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Martin-Luther-UniversittHalle-WittenbergInstitutsbereich AgrartechnikAgrartechnische Berichte aus Sachsen-Anhalt, Nr. 6Publishable Final Project ReportDemonstration of 2nd Generation Vegetable Oil Fuels in Advanced Engines (2ndVegOil) TREN/FP7EN/219004/2ndVegOil Enfocus Software - Customer Support The 2nd VegOil Consortium 2nd Generation Pure Plant Oil This publication has been produced with financial support of the European Commission in the frame of the FP7 Seventh Framework Programme under the grant agreement N TREN/FP7EN/219004/2ndVegOil. The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. The term pure vegetable oil (PVO) which figures in the title of the project was decided to be abandoned in the course of the project and was replaced by pure plant oil (PPO). The latter is the expression which is used among others in the European Standardization Committee (CEN) Workshop Agreement CWA 16379, Fuels and biofuels Pure plant oil fuel for diesel engine concepts Requirements and test methods, which is one of the major outcomes of this project. For this reason, the term pure plant oil is used thoroughly within this document. Published within the EC FP7 RTD and demonstration project: Demonstration of 2nd Generation Vegetable Oil Fuels in Advanced Engines (2ndVegOil) www.2ndvegoil.eu Authors: The 2ndVegOil consortium Layout: Axel-Frank Bachner, Martin-Luther-Universitt Halle-Wittenberg Enfocus Software - Customer Supporthttp://www.2ndvegoil.eu/2ndGenerationPurePlantOilAgrartechnischeBerichteausSachsenAnhalt,Nr.6MartinLutherUniversittHalleWittenberg,InstitutsbereichAgrartechnikJuliusKhnStr.2306112HalleHalle2012 The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil4Tableofcontent1. Executivesummary.....................................................................................................................52. Projectcontextandobjectives ...................................................................................................63. Theprojectconsortium.............................................................................................................104. Keystatementsofconsortiumpartners ...................................................................................135. Scientificandtechnologicalresults...........................................................................................316. Outlook......................................................................................................................................56 The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil51. ExecutivesummaryPure plant oil (PPO) use as engine fuel offers potentially the most comprehensive ecological,economicandsocialbenefitsofallbiofuels.ThechallengestoaddresswhenusingPPOastransportfuelareengineadaptation, fuelqualitycontrol,andemissionscontrol.Further, limitations to theoverallproductionpotentialhave tobe taken intoaccount.Thiswasdonewithin the2ndVegOilprojectbydevelopmentanddemonstrationof tractorengines,2ndgenerationpureplantoil (2GPPO)fuelsfromdifferentoilplantswithalargesustainableproductionpotential,andlubricants.2GPPOfuelsarecharacterisedbyanextremelylowcontentofalkalimetals,earthalkalinemetalsandphosphorous.Anoilcleaningmethod that isapplicable forsmallagriculturalenterpriseswasbrought tomaturitywithin the project, andwas applied atwith two reference presses for theproductionofallbiofuelsused forenginedevelopmentanddemonstration.One further, slightlydifferent, furtheroilcleaningmethodwasdeveloped inparallelandappliedona third referencepress,fortheproductionofsmallerbatchesof2GPPO.Engine development was conducted on an engine test stand, and on EU Stage 3A, 3B and 4compliantengines thatwereadapted to2GPPOoperationandsuccessfully testedwithdifferent2GPPOfuels.Amajoroutcomeofthesetests isthatthetypeofoilplaysaminorrole iftheoil isalmostentirelydemineralisedandthetypeofoilisknownoridentifiedbymeansofafueldetectingsensor. Complementary development and tests on a hybrid engine test stand have proven thepotentialofhybridizationforreducingparticulatematteremissions intransientcyclessuchastheNRTC.The developed engine concepts, 2GPPO fuels with selected additives, and two appropriatelyformulated lubricants were subjected to comprehensive, scientific field tests and a fleetdemonstration andmonitoring programme inGermany, France,Austria and Poland. 16 tractorsweretestedinthefield,underabroadrangeofoperatingconditions,with8different2GPPOfuels,foratotalof24,000operatinghours.Zerototalfailureswerereportedandallminorfailuresthatwere attributed to the use of 2GPPO, instead of diesel as fuel could be traced back to fuelcontaminationand/orinappropriatefuelstorage.Hence,theproofofconceptwasprovidedforthedevelopedcombinationsofmodifieddieselengines,2GPPOfuelswithadditives,andlubricants.Amajor result of the projectwith regard to fuel standardisation is a European StandardizationCommittee(CEN)WorkshopAgreement.ThisCWAdefinesminimumrequirementsfortwoclassesofpureplantoilusedasfuel inengineswithandwithoutexhaustgasaftertreatmentsystemandhasbeenpublishedon7December2011asCWA16379,FuelsandbiofuelsPureplantoilfuelfordieselengineconceptsRequirementsandtestmethods.Anaccompanyingprojectassessmenthasshownthatthemaindifferencebetweenadieselanda2GPPO fuelled tractor lies in thesavingofGreenHouseGas (GHG)emissions.Thesavingcanbemorethan60%foratractorfuelledwith2GPPOfromrapeseed,ifthe2GPPOisalsousedinthecultivationoftheseed,andalmost70%for2GPPOfromfalseflax(camelinasativa)seediftheseedisproducedinmixedcultivationwithwheat. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil62. ProjectcontextandobjectivesTheadvantagesofpureplantoilcomparedtootherbiofuelsThe2ndVegOilprojectwasguidedby the theory thatpureplantoil,usedasengine fuel,has thepotential for themost comprehensiveecological,economicand socialbenefitsofallbiofuels. Inaddition to groundlaying engine, fuel and lubricant development and demonstrationwork, theverificationofthistheoryplayedamajorrolewithintheproject.Theoutstandingbenefitsofpureplantoilsaredue to theirphysicochemicalproperties,andbytheir way of production, which involves few process steps and can be carried out doneeconomicallywithsmallproductionunits.Theproductionprocessleadstoonlysmallenergylosses,because no thermal or chemical process steps are involved. It can be implemented in small,decentralisedunits,withoutloosingcosteffectiveness,thusallowingforshorttransportdistances,andprovidespotential for additional income generationon farms; this in turn strengthens ruraleconomic structuresand socialcoherence.Thenontoxicityand the low flammabilityare furtheradvantagesfromalogisticspointofview.Allotherbiofuelshavealongerproductionchainandhigherassociatedenergylosses.E.g.ethanolproduction shows high energy losses because of the required distillation step, and syntheticbiofuels,producedbythethermochemicalprocess,canhardlybeproducedwithefficiencyhigherthan50%duetohighthermallossesinthegasificationstageandthefuelsynthesis(FischerTropschorsimilar).Allbiofuels,exceptpureplantoil,alsopresentamoreor lesspronouncedriskfortheenvironment or for safety, due to the toxicity of some reactants used, and a generally highflammability.ThechallengestobemetwhenusingpureplantoilasenginefuelThechallengestoaddresswhenusingpureplantoilastransportfuelare(1)engineadaptation,(2)fuelqualitycontrol,and(3)emissionscontrol.Whenconsideringthepotentialimpactofpureplantoil,also(4)limitationstotheoverallproductionpotentialneededtobeaddressed.Inthefirstinstance,thelowignitabilityofpureplantoilandthestrongtemperaturedependencyofitsviscositymake itunsuitableforuse inconventionaldieselengines.Whenused innonmodifiedengines,pureplantoilnotonlycanleadtoenginedamage,particularlyintechnologicallyadvancedengines,butalso tounacceptablyhighemissions.Especially,particulateemissions inacold startcondition are tremendously high, while in most other operating ranges, pure plant oil showsadvantagescomparedtoconventionaldiesel.Differentengineadaptationconceptsexistedatthestartoftheprojecttoovercometheseprincipledifficulties,includingbivalentoperation(startwithnormaldiesel,continuousoperationwithplantoil),preheatingofplantoil and anumberofmechanicalmodifications,notablyof the injectionsystem.TheseconceptsenabledEuro3emissionlevels,forroadvehicles,andEUStage2,fornon The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil7roadvehicles,tobeachieved indieselenginesspecificallyadaptedforrapeseedoilconfirmingtothe formerGerman prestandard DINV51605. Development efforts to complywith the Euro 4normforroadvehiclesandEUStage3Afornonroadvehicleswereinprogress,butnostateoftheart solutionswere yet inplace.However,advancedbiofuels shouldenableemissions tobe keptwithinthe limitsofthe forthcomingEuro6normforroadvehiclesandEUStage4/USTier4 fornonroadvehicles.Thiswasthemajorchallengetobemetinthisproject.Apart from transesterification tobiodieseland cracking/hydrogenationofpureplantoil toBtL,bothconsideredasdifferentbiofuels,noattemptshadbeenmadesofartomodifypureplantoilinordertobettermatchwithenginerequirements.Thereasonforthatwasthatthemajorityoftheadvocates of pure plant oiluse as engine fuel considered any modification of the oil asmanipulationof itsnaturalcharacter.Thisunpronounceddogmawasquestioned inthisproject,andadualstrategywasfollowed:enginesaswellasthefuelwereadapted,tomatcheachother,sothatthecombinationofbothenableshighengineperformancetobeachieved,withminimumfuelconsumption,whilefulfillingmostsevereemissionlimits.Thephysicochemicalpropertiesofpureplantoil,whichare relevant forenginecombustion,areinfluencedbytheseedgrowingconditionsandbytheoilpressingprocess.Theconsequenceisthatthereare verydifferentoilqualitieson themarket.Engineoperationproblems inprevious fleetdemonstration projectswere almost exclusively due to plant oil not fulfillingminimum qualityrequirements,astheywereexpressedforinstanceintheprenormDINV51605,whichappliedatthebeginningoftheprojectinGermany.Hence,fuelqualitydefinitionandcontrolareparamountifplantoilshouldplayagreaterroleinthebiofuelsmarket.Beforethe2ndVegOilproject,almostexclusivelyrapeseedandsunfloweroilwereusedasenginefuelinEurope.But,inparticular,rapeseedculturesareproblematic,becauserapeseedscanhardlybeproduced inorganicagriculture, thus requiringmineral fertilisation,chemicalplantprotectionand related energy input for the production of fertiliser and plant protection chemicals.Furthermore, although ecological considerations make rape seed production desirable in theframeworkofcroprotationforimprovingthesoilconditionsorforincreasingtheacreagecultivatedwithfloweringplants,rapeseedproductionshouldalsonotbewidenedbeyondthepresent levelforecologicalreasons.Thislimitsthepotentialcontributionofrapeseedoiltothefuelmarkettoafewpercent.The situation isonly slightlybetter for sunfloweroil.Hence, ifusedat larger scale,otherplantoilsmustbeconsidered.NewoilsforfuelsIn this project, false flax (Camelina sativa), maize germ (corn), and jatropha oil werecomprehensively used for tractor demonstration, in addition to rape seed and sunflower oil.Further, smaller batches of palm oil, coconut oil and soy oil were used for shorter test runs.Camelina sativa is a