostering social engagement and participation Costs of good design o more challenging or complicated building format height/massing o increased specification of construction and finish materials o more sophisticated or complex construction methods o higher environmental standards and better environmental performances o more open spaces or streets within the scheme o more or better infrastructure o time to get design right o skills namely the cost of using suitably qualified designers o cultural change and initial time costs as developers leave their comfort zones Beneficiaries of good design o Investors returns on investments occupier demand o Developers investors attracted company image returns on investments o Designers work prestige o Occupiers better performance impression clients/guests health & satisfaction o Everyday users/society regeneration new & retained jobs better environment o Public authorities meeting obligations ripple effect FOR THE ACTIVITY THIS WEEK AND NEXT WEEK (Please refer to the Activity Guide posted in the e_group)