解析の目的および範囲を設定する(purpose, ise.me.tut.ac.jp/lectures/safety/lectures/safety-week-3.pdf1 Preparing for the HAZOP studies 解析の目的および範囲を設定する(purpose, objectives and scope) チームを構成する 必要なデータを得る データを適切な形式に変換する 解析を計画する 準備会議を行う

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  • 1

    Preparing for the HAZOP studies

    purpose, objectives and scope

  • 2

    Purpose, objectives, and scope

    (HAZOP)

    :

  • 3

    HAZOPHAZOP

    57

  • 4

    Typically, the data consist of various engineering drawings ()

    e.g. P&IDs, flowsheets, plant layout schematics. Operating instructions, instrument sequence control charts, logic diagramsComputer programsPlant manuals, equipment manufacturers' manualsImportant drawings and data should be provided to HAZOP team members well before the meetings.

    P&IDs: Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

  • 5

    P&ID

    Source: Kauffman, D, Flow Sheets and Diagrams, AIChE ModularInstruction, Series G: Design of Equipment, series editor J. Beckman, AIChE, New York, 1986, vol 1, Chapter G.1.5,

    Source: Kauffman, D, Flow Sheets and Diagrams, AIChE ModularInstruction, Series G: Design of Equipment, series editor J. Beckman, AIChE, New York, 1986, vol 1, Chapter G.1.5,

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    Study nodes or process sections may be identified before the meetings using engineering diagramsSufficient copies of each drawing should be available for team members to see during the meeting(s)Analyze operating procedures (step 2: heat the tank, step 3: add mixture to tank,)

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    Plan the HAZOP meetingsEstimate the meeting time needed for the studyTypically, each process section or study node will take an average of 20-30 minutes

    For example, a vessel with two inlets, two exits, and a vent should take about three hours.

    An operation (such as switch on pump) will take about fifteen minutes Ideally, each session should last no more than four to six hours (preferably in the morning).

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    HAZOP

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    System division: Nodes

    main equipment itemline connecting two main equipment items

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    System division example

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    HAZOP

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    design intent

    Poor: flow raw material from storage vessel to process vesselBetter: flow raw material A from storage vessel V-1 to process vessel V-2 at a flow rate of 100-120 m3/s

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    HAZOP

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    no cooling

    more pressure

    less temperature

    as well as composition

    part of Material transfer

    reverse flow

    other than position

    T-1

    L-1

    R-1

    L-2

    L-2L-3

    Guideword Parameter Example

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    no

    more

    less

    as well as

    part of

    reverse

    other than

    Guideword

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    HAZOP

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    Causes correspond to initiating eventsCauses must be clear (who, what, where)Entries in the causes column should specify the way failures occur

    Pump fails

    Operator error

    Pump fails off,Pump fails on

    Operator does not close valve,Operator does not open valve

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    HAZOP

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    Intermediate consequences ()Final consequences ()

    FireExplosionToxic releaseRunaway reaction

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    Intermediate consequences should end with a hazard

    Pipe ruptured by vehicle impact

    Loss of toluene at the unloading station

    Fire resulting in property damage

    Pipe ruptured by vehicle impact

    Loss of toluene at the unloading station resulting in a fire

    Property damage

    Possible

    Preferred

Recommended

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