cocrop in mixedcultivation with cereals and/ or fodder peas. Mixedcultivation, i.e.growingof twoormoreplantspeciesat thesame timeon thesame field,allowsswitching from conventional to organic agriculture without yield losses. The broad leaves of The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil8camelinasativapreventweedssprouting.Thegrainsandpeasarehigherupand lessexposed tohumidity,therefore lessthreatenedby fungi.Thisallowschemicalplantprotectiontobeavoidedalmostentirely.Theoilfromcamelinasativaprovidesanextrayieldof100300litersperhectareinadditiontotheyieldofthemaincrop.ThepotentialofcamelinasativaoilfrommixedcultivationcouldpotentiallycoverafewpercentofthetotalfueldemandintheEU.Jatrophaisproducedinthearidzonesoftropicalcountries.Itisahardyplant,whichisresistanttodroughtandpestsandcanbegrownonrelativelyinfertilesoils.Itgrowsasahedgeandisusedforprotectingfieldsfromgoats.Theoilfromthejatrophanutcannotbeusedasfood.Thereisthusnocompetitionbetweenfoodandfuelproduction,as longasjatropha isnotgrownonfertilesoilstoincreaseitsyield.As different oils also have different properties regarding engine combustion and emissions,widening the range of investigated oils increased the challenges of fuel quality and emissionscontrol.ThespecificconceptandobjectivesofthisprojectThis project has responded to the abovementioned challenges,whilemaintaining the principleadvantagesofpureplantoilcomparedtootherbiofuels.Theconceptincludedthefollowingcentralelements: combiningtheadaptationoftheenginewithanadaptationofthefuel; wideningthepotentialforpureplantoilfuelsbyconsideringabroaderrangeofoilseeds.These included, in particular, camelina sativa,which can be grown in combined culture(mixedcultivation) with cereals or leguminosae, thus increasing the fuel potentialtremendouslyintheEU,andjatrophawhichincreasesconsiderablythefuelpotentialinhotaridandtropicalcountries,withoutharmingtheenvironmentifgrowninextensivefarmingon infertilesoils (also important forEUMediterraneancountriesonceclimatechangewillhaveturnedthesecountriesintoratheraridareas); introducing additives to the oil filtering process to achieve ultrapure plant oil with areductionofundesiredsubstancestothelimitoftraceability;thisoilwasgiventhename2ndgenerationpureplantoil(2GPPO); introducing fuel additives without compromising nontoxicity to increase the ignitionpropertiesinacontrolledmanner(notablytocontroltheoxidationstability); introducinglubricantadditivestobetterfunctionwiththecorrespondingplantoilfuel; focusingonconceptsthatenableenginestobenefitfromtheadvantagesofplantoilunderquasisteadystate conditions, i.e.hybridengines, therebyexploiting to themaximum thespecificadvantagesofplantoilcomparedtootherbiofuels.Thespecificobjectiveswere: towidentherangeofoilsconsidered,inordertoincreasetheavailablefuelpotential; The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil9 toinvestigateanddemonstratefilteringadditivesandfueladditivesforplantoilsinordertobetter adapt the oil properties to present and future diesel engines, and to ensure ahomogeneouslyhighquality; toinvestigateanddemonstrateimprovedlubricants; toachieveEUStage4(USTier4)emissionlevelsinmediumscaledemonstrationfleets; to transfer theengineand fuelconcepts tohybridengines,preparing thebase toachieveEuro6emissionlevelsinroadvehicles(comparabletoEUStage4/USTier4); toprepareaproposalforafutureEuropeanfuelstandard.Thefollowingprogressbeyondthestateoftheartwasexpected: newengineconceptsforawiderrangeofpureplantoilsusedasenginefuel; newconceptsforplantoils(2GPPO)betterfittingtospecificenginerequirements,achievedthrough ultrapure cleaning, blending, and additives, without giving up the specificadvantagesofnontoxicityandlowflammability(thelatteratleastforthemajorpartofthelogisticschain); development/demonstrationoflubricantoilsforenginesrunningon2GPPO; successfuldemonstrationoftheoperationof2GPPOfuelledadvancedtractorscomplyingwithEUstage3Ato4/USTier3to4emissionlimits; successful operation of a 2GPPOfuelled hybrid vehicle engine fulfilling EU Stage4(comparablewithEuro6)emissionlimits; specificproposals forqualitynormsatEuropean level, including thepreparationofaEUwidestandardfor2GPPO. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil103. TheprojectconsortiumTheconsortiumpartnerorganisationsThe2ndVegOilprojecthasbeencomposedof10partners fromGermany,France,Poland,AustriaandTheNetherlandswhobroughtincomplementarybackgroundandcompetencesfromthefieldsof engine development and construction, plant oil pressing and cleaning, lubricant formulation,agriculture,sustainableregionaldevelopment,andstandardisation.JohnDeere,theconsortium leader, istheworldwide largestproducerofagriculturalmachines. Itbrought in its specific knowhow on the requirements of series production of engines, and itsspecific knowhow on vegetable oil fuelled engines, acquired previously in the course of a cooperationwithVWP.VWP is theworldwide leading company in the field of vegetable oil fuelled engines, holding anumberofpatents in the fieldandhavingaproof recordofseveral1,000successfullyconvertedvehiclesrunningwithoutproblemsandwithlowemissionsonpurevegetableoil.TUMwas represented by the department LVKwhich is one of the leading university chairs oninternalcombustionengines. Itbrought intheknowhowonhybridenginesandwas inchargeoftransferring the results obtained on tractors to hybrid engines, thus ensuring the link to theautomobileindustryaswellastotheacademicworld.TheLubrizolCorporation isan innovativespecialtychemicalcompanythatproducesandsuppliestechnologies that improve thequalityandperformanceofour customers'products in theglobaltransportation,industrialandconsumermarkets.Thesetechnologiesincludelubricantadditivesforengineoils,othertransportationrelatedfluidsandindustriallubricants,aswellasfueladditivesforgasolineanddieselfuel.Lubrizoldevelopedandtestedinhouseadvancedengineoilscontainingitsadditives,whichwereprovidedforthetestsanddemonstrationsintheproject.Waldland, togetherwithVWP,holds theknowhowon theproductionofvegetableoilofaveryhighqualityindecentralisedoilpressesandhasalreadyequippedanoilpresswiththelatestmostadvancedoilpresstechnology.ThisoilpresswillbefurthermodifiedbyWaldlandintheprojectandwillsupplytheoilforthetestsanddemonstrationsactivities.RAEEisanexperiencedregionalenergyagencyandworkingontheimplementingpurevegetableoilactivities inFrance.Theywere inchargeoforganising thedemonstration fleetanddisseminatingresultsinFrance.FRCUMAisaregionalnonprofitumbrellaorganization.Itgatherseightdepartmentalfederationsinchargeof supporting900CUMAs (Cooperatives for theUseofMachinery inAgriculture).UnderFRCUMAs supervision, themember farmersof twoCUMAswere in chargeof implementing thedemonstrationfleetandestablishinga2ndgenerationplantoilpressinFrance. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil11ITP (formerly: IBMER) is a leading institute for agriculture and energy in Polandwhich has thenecessary infrastructure for implementing the demonstration fleet and disseminating results inPoland.NEN is the national standardization body of the Netherlands. It holds the Secretariat of theEuropeanstandardscommitteesworkingon (bio)fuelsandsustainabilitycriteria. Itbrought in itscapacity fordefiningaEuropeanstandard for2ndgenerationplantoilbased fuelsandguidedtheotherprojectpartnersatthisregard.IBDI regineering isprimarily specializing in energy conversionmethods in sustainable cycles indecentralized energy sources. As a partner of VWP, IBDI works on projects in the fields ofdevelopmentanddemonstrationofplantoilfueledengines.B.A.U.M.ConsultGmbH is a consultant for sustainabledevelopmentof communes, regions andenterprises. Itwas not an official consortium partner, but supported JohnDeere in the projectmanagement as a subcontractor. Further, B.A.U.M. was in charge of the establishment andmaintenanceoftheprojectwebsiteandoftheprojectassessment.ContactnamesandaddressesAcronym Organisationname Contactname EmailJD JohnDeere Prof.Dr.Ing.PeterPickel PickelPeter@JohnDeere.comVWP VereinigteWerkstttenfrPflanzenltechnologieDr.GeorgGruber G.Gruber@vwpeurope.comTUM TechnischeUniversittMnchenProf.Dr.Ing.Wachtmeister wachtmeister@lvk.mw.tum.deLubrizol LubrizolLtd. Mr.SimonPeal Simon.Peal@lubrizol.comWaldland WaldlandVermarktungsgesellschaftm.b.H.Mr.HannesBlauensteiner hannes.blauensteiner@waldland.atRAEE RhnalpnergieEnvironnementMr.DominiqueJacques dominique.jacques@raee.orgFRCuma FdrationRgionaledesCUMAdeRhneAlpesMr.CharlesGuillot charles.guillot@cuma.frITP InstytutTechnologicznoPrzyrodniczyDr.PiotrPasyniuk ppas@data.plNEN NederlandsNormalisatieInstituutMr.OrtwinCostenoble energy@nen.nlIBDI regineeringDuft&InnerhoferMr.ChristianDuft c.duft@regineering.comBAUM B.A.U.M.ConsultGmbHMnchen/BerlinDr.MichaelSthr m.stoehr@baumgroup.de The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil12 Figure2:TheprojectconsortiuminPoznan/Poland(fromlefttoright,standingpersonsfirst):Prof.Dr.Ing.PeterPickel(JohnDeere),Dr.AndreasHubert(TUM),Dr.GeorgGruber(VWP),StefanieDieringer(JohnDeere),Dr.PiotrPasyniuk(ITP),GeorgRtz(JohnDeere),ChristineSchbl(Waldland),HannesBlauensteiner(Waldland),JarnoDakhorst(NEN),Dr.MichaelSthr(B.A.U.M.),DominiqueJacques(RAEE),CharlesGuillot(FRCuma),ReinhardtSix(RAEEuntil2009)Figure1:TheprojectconsortiumatCumaPlainedeFaverges/France(fromlefttorightandfrombacktofront):Prof. Dr.Ing. GeorgWachtmeister (TUM), Alain Haupais (French engine expert), TinoWunderlich (IBDI), Dr. Georg Gruber(VWP), Yves Francois (Cuma PdF),Hannes Blauensteiner (Waldland),Dominique Jacques (RAEE),MarjanWesselingh (NEN),ChristianDuft(IBDI),Dr.MichaelSthr(B.A.U.M.),StefanieDieringer(JohnDeere),Dr.AndreasHubert(TUM),ChristineSchbl(Waldland),SimonPeal(Lubrizol),StefanInnerhofer(IBDI),Prof.Dr.Ing.PeterPickel(JohnDeere). The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil134. KeystatementsofconsortiumpartnersJohnDeereIchselbstfandmeinenEinstiegbeiJohnDeere und zum Thema Pflanzenlkraftstoff durch eine eher trockeneMasterarbeit zum Thema Analyse dertechnischwirtschaftlichen Trends undAnwendungspotenziale erneuerbarerEnergien bei mobilen landwirtschaftlichen Arbeitsmaschinen. In dieserStudie, die zeitlich in der Bewilligungsphase von 2nd VegOil lag, wurdenmarktverfgbare Biokraftstoffe hinsichtlich ihrer Energiebilanz bei der Erzeugung, sowie hinsichtlich der wirtschaftlichen Vor undNachteileanalysiert.DabeiwarichzuBeginnderArbeiteherskeptischgegenberBiokraftstoffen.Die Ergebnisse der Studie beste Energieeffizienz bei der dezentralen Erzeugung vonRapslkraftstoffgegenberEthanol,BiodieselundBiomethan,sowieeineKosteneinsparungvonbiszu60%gegenberfossilemAgrardieselhabenmichjedochnachundnachvonderIdeeberzeugt.Wennman weitere Aspekte wie die parallele Erzeugung von Nahrungsmitteln (Presskuchen alsEiweifuttermittel) und Kraftstoffen (Pflanzenl als Nebenprodukt der Futtermittelerzeugung!)bercksichtigt,machtdiese Idee eines energieautarken Landwirtsmehrundmehr Sinn.AuchdieTatsache,dassdasnachhaltigeProduktionspotentialvonPflanzenleninDeutschland inetwademKraftstoffverbrauchdesAgrarsektors entspricht, sindguteArgumente frPflanzenlkraftstoffe inderLandwirtschaft.ZuguterLetztentsprichtdiesefrdieSelbstversorgungmitPflanzenlkraftstoffntigeAnbauflcheetwas10%derlandwirtschaftlichenNutzflcheunddamitetwaswenigeralsderbentigtenAnbauflchefrFuttermittelderZugtiere(Hafermodell).Mein persnliches Fazit ist, dass der Einsatz von Pflanzenlkraftstoffen am besten in derLandwirtschaft plaziert ist, wobei die pflanzlichen Rohstoffe entsprechend der jeweiligenStandorteigenschaftenundindividuellenRandbedingungengewhltwerdensollten.2ndVegOilbegannaufdemHhepunktderNachfragenachPflanzenlkraftstoffen2008.KurzeZeitspterbrachderMarktjedoch,unteranderemdurchpolitischeManahmenverursacht,ein.DiesesProjektermglichteesunsalsJohnDeere,dennochweiteraneinerTechnologiezuarbeiten,diefrunsereKunden zumindestkurzfristig scheinbaruninteressantwar.ZusammenmitProjektpartnernaus verschiedenen Fachbereichen ist esunsgelungen,denWeghin zum Stufe4Pflanzenlmotorzumindest zu ebnen.Was vorhermeist als unmglich eingestuft wurde die Verwendung vonPflanzenlkraftstoffen inMotorenmitmodernenAbgasnachbehandlungssystemenwurde in 2ndVegOil erfolgreich umgesetzt. Auerdem wurde die Rohstoffbasis fr Pflanzenlkraftstoffeerfolgreicherweitert,sodassesLandwirteninverschiedenenRegionenderWeltmglichseinwird,selbsterzeugtenKraftstoffzunutzen.StefanieDieringerwithProf.Dr.Ing.PeterPickel The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil14I entered John Deere and the plant oil fuel subject during a rather theoretical master thesis(AnalysisofTechnicalandEconomicalTrendsandApplicationPotentialsofRenewableEnergiesinMobileAgriculturalMachines),which Iwroteduringtheperiodoftheprojects finalapproval. Itwasa surveyanalysing theenergyefficiencyof theproductionofvariouscommerciallyavailablebiofuels,aswellastheireconomicalbenefits.Being very sceptical towards biofuels at the beginning of the survey, my results (decentrallyproduced rapeseed oil showed the best energy efficiency compared to biodiesel, ethanol andbiomethane)convincedmeofaverysmart idea:plantoilfuelasabyproductoftheproteinfeedproduction!Thisenablesourfarmerstobemoreindependentfromproteinandfossilfuelimports,thisapproachcansecurethefoodsupplyinthefuture.Lookingattheproductionpotentialofplantoils,itbecomesclearthatthiscannotbeafuelforthewhole mobile sector.My personal conclusion is that it only makes sense in local or regionalproductionchains,asafuelbothproducedandusedbyagriculture.The2ndVegOilprojectstartedatthepeakofaboomingplantoilfuelmarketin2008.Shortlyaftertheprojectkickoff,thedemandforplantoilfuelenginesbrokedownforseveralreasons,amongstothers because of a changed tax legislation regarding biofuels and agricultural diesel subsidies.Duringtheseharshtimes,the2ndVegOilprojectenabledustocontinuetheworkonatechnologywhichwasntmuch requested by our customers for the time being. Togetherwith our projectpartners coming fromdifferentdisciplineswewere able to clear theway for a stage4plantoilpoweredengine. Furthermore,wewere able towiden the fuel feedstock to a varietyofplants,potentiallymakingfarmersofallregions independentfromfossilfuelsandenablingthemtofeedtheworld.StefanieDieringerJohnDeereETICwww.deere.com The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil15VereinigteWerkstttenfrPflanzenltechnologie(VWP)Mit Firmengrndung in 1994 hat VWP immer einenganzheitlichenEntwicklungsansatzverfolgt,dersichaufdie Komponenten Motor/Emission, Kraftstoffqualitt/Normierung und nachhaltige Pflanzenlproduktionmittelsneuartigerlpflanzen(Leindotter/Jatropha)u.a.im sogenannten Mischfruchtanbau bezog. Durch dieMotorentwicklungspartnerschaft von VWP und JohnDeereWerkeMannheimkonntedieserAnsatzab2001internationalisiert und auf europischer Ebenevorangetriebenwerden. 2ndVegoil sollte eine AntwortaufsmtlicheProblemstellungenderZukunftgeben,uminnerhalbdererneuerbarenEnergiendiePionierstellungvon reinem Pflanzenl in der Landwirtschaft zuprolongierenundauchinEuropazupositionieren.Von allen EUuntersttzten Pflanzenlprojekten war2ndVegoilfrVWPzweifellosdaskomplexesteProjektmit der grten Herausforderung und dem hchstenRisiko.SchlielichgingesnichtmehrumDeutschlandundRapslallein,sondernumdieDemonstrationderAlltagstauglichkeitmodernsterCommonRailTraktormotoren invierLndernmit fnfunterschiedlichenPflanzenlen,dreiAbgasstufenundaufeinemHybridprfstandderTechnischenUniversittMnchenmitElektroundPflanzenlmotor.Esspricht sehr frdieQualittdervonunserem technischenVorstand,AloisDotzer,verantwortetenPflanzenltechnologie, dass im Laufe der dreieinhalb Jahre praktisch keine relevanten,pflanzenlbedingtenSchdenandenMotorenaufgetreten sind.AusderVergangenheitbekannteDsenverkokungen, Ablagerungen, Schmierlauffllungen mit notwendigen verkrztenWechselintervallenetc.spielenkeineRollemehr.Neben den detaillierten Motoranpassungen war dies auch den hochwertigen Kraftstoffen der2.Generation reinerPflanzenlemitdrastischabgesenktenWerten frP,Ca/Mggeschuldet.DasVWP/ WaldlandVerfahren konnte seine Funktionalitt fr mehrere Pflanzenle dauerhaft undzuverlssignachweisenundsomitdiedezentralenlmhlenimWettbewerbumdieKraftstoffederZukunft halten.Die Ergebnisse fanden ihrenWeg auch in die erste europische (unverbindliche)PflanzenlVornorm.DasvonderEuropischenNormungsbehrde(CEN)verffentlichteCWA16379kann in seinerBedeutung fr dieweitere internationaleMarktentwicklung gar nicht hoch genugeingeschtztwerden.EinmalbeziehtessichaufPflanzenleallgemeinundzumanderenregeltesber zwei sichunterscheidendeNormen sowohldieKraftstoffqualittsanforderungenmodernsterPflanzenlmotoren, aber auch die Qualittsanforderungen der berwiegend sich im MarktbefindlichenMotorenmitschlechterenAbgasstufen.TheVWPteam(fromlefttoright):ThomasKaiser,AloisDotzer,Dr.GeorgGruber. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil16Als Vorsitzenden des CWA16379 und Projektleiter bei VWP war fr mich die internationaleZusammenarbeit und die vertrauensvolle, konzentrierte Atmosphre unter den ProjektpartnernimmerAnspornundInspirationgleichzeitig.HerzlichenDankdafr!Fr die drngenden Probleme der Welt, nmlich die Vernderung des Klimas, die Preis undRessourcenabhngigkeit von fossilen Energien und die Notwendigkeit, bei zunehmenderWeltbevlkerung die Menschheit mit nachwachsender Energie und Nahrung gleichzeitig undpreisgnstigzuversorgen,liefert2ndVegoilvorallemfrdieLandwirtschaftdiederzeitschlssigsteAntwort. Nach unserer langjhrigen Pionierarbeit ist nun auch auf europischer Ebene durch2ndVegoil derNachweis fr einenmglichen Paradigmenwechsel in der Landwirtschaft geliefertworden:derWechselunddieAbkehrvoneinemaufRessourcenausbeutungausgelegtenzentralenund endlichen fossilen Energiekonzept hin zu einem dezentralen und nachhaltigen, erneuerbarenEnergiekonzeptisttechnischsofortmachbarundkonomischundkologischsinnvoll. Afterfoundingthecompanyin1994,VWPhasalwaysfocusedonanintegratedR&Dconceptwhichincluded thecomponentsengine/emissions, fuelquality/normsandstandardsandsustainableplantoilproduction,e.g.companioncultivationwithcamelinasativa.Thisapproachhasbeenmoreinternationalized and brought up on European level since 2001 through the R&D partnershipbetween JohnDeereMannheim andVWP. Itwas the goal of 2ndVegoil to bring answers to allfutureproblems inordertoprolongandstaypioneerswithintherenewableenergysectionusingpureplantoilforfarmingandalsotoestablishoneselfinEurope.Outofall supportedplantoilprojects through theEuropeanUnion2ndVegoilwasdoubtless themostcomplexprojectforVWPwiththegreatestchallengesandthehighestrisk,asthefocuswasnotonlyonGermanyandcanolaanymore.Furthermore,2ndVegoilhadtodemonstratethegeneralfunctionalityofmodernCommonRailtractorenginesinfourEuropeancountrieswithfivedifferentplantoils,threeemissionlevelsandahybridteststandattheTechnicalUniversityofMunichwithan electric generator and a plant oil engine. It was an outstanding result that the plant oiltechnologythatwasdevelopedbyourtechnicalmanagerAloisDotzerhaspracticallynotshownanyrelevantplantoil relatedengine failurewithin the last three and ahalf years.Coke residuesoninjectors,pistons,pistonrings,therisingleveloflubricationoilwithconsequentlyreducedintervalsoflubricationoilchangewhichallwereknownfromthepastdonotoccuranymore.Afterallthesegoodresultswerenotonlyowedtothedetailedengineadaptationsbutalsotothehigh quality fuel of 2nd Generation vegetable oil with drastically reduced parameters forphosphorus,potassiumandmagnesium.ThesocalledVWP/Waldlandpurificationsystemcouldcontinuously and reliably proof its functionality for several plant oils and therefore keep thedecentralizedoilmillscompetitivewithinthefuturefuels.Theresultsalsofoundtheirwayintothefirst European (nonbinding) plant oil prenorm. The CWA 16379 which was published by theEuropean Agency for Norms and Standards (CEN) has a very highmeaning for futuremarketdevelopmentsoftheideaofusingpureplantoilindieselengines.Foronceitrefersnotonlytoasingleplantoilbut toplantoils ingeneral.Additionally, it regulates through twodifferentnormtables the fuel quality requirements of advanced plant oil engines and also the fuel qualityrequirementsofthealreadyinthemarketexistingplantoilengineswithreducedemissionlevels. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil17As chairman of CWA 16379 and project leader at VWP the international cooperation and theconfidential and concentrated work atmosphere amongst the project partners was alwaysmotivationandinspirationatthesame.Thankyouverymuch!For themostpesteringworldproblemssuchasclimatechange,dependencyon risingpricesanddecreasing resources of fossil energies and the need of providing food, feed and fuel to anincreasingworld population at the same time to affordable prices, 2ndVegoil especially for theagriculturalsectoristhemostconclusiveanswer.Afterourlonglastingpioneerworkinthissector2ndVegoilwasenabledtoproofthataparadigmaticchange infuelingagriculture ispossibleevenonEuropeanlevel.2ndVegoilcoulddemonstratethatachangefromacentralizedfossilfuelenergyconceptwhich isbasedon limitedresourcestoadecentralizedandsustainablerenewableenergyconceptistechnicallyimmediatelypracticableandeconomicallyandecologicallyfeasible.Dr.GeorgGruberVereinigteWerkstttenfrPflanzenltechnologie(VWP)g.gruber@vwpeurope.com The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil18TechnischeUniversittMnchen(TUM)Die Sicherstellung der Energieversorgungund damit auch derMobilitt ist eine derwichtigen Aufgaben unserer Gesellschaft.Umdieses Ziel zu erreichen,mssenalternative Energietrger gefunden werden.UnterdenmglichenAlternativenhatkaltgepresstesPflanzenl insbesonderefrdenBetriebvonlandwirtschaftlichenMaschinenein hohes Potential als Kraftstoff fr dieZukunft.WichtigeRandbedingungenhierzusindeinedezentraleHerstellungmitmglichstwenigProzessaufwandundeineguteVertrglichkeitfrdenVerbrennungsmotor.MitdenForschungsaktivitten innerhalbdesEUProjektes2ndVegOilkonnteeindeutignachgewiesenwerden,dassbeideRandbedingungenerfllbar sind.DieQualittdes Pflanzenlkraftstoffes der 2. Generation wurde mit Manahmen, welche weiterhin ohneRaffinerieschritteauskommen,deutlichverbessert.ImVergleichzuPflanzenlder1.Generation istnundieMotorvertrglichkeitausgesprochengut.WirddazunochdieerforderlicheAntriebsleistungdurch Hybridisierung untersttzt, dann lassen sich auch zuknftige Abgasgrenzwerte einhalten.Durch das Projekt 2ndVegOil ist Pflanzenl zu einem attraktiven Kraftstoff fr denlandwirtschaftlicheEinsatzgeworden.Tosecure theenergysupplyandconsistently themobility isoneof the importantobjectivesoursociety.Inordertoachievethistargetalternativeenergysourceshavetobefound.Amongpossiblealternatives, plant oil shows a rather high potential for a future fuel particularly for agricultureengines. However, important boundary conditions are decentralized production with simpleprocessesandagoodcompatibilitywiththeneedsofcombustionengines.TheactivitieswithintheEUresearchproject2ndVegOilhave revealed thatbothboundaryconditionscanbe fulfilled.Thequalityof the2ndgenerationplantoilwassignificantly improvedstillwithoutrefinerymeasures.Comparedwith1stgenerationplantoil,theenginecompatabilyisgreatlygood.Withanadditionalsupportofhybridpropulsionsystemeven futureemission limitscanbekept.With resultsof theproject2ndVegOilplantoilbecomesanattractivefuelforagriculturalengines.Prof.Dr.Ing.GeorgWachtmeisterOrdinariusLehrstuhlfrVerbrennungskraftmaschinenTUMnchenwww.lvk.mw.tum.de The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil19LubrizolLtd.As Lubrizol entered this project, wewerewellawareofincreasedchallengesthat biodiesel fuels present for dieselengine lubricants, but were not soexperienced regarding pure plant oils.This project presented an idealopportunitytotesttwodifferentqualitylevelsofengineoilintractors,fuelledbypure plant oils, with and withoutexhaust gas after treatment. Theperformance level of the lubricantsensures that can be made widelyavailabletofarmers.During the field trials,no lubricant related failureswereexperienced.Extensive field testingandmonitoringofagedubricantquality revealedno lubricant relatedengineproblems.Thevaluablelessonlearnedwasthattheeffectivefiltrationofthevegetableoils,andappropriateconversionoftheJohnDeeretractorengines,alloweduseofwidelyavailablelubricants,witha250houroildraininterval.Inotherwordsthereshouldbenocommercialbarrierstoeffectivelubricationoftractorsburning2ndgenerationvegetableoils.Participatinginthe2ndVegOilprojectgaveLubrizolaccesstoawiderangeofexpertsfromboththetechnicalandpracticalapplicationpointofview.ThiswasabsolutelykeyincomingtoasuccessfulconclusiontotheprojectandprovidedarewardingexperiencefortheLubrizolteammembers.SimonPealLubrizolDeutschlandGmbHwww.lubrizol.com The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil20TheWaldlandproject team (from left to right): Ing.GerhardZinnerCEOandProjectManager, Christine Schbl B.A. Project Administration, Ing. Hannes BlauensteinerProjectCoordinatorWaldlandNaturstoffeGmbHWaldland ist ein KMU in derRegionWaldviertel, im nrdlichen Niedersterreich, undproduziert inKooperationmitrund 800 LandwirtInnenAgrarrohstoffe, wie Pharmapflanzen,GewrzeoderBacksaaten, die an denWaldlandBetriebsstandorten fr verschiedenste Abnehmer wieterverarbeitet und veredeltwerden. Das Unternehmenist aber auch Spezialist beider lverarbeitung. VieleverschiedenePflanzenleausRaps, Mariendistel, Sonnenblume,Maiskeimlingen,LeindotteroderMohnwerdenhierproduziertundverarbeitet.DiesegroenMengen an kaltgepresstem Pflanzenl werden vorwiegend fr die Futtermittelindustrie (45%),technischeZwecke(35%),aberauchfrdieLebensmittelindustrie(20%)hergestellt.ImGeschftsfeldderPflanzenle istWaldlandSpezialist,vonderlpflanzenproduktionbishinzurlpressungundVerarbeitung,diesmachtedasUnternehmenzueinemkompetentenProjektpartnerfrdiePflanzenlentwicklung.Technischele,wiePflanzenlkraftstoffnachDIN51605,etabliertensichalsstetigwachsenderundzukunftstrchtigerBereich.WaldlandmchteanderForcierungeinerautarken Landwirtschaft von fossilen Kraftstoffen mitwirken. Mit der Teilnahme an dem EUForschungsprojektstelltesichdasUnternehmenderHerausforderung,einenPflanzenlkraftstofffrmodernsteMotoren, inhchsterReinheitundQualitt,produzierbarmiteinem innovativen,aberzugleich mglichst einfach zu implementieren Herstellungsverfahren fr dezentralen lmhlenjeglicherKapazittsgrezuentwickeln.Waldland istnunreichanErkenntnissenundbesitztaufgrunddererfolgreichenErgebnissedesEUForschungsprojektes2ndVegOildieKompetenz,Pflanzenlkraftstoffeausverschiedenenlpflanzenherzustellen,sogarinhhererQualittalsimEUweitenStandardCWA16379festgelegt,aberauchdieFhigkeitdasgewonneneKnowhowweltweitzuverbreiten.EinweitererBenefitist,dassdaserfolgreicheKonzeptdes2ndVegOilProjektes,direktaufdieRegionWaldviertel umlegbar ist. Aufgrund der innovativen Projektergebnisse ist es auch sterreichweitmglichvielekleineregionalelerzeugerfrdieHerstellungeinesmodernenPflanzenlkraftstoffesaufzursten,wodurch regionale LandwirtInnenmitdiesemBiokraftstoffbeliefertwerden knnen.DieRegionwrdedadurchunabhngigvom fossilenKraftstoffwerden,eine sichereLebensmittelproduktionerreicht,sowiedieDiversifizierungderLandwirtschaftinderRegionuntersttzt. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil21WaldlandisamediumsizedenterpriseintheWaldviertel,aregioninthenorthoflowerAustria.Incooperationwithabout800 farmersareagriculturalcommoditiesproduced,asmedicinalplants,spices or bakery seeds,which are processed and refined inWaldlands operating locations forvarious costumers. Furthermore the company is specialised in oil production. Many differentvegetableoils from rape seed,milk thistle, sunflower,maizegerm,camelinaorpoppy seedsareproduced and processed. These large quantities of cold pressed vegetable oils are mainlymanufacturedforfoodindustry(45%),technicalpurposes(35%),asalsoforfoodindustry(20%).In business of vegetable oilsWaldland is specialist, from the production of oil plants up to oilpressingandprocessing.Thatmakestheenterprisetoacompetentprojectpartnerforvegetableoildevelopment. Technicaloils, asplantoil fuel according toDIN51605, established as continuousincreasing and promising segment.Waldland likes participating to expedite of a selfsufficient,independentagriculturefromfossilfuels.ByparticipatingontheEUresearchproject,challengesthecompanythedevelopmentofaplantoilfuel in highest purity and quality for advanced engines, which should be producible with aninnovativeandassimpleaspossibletoimplementablemanufacturingprocessfordecentralizedoilmillseachcapacitysize.Waldland isnow,becauseoftheoutstandingresultsoftheresearchproject,richer inknowledgeandownsthecompetencetoproduceplantoilfuelfromvariousoilfruits.Eveninhigherqualityasdetermined in the EUwide standard CWA 16379, as to spread knowledge worldwide. TheadditionalbenefitisthatthesuccessfulprojectconceptisdirectlyapportionabletoAustriaandtheWaldviertelregion.So it ispossibletoupgradea lotofsmalloilproducersforthemanufactureofadvanced pure plant oil fuel, and farmers can be servedwith this bio fuels. The region couldbecomeindependentoffossilfuels,asecurefoodproductioneffected,asdiversificationofregionalagriculturesupported.GerhardZinner,ChristineSchbl,HannesBlauensteinerWaldlandNaturstoffeGmbHwww.waldland.at The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil22FdrationRgionaledesCUMAdeRhneAlpes(FRCUMA)/RhnalpnergieEnvironnement(RAEE)Deux groupes dagriculteurs Franais organissen CUMA (CooprativesdUtilisation deMatrielsAgricoles) se sont engags dans le projet2ndVegOil,aveclaconviction quil fallait renforcerlautonomie nergtiquedes exploitations agricoles, aprs les constatssuivants:Lreduptrolebonmarch est rvolue.Pourlascuritalimentaire,ilesturgentderechercherdesalternativesfiablesauxcarburantsfossiles.Labiomasseestune sourcednergiequinaggravepas leffetde serre.Par leur fluiditet leurdensitnergtiquelesbiocarburantspeuventreplacerlesproduitsptroliers. Leshuiles vgtales (HVP)pures sontparticulirement intressantes:meilleurbilan nergtiqueencircuitcourt,produiteslocalementavecdestechnologiesaccessiblesauxagriculteurs,source de revenu complmentaire tout en ntant que des tourteaux si apprcis pourlalimentationdesanimaux(moinsdimportations). LesHVPcarburantnesopposentpaslalimentation.Avantlamotorisation,15%dessurfacestaientconsacrsaux fourragespour lesanimauxdetrait.Unesoleraisonnabledolagineuxrempliraitdemainlammefonction,avecplusdefficacit.Toutefois, lavenirdecette filiretaitmnacepar lincompatibilitcroissantedesHVPavec lesmoteursmodernes, optimiss avec des carburants fossiles pour satisfaire aux nouvelles normesdmission.FallaitilchoisirentrelesbnficesglobauxdesHVPoularductiondesseulspolluantsrglements?Le voyage dtude demars 2005 Frstenfeldbruk (Allemagne), organis par RhnealpnergieEnvironnement dans le cadre du projet 100% RENET, nous a permis de rencontrer de futurspartenairesduprojet2ndVegOil.Nousavonsrapidementpartagleurexprienceetleurconvictionenfaveurduneapprochecombinant:UneamliorationdelHVP,quiresteaccessibledanslesconditionsdeproductionlaferme, The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil23Une adaptation demoteurs de srie un cot compatible avec lesmoyens financiers desagriculteurs.En2006,legouvernementFranaisaenfinlgalislaproductionetlutilisationdHVPcarburantenagriculture. Mais il restait convaincre lentourage politique et professionnel de la ncessitdanticiper pour coconstruire une avance (tel que la prnorme CWA16379) plutt que secontenterdelexistantetrisquersubirplustarddesdcisionsinadaptesauxralitsduterrain.Ce fut tout lemrite des agriculteurs qui se sont lancs dans un partenariat nouveau avec desindustriels et des scientifiques lchelle europenne. Une merveilleuse occasion de mieux seconnatre.MercigalementlaRgionRhneAlpesetauDpartementduRhne,quiontbienvoulujoindreleursoutienfinancierceluidelaCommissionEuropenne.Aujourdhui,aveclaforcedeleurexprience,lesagriculteurssontdevenuslesmeilleurspromoteursdestechniquesquilsonttestes,etquilsontdciddecontinuerutiliseraprs laconclusionduprojet mais dans lattente dune offre commerciale par les constructeurs. Car les HVP ontvraimentleurplacedanslebouquetnergtiquedufutur.Two groups of French farmers, organizedwithin CUMAs (Cooperatives for the Use ofMachinery inAgriculture), tookactivelypart inthe 2ndVegOil project. They were convincedthatenergyselfsufficiencyofthefarmsmustbestrengthened,basedonthefollowingfacts: The era of cheap oil is over. For foodsafety, it is urgent that a reliable alternativetofossilfuelsbefound. Biomass is a power source that does notincrease the greenhouse effect. As fluidswith a high energy density, biofuelsmayreplacepetroleumderivedproducts. Pure Plant Oils (PPO) are especiallyinteresting: best energy ratio in shortcycle, can be produced locally withtechnologies accessible to farmers, extra source of income and they are the byproductofoilcake,averyvaluablefeedforcattle(thuslessimports). PPOsarenotdetrimental to foodproduction.Beforemotorizationdeveloped,15%of farmlandsweredevoted to fodderproduction fordraught animals.A reasonablepartofoilseedcropsinfarmlandscouldstillprovidefarmenergy,withagreaterefficiency.Theproject team in Francewith theoverallproject coordinator(fromlefttoright):Prof.Dr.Ing.PeterPickel(JohnDeere,overallproject coordinator), Dominique Jacques (RhnalpnergieEnvironnement), Charles Guillot (FR Cuma), Yves Franois(chairman of Cuma Pleine de Faverges and test farmer), LionelOgier (chairman ofCumaVP),DominiqueRonzon (test farmer),GillesLentillon(pressoperator). The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil24However,thefutureofthissectorwasbeingthreatenedbythegrowing incompatibilitybetweenPPOsandadvancedengineswhichhavetobeoptimizedwith fossil fuels inordertocomplywithnewemissionstandards.WerewedoomedtochoosebetweeneithertheoverallbenefitsofPPOorreductionofjusttheregulatedpollutants?In 2005, a study visit in Frstenfeldbruk (Germany) was organized by RhnealpnergieEnvironnementwithin the100%RENETEuropeanproject.We thengot toknow some futurepartners of the 2ndVegOil project. After hearing of their experience, we soon shared theirconvictioninfavorofaconvergingapproachthatcouldcombine:animprovementofPPO,thatshouldremainaccessibleunderfarmconditions,anadaptationofserialengines,atacostwithinthefinancialmeansoffarmers.In2006,atlast,theFrenchGovernmentlegalizedtheproductionandtheuseofPPOasfuel.Butwestillhad to convince thepoliticalandprofessionalenvironment that itwasnecessary tobeproactiveinstartingnewinitiativessuchastheCWA16379prenormratherthanjustrelyonwhatexistedandtakeariskofhavingtoaccept laterondecisionsthatmaynotbewelladaptedtotheconditionsinthefield.ThefarmershadthecourageofventuringintoanewkindofpartnershipwithindustrialoperatorsandscientistsatEuropeanlevel.Thisprovidedawonderfulopportunitytogettoknoweachotherbetter.RgionRhneAlpes andDpartementduRhne shouldalsobe thanked for their financialsupportinadditiontotheEuropeanCommission.Today,basedontheirexperience,thefarmershavebecomethebestproponentsofthetechniquesthey could testand that theydecided tokeepusingafter the conclusionof theproject ...whilewaitingforacommercialoffering.Indeed,PPOshavetheirplaceintheportfolioofenergysolutionsneededinthefuture.CharlesGuillot DominiqueJacques,PatrickBiardFRCumaRhneAlpes RhnealpnergieEnvironnementwww.cuma.fr www.raee.org The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil25InstytutTechnologicznoPrzyrodniczy(ITP)Zesp pracownikw naukowych i pomocniczych InstytutuTechnologicznoPrzyrodniczego, Oddziay w Warszawie i Poznaniunadzorowaliwykorzystanie do codziennych pracw gospodarstwachrolniczych pi cignikw John Deere zasilanych czystym olejemrolinnym.czniewtrakcietrwaniaprojektucignikiprzepracowayokoo8300rbhzuywajccznieponad84000litrwczystegoolejurzepakowego. Cigniki pracoway przy pracach polowych itransportowych od lekkiego transportu drogowego, poprzez lekkaork, prace z agregatem uprawowosiewnym po rozlewaniegnojowicy wozem asenizacyjnym 24 000 l w cikich warunkachpolowych.W trakcie eksploatacji wystpio kilka usterek. We wszystkichcignikach naleao wymieni w wyniku uszkodzenia czujnik cinienia oleju oraz zawrmagnetyczny.Ponadtozarejestrowanowyciekiolejuzprzedniegomostu,pkniciewawysokiegocinienia,uszkodzeniesilnikakrokowego.Wszystkieteusterkiniewynikayzrodzajustosowanegopaliwa i byy typowymi usterkami wystpujcy rwnie w eksploatacji cignikw z zasileniemstandardowym.Wjednymprzypadkuusterkazwizanazwymiankompletuwtryskiwaczyipompywysokiegocinieniabyazwizanazestosowanympaliwem.Niewaciwewarunkiprzechowywaniapaliwa i w rezultacie dostanie si do niego wody spowodowao tak powane uszkodzeniepodzespowcignika.Ponadto instalacjaelektrycznaoryginalnegosystemupodgrzewaniapaliwaokazasinieodpornynawilgoiwymagadopracowania.Dziki udziaowi w projekcie 2ndVegOil i w Oddziale ITP w Poznaniu podjto prby nadwytwarzaniem paliwa rolinnego speniajce warunki normy i moliwe do stosowania wzaawansowanych silnikach wysokoprnych cignikw John Deere. Opracowano i wdroonooryginaln technologi toczenia i oczyszczania oleju rzepakowego na cele paliwowe.Przeprowadzonebadanialaboratoryjnepotwierdziyosigniciewyznaczonegocelu.Technologiatastaasiprzedmiotemzgoszeniapatentowegowzoruuytkowego.Ponadtokierownictwoinstytutuzadecydowaookontynuowaniubadanaddoskonaleniemprodukcjiolejuzinnychnirzepakrolinoleistych. John Deere 6830 Premium bdcy wasnoci Gospodarstwa Dowiadczalnego ITP wPoznaniupozostawionowwersjizasilanejczystymolejemrolinnym.Dowiadczenia zgromadzone w trakcie realizacji projektu w peni potwierdziy moliwostosowania czystego oleju rolinnego jako samodzielnego paliwa do wysokoprnych silnikwcignikw rolniczych JohnDeere przystosowanych fabrycznie do zasilania takim olejem.Moliwejesttowdowolnejtemperaturzeotoczenia.Produkcjatakiegopaliwa,zewzgldunaprostitanitechnologimoe by prowadzonaw gospodarstwie rolnym lub zespole gospodarstw nawasnepotrzeby.Uniezalenia to rolnika od poday i zmiennych cen paliw ropopochodnych i umoliwiaalternatywne zagospodarowaniewasnychplonw rolinoleistych.Polscy rolnicywykazali istotnezainteresowanieuytkowaniemcignikwzasilanychczystymolejemrolinnym. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil26The team of researchers and support staff of the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences,Branches inWarsaw and Poznan supervised day to day the farmworks of five tractors of JohnDeerepoweredbypurevegetableoil.Intotalduringtheprojecttime,alltractorsconsumedmorethan84000 litersofpurerapeseedoilandthetotaloperatingtimewasaround8300hours.Thetractorswereengagedinallfarmworksrangingfrommildroadtransportbyanyfieldworkendingwiththefertilizationtankertrailerof24000litersmanurecapacityinreallyheavyfieldconditions.Duringtheoperationtherewereseveraldefectswhichresultfromnormaluse.Inalltractors,theoilpressuresensorandsolenoidhad tobereplaceddue todamage. Inaddition,werecordedanoilleakagefromthefrontaxle,ahighpressurehoserupture,adamageofthesteppermotor.Allthesedefectswerenotduetothetypeoffuelusedandweretypicalfaultsoccurringalsointhetractorsequippedwithstandarddieselmotor. Inonecase,thehighpressurepumpandall injectorshavebeen completelydamaged,and the casewas related to thekindandqualityof the fuelused. Itshould be assumed that the major reason of those damages was improper fuel storage.Consequently,waterpenetratedintothefuelandthesystemthatdetectswaterinthefueldidnotworkproperly.Inaddition,theelectricharnessofthefuelheatingsystemprovedtoberesistanttomoistureandneedstobefurtherdeveloped.Trough participation in the 2ndVEGOIL project, the ITP Branch in Poznan developed its owntechnologyforplantoilproductioncomplyingwiththeconditionsandstandardsavailableforuseinadvanced engines John Deere tractors. A novel technology of extraction and purification ofrapeseedoilforownpurposedhasbeenimplemented.Laboratorytestsconfirmedtheachievementof the objective. This technology has become the subject of utility model patent application.Furthermore,theinstitutemanagementdecidedtocontinueworkonimprovingtheoilproductiontechnologyfromotheroilseedsthanrapeseed.Aftertheprojectcompletion,oneJohnDeere6830PremiumtractorcontinuestobelongtotheITPexperimentalfarminPoznanandhasnotbeenreconvertedtothedieselpoweredversion.Itwillcontinuebeusedaspureplantoilpoweredtractor.TheexperiencegainedduringprojectfullyconfirmedthepossibilityofusingpurevegetableoilasfuelinadvancedenginesJohnDeeretractorsatanyambienttemperature.Theproductionofsuchfuelduetothesimpleandcheaptechnologycanbecarriedoutonafarmbyafarmteamfortheirown needs. In effect farmers becomemore independent from fossil fuel, and they can bettermanage their own oilseed crops. Polish farmers have shown significant interest in the use oftractorspoweredbypurevegetableoil.PiotrPasyniukInstytutTechnologicznoPrzyrodniczy,Warsawwww.itp.edu.pl The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil27NederlandsNormalisatieInstituut(NEN)Since its establishment by the Dutch engineersassociationandtheindustryorganizationunionalmosthundredyearsago,NENhasbeenopentotheneedofthe stakeholders. Standards, even without a formalgovernmentalmandatehavebeenourcourse.Since Ijoined NEN in 2000, this concept of swift action ondrafting norms, closemarket relationship and dissemination of research tothemarkethasbeenaleadinmywork(althoughitwasquitenewforNEN).In2002, I tookover the secretariatof theCENTechnicalCommittee19onpetroleumproducts.Justbefore,wepublishedourfirstbiofuelspecification.Since then,developingstandards forbiofuelshasbeenofmajor importanceto the oil and car industry. However, it has always been difficult to getconsensus between those groups and the newcoming biofuel producers,especiallywhensocallednicheproductsorapplicationswereconcerned.Recently in NEN, we led several European projects linked to sustainable biofuels. Short termstandardizationwork, leading to socalled CENWorkshop Agreements (CWA) by a small set ofstakeholdersandlargerresearchdisseminationworkhasalsoledtoinputinCENstandards.ItwaslogicalthatNENsteppedintothe2ndVegOilprojectwhencontactedbyJohnDeere.Ididnotknowmuch about tractors, but was aware of the pitfalls of bringing limited field data into anunderstandableandworkablestandard.Assistedbytwocolleaguesatvariouspoints intheprocess,weworkedondraftingaproposalforCENandabusinessplanclarifyingourneeds.Weengageddoubletheamountofpartnersinvolvedofvariouscountries.Itwasgoodtoseethatmanyyoungpeoplewereinvolvedandthatalsootherresearchersparticipated.Theyareusuallynot largely involved inthesetypofprestandardizationdevelopments.On theotherhand, severalparticipantspromoted theworkviamagazinesat theendandalwaysstoodfornotexcludinguseinAfricanandAsiancountriesandforsmallfarmers.Allthisresultedinatextthatwasnotonly"bio",butalso"sustainable".ItisagreatsatisfactiontomethatwecouldproduceCWA16379withabroaderscopethanmeantby2ndVegOil,withawiderapplicationandwithinthegiventimeframe.Itagainproofstomethatstandardizationcanbedirectandmarketoriented.Wetooksomehurdleswithinthegroup,butwealsodevelopedanewmannerofdescribingdriveabilityforaplantoilfuel.Anicesideeffectisthatourstandardizationdraftingbecamethe leadforaPhDworkondecisionmakingprocessesthatastudentlinkedtooneortheworkshopparticipantsisundertaking.Thecooperationwithallprojectpartnershasbeenenjoyableand inspiringtome. Ithankthepartners fortheirpatiencewiththeconsensusformingprocess.OrtwinCostenobleNEN,Delft,www.nen.nl The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil28regineeringDuft&Innerhofer(IBDI)DasEUProjekt2ndVegOilverfolgteunteranderemdasZiel,Pflanzenle zweiter Generation (2GPPO) im Feldtest zuerproben und deren Alltagstauglichkeit nachzuweisen. Diesgeschah unter dem Fokus der Einhaltung aktueller undzuknftigerAbgasnormen.AuerdemkonntennebenRapslenauch Leindotter, Sonnenblumen, Jatropha undMaiskeimlezweiterGenerationerfolgreichgetestetwerden.Fr regineeringerwies sichdasVorhabenalsuersterfolgreich. Oder, um es in Zahlen auszudrcken: 16424.0000(16Traktorenwurden in4Nationenber24.000Stunden imFeldtest mit 0 Motorschden betrieben!). Die TraktorenzeigtenauchimAlltagstabileLeistungenmit2GPPOs.DieBetreuungundAuswertungdesFeldtestssowie die technische Begutachtung speziell der Einspritzdsen erffneten regineering weiteresWissenfreigeneEntwicklungsttigkeitenimBereichDieselmotorentechnikundPflanzenlnutzung.Als Schlussfolgerung steht fr regineering fest, Pflanzenlkraftstoffe sind zukunftsweisend. Siebieten inderLandwirtschafteineumweltvertrglicheundnachhaltigeAlternativezufossilenKraftstoffen,nichtnurinDeutschland.DafrsindfortlaufendeprofessionelleForschungundEntwicklungebenso notwendigwie auch nachhaltige politische Rahmenbedingungen, die alle Anstrengungenuntersttzenundnichtblockieren.DieFrage istnicht,obdezentraleLsungenwiePflanzenlkraftstoffegebrauchtwerden,sondernwann.ThemaintaskoftheECproject2ndVegOilwastotrial2ndgenerationpureplantoils(2GPPO)inmodernengines,andtoprooftheirsuitabilityforadailyuse.Theprojectfocusedalsooncomplyingwithexhaustemission limitsof the future.Additionally,notonly2GPPObasedonrapeseed,butalsocamelinasativa,sunflower,jatrophaandmaizegermcouldbetestedsuccessfully.Theprojectturnedoutafullysuccessforregineering.Youcanalsousenumberstounderlinetheoutstandingresultsas16424,0000(16tractorsweretestedin4Nations,weredrivenmorethan24,000hoursand0totalenginefailuresoccurred).Thetractorsshowedstablepoweroutputswith2GPPOduringacustomuse.Thesupportofthefieldtrialsaswellastechnicalreviews,especiallyof the injectors,gave regineering theopportunity towiden its technicalknowledgeand researchanddevelopmentactivities(R&D)inthefieldofdieselenginetechnologiesusing2GPPO.As themainconclusion, regineeringdetermines that2GPPOwillhavea future.2GPPOcangiveagriculturetheopportunitytofullyreplacefossilfuels inasustainableandenvironmentalfriendlymannernotonlyinGermany.AlthoughaprofessionalandcontinuousR&Dworkhastobedone.Aswellpolitical frameworkhas tobeadjusted topush2GPPO forward insteadofblocking it.Thequestionisnotifdecentralizedsolutionsas2GPPOwillbeneededgenerally,butwhen.ChristianDuft,StefanInnerhofer,TinoWunderlichregineeringDuft&InnerhoferGbR,www.regineering.com The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil29B.A.U.M.ConsultGmbHDie Nutzung von reinem Pflanzenl als Kraftstoff und vonlkuchenalsTierfutter ingeschlossenen,nachhaltigen,regionalenWirtschaftskreislufenisteineVision,dieB.A.U.M.seitvielenJahrenaufseineFahnengeschriebenhat.ReinesPflanzenlwarstetseinElementnachhaltigerregionalerEntwicklungskonzepte,die B.A.U.M. erarbeitet hat, und die in zahlreichen Regionenumgesetzt worden sind. Eine von diesen ist die SolidargemeinschaftBRUCKER LANDe.V.,einVerein zurVermarktungnachhaltig erzeugter Gter aus der Region fr die Region im Landkreis Frstenfeldbruck beiMnchen, eine andere der aus diesem hervorgegangene Verein ZIEL 21 Zentrum InnovativeEnergiene.V.zurregionalenFrderungerneuerbarerEnergien.Im Jahre2001erarbeitete icheinenFrdermittelantrag im5.EUForschungsrahmenprogramm freinProjektzurnachhaltigenEnergieversorgungvonRegionen,100%RENET.EinedersiebenbeteiligtenRegionenwarderLandkreisFrstenfeldbruck.FrauElsbethSeiltz,damalsMitglieddesVorstandsdergenanntenVereine,machtedenVorschlag,zweiumfangreichereArbeitspaketezurEntwicklungund Felderprobung von Pflanzenlfahrzeugen und Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) in dem Projektvorzusehen und von den Vereinigten Werksttten fr Pflanzenl (VWP) bearbeiten zu lassen.DamalskamnurdieNutzungvonRapslinFrage,aberesstandbereitsdievisionreVorstellungimRaum,zueinemspterenZeitpunktdurchdieNutzungvonLeindotterlausMischfruchtanbaudievielfltigen wirtschaftlichen, kologischen und sozialen Vorteile von Pflanzenlkraftstoff ausregionalerProduktioninvollemUmfangauszuschpfen.EswarauchallenBeteiligtenbewusst,dassPflanzenlbevorzugtalsKraftstoffinlandwirtschaftlichenMaschineneingesetztwerdensollte,dochleiderwardamalsnochkeinLandmaschinenherstellerzueinerEntwicklungskooperationbereit.Das100%RENETProjektbrachteeinenentscheidendenSprungderPflanzenlmotorentechniknachvorne.VWPgelangesindiesemProjekt,einenMotormitDirekteinspritzungderEmissionsklasseEUStufe 3 erstmalig mit Pflanzenl zu betreiben. Dabei wurde auch erstmalig erkannt, welcheeminenteBedeutungdienahezu vollstndigeEntfernung vonKalzium,MagnesiumundPhosphorausdemlhat.DamitwarderWegfrdiefolgendeKooperationvonVWPmitJohnDeeregeebnet,welchedieGrundlagenfrdas2ndVegOilProjektlegte.EsistmirnachdieserVorgeschichteeinegroeFreude,dassim2ndVegOilProjektdieNutzungvonLeindotterlausMischfruchtanbaualsKraftstoffinFeldversuchenmitTraktorenerfolgreichdemonstriertwurde.DamitistdievorberzehnJahrengehegteVisionderRealisierungeinenentscheidenden Schritt nher gekommen. Neben der Frdermittelantragstellung und der Untersttzung vonJohnDeerebeiderKoordinationdesProjektesgehrtezumeinenAufgabenauchdieDurchfhrungeinerTechnologiefolgenabschtzung.DabeigelangderNachweis,dassRapslkraftstoff sehrwohldenMindestwert von 60% Treibhausgasminderung einhalten und Leindotterl ihn sogar deutlichbertreffenkann.DassdiesesErgebnisnunmitsolcherKlarheitvorliegt,bereitetmireinebesondereGenugtuung.Nichtzuletztmchteichunterstreichen,dassdieZusammenarbeitmitJohnDeereunddenanderenProjektpartnernstetsuerstangenehmundinspirierendwar. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil30Theuseofpureplantoilasafuelandofoilcakeasanimalfodderinsustainableclosedsubstancecyclesatregional level isavisionthatB.A.U.M.hasmadeamissionformanyyears.PureplantoilfuelhasalwaysbeenanelementofsustainableregionaldevelopmentconceptsthatB.A.U.M.haselaboratedand thatwereput intopractisebymany regionaldevelopmentorganisations.Oneofthem is the Solidargemeinschaft BRUCKER LAND e.V., an association for the marketing ofsustainableproducts from the region, for the region in theDistrictofFrstenfeldbrucknearbyMunich,anotheroneisitsspringoffassociationZIEL21ZentrumInnovativeEnergiene.V.fortheregionalpromotionofrenewableenergies.In2001,IhavesetupaproposalforfundingwithintheEUs5thFrameworkProgramme(FP5)foraproject on sustainable energy supply of regions, 100% RENET. One of the seven participatingregionswastheDistrictofFrstenfeldbruck.Mrs.ElsbethSeiltz,memberoftheboardofthetwomentionedassociationsatthetime,hadtheideatoincludetwocomprehensiveworkpackagesonthedevelopmentanddemonstrationofpureplantoilfuelledcarsandcombinedheatandpowerstations (CHP) in the work programme, and to involve the Vereinigte Werksttten frPflanzenltechnologie(VWP)asaprojectpartner.Atthattime,onlytheuseofrapeseedoilcouldreasonablybe considered,butwealreadyhad the visionofusing false flax (Camelina sativa)oilfrommixed cultivation to fullyexploit themultipleeconomical,ecological and socialbenefitsofpureplantoil from regionalproductionata lateroccasion.All involvedwerealsoconscious thatpure plant oil should first of all be used as fuel in agriculturalmachines, but unfortunately, nomanufacturerofagriculturalmachineswasreadyfordevelopmentcooperationatthattime.The 100% RENET project resulted in a considerable forward leap of pure plant oil enginetechnology.VWPsucceededtorunadirectinjectionengineofemissionclassEUStage3forthefirsttimewithpureplantoil.Inthisprocess,theimportanceofthealmostcompleteremovalofcalcium,magnesiumandphosphorousfromoilalsobecameclearforthefirsttime.ThispavedthewayforthesubsequentcooperationofVWPwithJohnDeerewhichlaidthebasisforthe2ndVegOilproject.Followingthesepreliminaries, Iampleasedthattheuseoffalseflaxoilfrommixedcultivationastractorfuelhassuccessfullybeendemonstratedinthe2ndVegOilproject.Thus,themorethantenyearsoldvisionhasmadeaconsiderableforwardleaptowardsitsimplementation.Besideswritingthe project proposal and supporting JohnDeere in the coordination of the project, the projectassessmentwasoneofmytasks.Inthecourseofthelatter,itcouldbeproventhatpurerapeseedoil can indeed complywith theminimum climate gas saving of 60% and false flax oil can evensignificantly outperform this value. It is a great satisfaction tome that there is now so clearevidenceforthisfact.Lastbutnotleast,IwouldliketoemphasisethatthecooperationwithJohnDeereandtheotherprojectpartnershasalwaysbeenveryenjoyableandinspiring.Dr.MichaelSthrB.A.U.M.ConsultGmbHMnchen/Berlinwww.baumgroup.de The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil315. ScientificandtechnologicalresultsCombustionenginedevelopmentTheworkon theenginedevelopment consistedof twodistinctparts: (1)developmentworkontractorenginespreparingthefielddemonstrationoftractorsfuelledwith2ndgenerationpureplantoil (2GPPO), and (2) developmentwork on a hybrid engine test stand (see next section). Thecombustion engine development started with a survey on the stateoftheart exhaustaftertreatmenttechnologiesandtheimpactofplantoilfuelsontheiruse.Thissurveyprovidedanoverview of stateoftheart technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems for diesel engines,withaparticularfocusonoffroadvehicles.Theimpactoftheuseofpureplantoilasfuelonsuchsystemswaspresented.Biofuelexhaustgasestendtoplugdieselparticulatefilters(DPF)becauseof ash forming elements in the fuel. Furthermore, some of these elements are toxic for dieseloxidationcatalysts (DOC).Hence, it isofutmost importancetoreducetheseelements inthe fuelthroughappropriatecleaningandtoestablish fuelstandardsthat limittheashformingandDOCtoxicelements.It turned out at the beginning of the project that aredesign of the existing Stage 3A serial adaptationtechnology for tractor engines was necessary. Thisbecameclearwhenunexpectedbadcoldstartbehaviourandanearlydamageofthefuelpumpwerediscoveredina JohnDeere (JD)manufacturingyear (MY)2008enginethatwasadaptedtopureplantoilinawaythathadbeenproven suitable forMY2007 engines. As no changes oftheengine fromMY2007 toMY2008wereknown to JD,norwerevisibleat firstglance,a thorough investigationof the components from subsuppliers was done.Undocumentedchangesweredetected inthefuelpumpand the injection system. A change of the cold startsoftware map and the installation of an internal preheating system enabled a return to the performanceachievedpreviouslywith adaptedMY2007engines. Theworkledtoanimprovementtotheadaptationkitforpureplantoiltractorsthatwasusedforthesubsequentenginedevelopmentandtractordemonstrationwork.For the further developmentwork, JD configured a test stand for engines to perform tests ofengines with diesel and, after conversion, with pure plant oil at the Technical University ofKaiserslautern. The teststand allowed engine and emission parameters to bemeasured. Engineperformanceandemissiontestswerefirstconductedwith 2ndgenerationrapeseed(2GPPORS),sunflower (2GPPOSF), camelina sativa (2GPPOCS), and jatropha oil (2GPPOJA) on a JD 6068PowerTechPlusStage3Aenginethatwasadaptedforpureplantoiloperation.AllplantoilsusedforthetestsfulfilledthethenvalidGermanprenormDINV51605and,inaddition,hadextremelylow values forphosphorous (P), calcium (Ca) andmagnesium (Mg) afterpurificationof the oils.Figure3:EUStage3AcompliantJD6068PowerTechPlusengine The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil32Theyweredenotedas2ndGenerationPurePlantOil (2GPPO) fuels, if the sumofP,CaandMgcontentwas below 3.5mg/kg. However, almost all the oil used in the project, except smallerbatches in thebeginning,containedeven lessP,CaandMg.The2GPPORSused for theenginedevelopment had The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil33theengine'sfullloadcurvedeviatedlessthan1%fromtheoriginaldieseloperationfullloadcurvewhenfuelledwith2GPPO.EmissionsmeasuredintheNRSCremainedwithintheEUStage3Blimitsforengines inthenetpowerrangebetween130and560kW,whenrunwith2GPPO.AgainNOxproved tobe themostcriticalexhaustgascomponent,whilepostDOC/DPFemissionsofcarbonmonoxide(CO),unburnedhydrocarbons(HC)andPMremainedwellwithintheEUStage3Blimits.InorderthattheJDPowerTechPVXengine with integrated DOC/DPFmeets the EU Stage 3B emissionlimits also for NOx when beingoperated with 2GPPO, the enginesoftwaresettingswere further finetuned. A suitable set of parametervalueswassoughtbyvaryingseveralengineparameters, for threepointsof the NRSC, while fuelling theengine with 2GPPORS. The thusidentified optimum parameter setwasused for testswith2GPPORS,2GPPOCS and 2GPPOJA. Theemissions complied with the EUStage 3B limits in the NRSC for allthree oil fuels. In the same way,tests in theNRTCwere successfullypassed. The emissions of PM fromboth the warm and cold enginestayed significantly below the EUStage 3B threshold (identical withEU Stage 4 for PM) when it wasfuelledwith 2GPPORS, 2GPPOCSand2GPPOJA.ForachievingtheEUStage4emission levelswith2GPPO fuels,a JDPowerTechPSXenginewithintegrated aftertreatment device (ATD) was used. The ATD consists of a DOC, a DPF, and anintegratedselectivecatalyticreductioncatalyst(SCR).TheDOCandDPFarethesameasthoseontheJDPowerTechPVXengine.Measurementswereagaindonewithdieselreferencefueland2GPPORS,2GPPOCS,and2GPPOJAfuels.Theenginesoftwarewassetdifferentlyfordieseland2GPPO fuels, so that the same full loadpowerwasobtained for all fuels.After some further finetuningof thesoftwaresettings thatoptimised theNOxemissions, theEUStage4emission limitscouldbemetforall2GPPOfuelsintheNRSCandNRTC.Figuregivesanoverviewoftheenginesofdifferentemissionclassesonwhichdevelopmentworkwascarriedoutwithdifferent2GPPO.Figure5:EUStage3BcompliantPowerTechPVXprototypeengine The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil34HybridenginedevelopmentAhybridteststandwassetupattheTechnical University of Munich. Itconsisted of a John Deere 6068PowerTech Plus fourvalve tractorenginewith common rail system forfuel injection, turbocharger andexternal exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) system. A 4quadrantmachinesimulated the hybrid system andactedeitherasabrakeoranelectricmotor.Theengineteststandallowedthe assessment of torque, enginespeed,fuelconsumption,andexhaustgas temperature, composition andparticulatematter(PM)content.Thehybrid test standwas validated and reference testsandmeasurementswithdiesel fuel (EN590) were executed. The collected comprehensive measurement data were used(1)forlatercomparisonwiththe2ndGenerationPurePlantOil(2GPPO)measurementdata,and(2)asinputdataforthesimulationand(3)forvalidatingthesimulationresults.Figure7:HybridteststandFigure6:Prototypeenginesusedforenginedevelopmentonteststand The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil35Thehybridenginedevelopment focusedonemissionsand fuelconsumption.Representative loadcycleswere selected for the final testingmatrix.The latter consistedof theNonRoadTransientCycle (NRTC) for certificationof the emission steps EU Stage 3B and 4 and a reducedDeutscheLandwirtschaftsGesellschaft(DLG)Powermixcycle.First,basicmeasurements(NRSC)with2GPPORSonthehybridengineteststandweredone.Onlyafewoperationpointswereunfavourablefor2GPPORSuseas fuel.One is the startingphase.Using thepreheating system from theprojectpartnerVWPfullysolvedallproblemsinthisphase.Furthermore,carbonmonoxide(CO)emissionswerehigherthanindieseloperationforlowenginespeedsandloads.Thiswassolvedbyadaptingthe injection strategy.PM emissionswere low in alloperationmodes. Itneeded tobe checkedwhetherthisremainedthecaseforNRTCmeasurements.Furtherdevelopmentworkwasneededtolowernitrogenoxides(NOx)emissionstoachievetheemissionlimitsEUStage3Band4.Figure8:HybridmodelcalculationschemeAmodel for thehybridsystemwasdevelopedandprogrammedwith theDymolasoftwareusingtheModelica language.Themainaimof thehybriddevelopmentworkwas to reduceemissions,notablyPM.Aparallelhybridsystemwasmodelled, i.e.thespeedofthecombustionengineandthe electricmotorwas the same in themodel. Thedistributionof the required torqueonbothcomponentswastheadjustableparameter.Asynchronouselectricmotorwasselectedbecauseofits good efficiency values over a broad torque range. Apart from optimising the torque of thecombustionengineinstationaryoperation,thereductionoftransientsoptimisestheemissions.Anoptimumcontrollerfornearstationaryoperationandadynamicbordertorquecontrollingstrategythat reduces torquegradients in transientoperationweredeveloped.Theywere combinedbyaconstant speeddetectionmoduleand complementedbya startstop controller. In theNRSC the The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil36simulation showed no advantages of hybridization. In theNRTC up to 27% soot reductionwasachieved,dependingonhybridsystemconfigurationandoperationstrategy.Theoptimumhybridconfiguration thatwas identified throughmodellingwas then transferred tothehybridteststand.Thecombustionenginewasfuelledwith2GPPORS,2GPPOJA,2GPPOSF,and 2nd generation soy oil (2GPPOSY) fuel. For comparison, diesel fuel was used. Themeasurementsconfirmed theresultsof themodeling. Itbecameapparent thatusingoxygenatedfuelsuchas2GPPObringssignificantadvantagesforoperationwithtransientcycles.Onaverage,PMemissionswerereducedby20%andNOxby30%.ThusthehybridenginedidnotachievetheEUStage 4 emission levels without aftertreatment systems, but enable a significant reduction inemissionsintheNRTCcycle.Figure9:Combustionenginevshybriddriveline:Inthechargingphase(bottomleft)theaccumulatorischargedduringmoderatelytransientoperation.Inthedischargingphase(bottomright),thedynamicdemandforthecombustionengineisreduced.Inconclusion,the investigationsofhybridpowertrains,fuelledwith2GPPO,haveshownthatthepotentialforreducingPMemissionsintransientcycles,suchastheNRTC,isabout20%.Theuseof2GPPOfuelshasthepotentialtosignificantlyreducePMemissionsduetotheoxygeninthefuel.Thehybridconcept leadstoanevenhigherrelative improvementofemissionsforstandarddieselfuel,wherethiseffectofchemicallyboundoxygeninthefueldoesnotexist.Here,thehybriddriveenablesPMemissionstobereducedby30%.ThehybriddrivedoesnotallowthelimitsofEUStage The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil374tobemetwithoutanaftertreatmentsystem,butthecostsforoperatingthe latterarestronglyreducedby thehybriddrive.Forexample, the longer regenerationcyclesof theparticulate filterenablethefuelconsumptiontobereduced.Figure10:Achievedemissionreductionwithhybridoperationwithoutexhaustaftertreatment(EC=elementalcarbon)FueldevelopmentTheworkonfueldevelopmentwasmotivatedbypriorexperiencethathadshownthatthecontentofphosphorous(P),calcium(Ca)andmagnesium(Mg) inpureplantoilplayedamajorrole inthetroublefreeoperationofadvancedengines.Forthisreason,thedevelopmentgoalwasfixedbeforeproject start to considerably lower the content of these elements byoil press optimisation andsubsequentcleaning,downtothedetectionthresholdof0.5mg/kgforeachofthethreeelements.Thisobjective,whichwentbeyondthethenrelevantGermanprenormDINV51605(attheendoftheprojecttheprenormhadbecomeanormwithmorerestrictivethresholds),wasplannedtobeachievedstepwiseforsuccessivelylargeroilsamples,puttinganintermediatetargetat3.5mg/kgforthesumcontentofP,CaandMginpureplantoil.Theaimwastofinallyoperatethreedifferentreference presses that produced first partly, and then fully demineralised oil from different oilseeds to supply the engine development test stands and the tractor demonstration fleet.Additivation of the cleaned oil was explicitely considered as an option in case that thedemineralisation would deteriorate the oil with regard to other quality parameters that wereregulatedbyDINV51605.Thefueldevelopmentworkstartedwithreviewsoftheexistingknowhowonrequirementsforoilquality for pure plant oil fuel and the possibilities to comply with these requirements indecentralisedoilpresses.After the resultsof these reviews, the first standard forpureplantoilwhichincludedvariablepropertiesthatdependongrowth,pressing,storage,etc.,wasdevelopedin The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil381982byE.H.Pryde.Hesuggested limitingthePcontentto20mg/kgtopreventproblems in fueltanks, lines and filters.When it turned out that the content of P, Ca andMg in pure plant oilcorrelatedwithcatalystpoisoninganddamage to soot filters,pistons,piston rings, injectorsandvalves,thefirstlimitationoftheircontentinpureplantoil,usedasenginefuel,wasformulatedintheGermanprenormDINV51605 (20mg/kg forCa+Mg;12mg/kg forP).Theknowledgethatthese limits were still too high, and almost complete removal of these elements should beemphasizedwassubsequentlygainedwithin theAustrian35 tractorprogramme (EUStage1andStage2engines,20032008),a researchprojectof JohnDeere (EUStage2andStage3engines,20052008),astudypreparedbyDeutz(2008),andnotably,bywork,conductedbythe2ndVegOilprojectpartnerVWPwithintheEUFP5100%RENETproject(20022005).1ItwasknownthatthecontentofP,CaandMgcouldbereducedbyavoidingcornbreak,ensuringgoodmaturityof the seedsbeforeharvest, avoidingmoisture and relatedoutgrowth aswell assoiling,andbya lowpressing temperature.Furthermore, theoriginof rape seedswasknown tohaveaninfluence.E.g.summerrapeseedoilcontainsmoreP,CaandMgthanwinterrapeseedoil.According to the reviews,stateoftheartoilpressing technologyallowed theproductionof rapeseedoilthatcompliedwithDINV51605insmalldecentralisedoilmills.Hence,forachievingasumcontentof P,Ca andMgbelow 1.5mg/kg, additionalpurificationwasnecessary. In a literaturesearch,itwasfoundthatbleachingclay,syntheticsilica,kieselguhr,celluloseandperlitereducethecontentofP,CaandMgwhenbeingaddedtothepressedfueloilduringthepurification.Thereviewsalsorevealedthatthecontentofsodium(Na)andpotassium(K)requiredattention.Allthiswasfoundtobevalidforotheroils,too,exceptthatpreliminarypressingexperiencesuggestedthat different temperatures and other oil press parameter settingswere required for other oilseeds.Atfirst, itwasalsoassumedthatthefattyacidcompositionoftheoilplayedan importantrole,butthisturnedouttobewrongamajorfindingof2ndVegOil,asitshowsthat,inprinciple,awiderangeofoilscanbeconsideredforuseasfuelindieselengines!Before this very important result could be found, development work was carried out on adecentralisedoilpress in LowerAustria,belonging tolundBioenergieGmbH.Theaimwas tooptimisetheproductionoflargebatchesofpureplantoil,notablywithregardtothecontentofP,CaandMg,whilekeepingwithin the limits setbyDIN (V)51605 forallotherparameters.Otherelements,suchasNa,KandSiwerealsomonitored. Inafirststep,asumcontentof The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil39Figure11:TheWaldlandpurificationprocessasusedforthefuelproductionin2ndVegOilTheverification,whetherthecleanedpureplantoilswerepracticallysuitablefor longtermuse inadvanceddieselengines,was conductedwith twoofftheshelf combinedheatandpower (CHP)stationswith5.3kWeland10.5kWthnominalloadsthatwereadaptedtopureplantoiloperationinlinewithpreviouslyachievedresultsonoptimumengineadaptationforrapeseedoil.TheCHPsarepoweredbyasinglecylinderenginewithaclosedparticulatefiltersystem.Theengineshavebeenoperated for500hrseach,with fourdifferent fuels: rape seed fuelwith10mg/kgand1mg/kgP+Ca+Mgandcamelinasativaandmaizegermoilwith1mg/kg.Thewholeoperationcycleof2000hrswasrunwitheachengineseparately.ThiswasdonetoverifytheimpactofdifferentcontentsofP,CaandMgonthecombustionbehaviour.Inparticular,thebuildupofdepositsontheinjectorsand the particulate filter, which have an impact on the length of the service intervals, was The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil40monitored.Further,theaimwastocheckifthekindofpureplantoilisequallyorlessrelevantthantheP,CaandMgcontent.TheoperationshowedthatthecontentofP,CaandMg influencesthebuildupofdeposits very strongly,while the typeofoilhasno significant relevance.The resultssuggested that thedifferences in thecombustionbehaviourofdifferentplantoilscouldbedealtwithbyappropriateadaptationoftheengineparameters.Asaresultofthisfinding,itwasdecidedthattheworkprogrammeofthe2ndVegOilprojectshouldbemodifiedandtestrunswithengines,anddemonstrationof tractors, shouldbeconductedwithpureoilsother than rape seedoilandwithhigh insteadof lowblendsof the former in the latter.Thischange representedasignificantadditiontotheinitialproject'sobjectives.WhenthetestsofdifferentplantoilswithonecylinderCHPengineweremade,Jatrophaoilwasnotavailable insufficientquantities.The test runwith Jatrophaoilwasconductedafterward inAprilandMay2010.The1,000hourstestrunledtotheconclusionthatjatrophaoilcanequallywellbeusedasfueloilastheotherpreviouslytestedoils.Basedonthisdevelopmentwork,theoilmilloflundBioenergiewasequippedwithadosingunitfor OBEFIL and several test runs were implemented to achieve optimum oil pressing andpurification at lowest possible cost. The dosing unit design was specifically developed andoptimisedwithin thiswork.Theoptimisationof thepress includedmodificationsof the filtrationprocess. Alltogether, some 327,000 liters of different oils, almost all of itwith P+Ca+Mg The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil41Finally,aninvestigationwasmadeonthepotentialofthedevelopedpurificationmethodtoreducethecontentofNaandK inaddition toP,CaandMg.The resultsshowclearly thatNaandKareremovedfromtheoildowntothedetectionlimit,inthesamewayasP,CaandMg.AsecondissueoftheinvestigationwastocheckiftheuseofOBEFILforoilpurificationhadanegativeeffectontheoxidationstability.The latterturnedouttobetrue.AcleardependencyofthedegradationoftheoxidationstabilityontheconcentrationofOBEFILusedfortheoilpurificationcouldbefound.Itisassumedthatantioxidantsareremovedduringthepurificationprocessaswell. Inthenextstep,fourdifferentantioxidationadditivesweretested.ThestabilizerBAYONOXPluswasfoundtohavethebestperformanceandwasselectedforthefurtheroilproductionforthetestfleet.Figure12:Oilplantsfromwhichlargeramountsof2GPPOwereproducedandusedwithin2ndVegOil:rapeseed,sunflower,camelinasativa,maizegerms,andjatropha(fromlefttoright);minoramountsof2GPPOfromcoconut,palmsandsoyaseedswereusedforscientificfieldtests.Thefinalaimofproducing2GPPOofasufficientqualityforfuellingadvanceddieselengineswithparticulate filter could thus be achieved, by combining optimum oil pressing with subsequentpurificationoftheoilwithOBEFIL,andreadjustmentoftheoxidationstabilitywithanantioxidant.Clear dependencieswere found that allow determination of the required concentrations of thesubstancesforpurificationandadditivation.Theworkalsoshowedthatminorproblemspersistwiththeacidvalueandcetanenumber inthecaseof2GPPOfromcamelinasativaseeds(2GPPOCS),andacidvalueandwatercontent inthecaseof2GPPOfromjatrophanuts(2GPPOJA).ThevaluesfortheseparametersarenotwithinthelimitssetbyDIN51605yet.In thecaseof2GPPOJA, theproblemcanbesolved if ripenutsareused foroilproduction.Oilfrom ripe jatrophanutshasamuch loweracidvalueandhigherwatercontent.Theoil,which iscommerciallyavailable inEurope, isusuallyproduced frompartiallyunripenuts.Abetterqualitycontrol,right fromthemomentofharvest,wouldensureamuchbetteroilquality.Furthermore,the longtransportdistancesaredetrimentaltotheoilquality.Localuseof2GPPOJA fuel inthecountrieswherethejatrophaisgrownwouldinvolvealsoshortertransportdistances. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil42The acid value of 2GPPOCS can be improved if the camelina sativa seeds are dried at lowertemperature.Drying can however, not completely be avoided, if camelina sativa is produced inmixedcultivationwithothercrops.Inthecaseof2GPPOfromsunflowerseeds(2GPPOSF),attentionneedstobepaidtoremovingwaxesfromtheoil.Theproblemofwaxfalloutfrom2GPPOSFappearedduringthescientificfieldtests(seeafternextsection)andcouldbesolvedthroughadownstreamedcoldfilteringprocess.Inthelongterm,theuseofsunflowerspecieswithlowwaxcontentforfuelproductioncouldsolvethisproblemfromtheoutset.LubricantdevelopmentTwoengine lubricantshavebeendevelopedforevaluationinthe2ndVegOilproject.Theseenginelubricants meet the ACEA E7 and E9 performance categories. Details of the engine lubricantcompositionare contained inDeliverables4.1,4.3and4.11which canbedownloaded from theprojectwebsite2.Theengine lubricantschosentoberesearchedaspartofthe2ndVegOilprojectwere: OS240946=alubricantwhichiscapableofmeetingtheACEAE92008specification OS241936=alubricantwhichiscapableofmeetingtheACEAE72008specificationTheACEA2008nomenclatureandspecificationsforE7andE9lubricantsisdetailedinAppendixAin deliverable 4.1. The compositions of the engine lubricant formulations (e.g. engine lubricantadditives,viscositymodifiersandbaseoiltype)usedinthe2ndVegOilprojectaredetailedinTable1.TheProductDataSheetsforLubrizol4986E,Lubrizol40007,Lubrizol7077andLubrizol7075Fare shown in Deliverable 4.11, Appendix B. These Product Data Sheets list the performancequalificationsfortheenginelubricantadditivesandprovidesinformationontheviscositymodifiers.Sufficentquantiesofeachlubricantweresuppliedtotherelevantprojectpartnersinchargeofthescientificfieldtestanddemonstrationandmonitoringprogrammesthroughouttheproject.Table2details the amount of engine lubricant delivered to each project partner. The relevant projectpartnershavesuppliedLubrizolwithusedenginelubricantsamplesthroughoutthedurationofthe2ndVegOilproject. 2www.2ndvegoil.eu The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil43Table1:EngineLubricantFormulationstobeusedin2ndVegOilProjectLubrizol Oil Code OS241936 OS240946Viscosity Grade 15W-40 15W-40ExxonMobil AP/E 150N Group I Base Oil 59.4 -ExxonMobil AP/E 600N Group I Base Oil 20 -Chevron 220R (220N) Group II Base Oil - 71.1Chevron 600R (600N) Group II Base Oil - 6.1Lubrizol 4986E Engine Lubricant Additive 12.6 -Lubrizol 40007 Engine Lubricant Additive - 16.5Lubrizol 7077 Viscosity Modifier 7.7 -Lubrizol 7075F Viscosity Modifier - 6.1Lubrizol 6662 Pour Point Depressant 0.3 0.2ACEA E7 Engine LubricantACEA E9 Engine LubricantTable2:EngineLubricantSuppliedto2ndVegOilProjectPartnersTestLocation Operator LubricantType SupplyMonth LubricantQuantitiyGermanyTUKaiserslautern(Stage4development)ACEAE9 October2009 200litresGermanyLVKTUMunich(Stage4development)ACEAE9 October2009 200litresGermanyVWP(engineconversion)ACEAE7ACEAE9Febraury2009February200960litres20litresGermany TFZ ACEAE7 March2009 60litresGermany JDWMACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE9ACEAE9March2009March2009August2009October2009January2010January2010February2011August201160litres120litres60litres25litres40litres40litres100litres30litresFrance FRCumaACEAE7ACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE7March2009April2010April2010February2011February2011October2011120litres100litres60litres60litres40litres60litresAustria WaldlandACEAE7ACEAE9ACEAE7ACEAE9February2009February2009March2010March2010120litres120litres130litres130litresPoland ContractusACEAE7ACEAE7ACEAE7March2009December2009November2011240litres240litres40litres The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil44Table3:TractorUnitIdentification,OperatingLocationandEngineLubricantUsedOperatingCountry TRACTORUNITNAME EngineLubricantOSNUMBERGermany L06930N613519 OS240946France L07530N613532 OS240946Austria L07430R604221 OS240946Germany CD6068R066040 OS240946Poland L06830G612350 OS241936Poland L06830K512170 OS241936Poland L06830K596568 OS241936Poland L06830K614003 OS241936Poland L07430K494001 OS241936Germany L06930N586574 OS241936Austria L07430R604472 OS241936Austria L07530N613561 OS241936France L06830P606579 OS241936France L07530K616305 OS241936Table3details the tractorunit identification,operating locationand theengine lubricantused inthattractor.The used engine lubricant sampleswere taken at approximately 250 hour intervals (when theengine lubricantwas changed for fresh lubricant) apart from tractors running inGermanywithidentificationsofL06930N586574andL06930N613519.Thesetractorsoperatedunderadifferentengine lubricant sampling regime and engine lubricant drain interval. They were analysed bystandardindustriallubricantanalysistechniques: TotalBaseNumber(TBNbyASTMmethodD4739) TotalBaseNumber(TBNbyASTMmethodD2896) TotalAcidNumber(TANbyASTMmethodD664) KinematicViscosity(testedat100CbyASTMmethodD7279) WearmetalsmeasuredbyInductiveCoupledPlasma(ICP) HighTemperatureHighShearviscosity(byCECTestmethodL36A90) PercentagesootmeasuredbyThermogravimeticAnalysis(TGA) OxidationandNitration(bymethodDIN51453)ThemeasuredTotalBaseNumber(byASTMD4739andASTMD2896)showsthatthebasicreserveof the engine lubricantwas being depleted due to the acidic nature of the combustion gases,howeverthischange inbasicreserve isconsideredtobeacceptableas isdemonstratedbyonlyasmallincreaseintheTotalAcidNumber(measuredbyD664).ThemeasuredKinematicViscosityat100C(measuredbyASTMD7279)andHighTemperatureHighShearViscosity(measuredbyCECtestmethodL3690)showedthat,throughoutthefieldtrial,the The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil45kinematicviscosityoftheenginelubricantshadstayedwithintheSEAJ300specificationforSAE40engine lubricantsandthehightemperaturehighshearviscosityhadchangedvery littlecomparedto the freshengine lubricant.One lubricant sampledid show a very low viscosity,butno causecouldbeidentifiedandcontaminationofthesamplecouldnotberuledout.Thishighlightsthattheengine lubricantsviscosityhadstayedwithin the formulatedviscositygrade throughout the fieldtrial.Theviscosityperformanceofbothenginelubricantsisthereforeconsideredsatisfactory.Thecopperwearlevels(asmeasuredbyICP)showedthatsixsamplesexceededtheJohnDeere(JD)warning limitof20ppm (max.).However thesamples thatshowedhighcoppereithercame fromthetractorwhichhadthe lowviscosityresult(whichcouldhavecausedthehighcopperwear)orfrom tractorswhichwere operating on an extended engine lubricant drain cycle. The iron levelfollowsasimilartrendtocopperwithareasonablylowlevelofironwearforallsamplesapartfromthesamplefromPoland(whichhadthelowviscosity)andthetractorsoperatinginGermanyontheextendedlubricantdraininterval.ThelevelofironwearforallsamplesfallswithintheJDwarninglimitof0.5ppm/hourmax.In summary both lubricants have performed satisfactorily during the field trial. The enginelubricants developed for the 2ndVegOil project seem appropriate for 2GPPO fuels in advancedengineswhenthe lubricantdrain interval is250hours.Anextensionto500hoursseemspossible,butrequiresfurtherinvestigationofthereasonsforthehighcopperwearlevelsinsomelubricantsamples.Engine,fuelandlubricantdemonstrationThe developed engine concepts, 2GPPO fuels with selected additives, and two appropriatelyformulatedlubricantsweresubjectedtocomprehensivedemonstrationinfourEuropeancountries(Germany,France,AustriaandPoland).16tractorsweretestedinthefield,underabroadrangeofoperatingconditions,with8different2GPPOfuels,foratotalof24,000operatinghours.Zerototalfailureswerereportedandallminorfailuresthatwereattributedtotheuseof2GPPO insteadofdieselasfuelcouldbetracedbacktofuelcontaminationand/or inappropriatefuelstorageortotheuseofotherfuelsthan2GPPO.Hence,theproofofconceptwasprovidedforthedevelopedcombinationsofmodifieddieselengines,2GPPOfuelswithadditives,andlubricants.Thiswasachievedthroughscientificfieldtestsoffivetractors(n3,8,14,15and17)underclosesupervisionof JDand theBavarianTechnologyandSupportCentre (TFZ) inStraubing /Germanyanda fleetdemonstrationandmonitoringprogramme fora further11 tractors thatwere testedunder a broad range of real operating conditions. The fleet demonstration and monitoringprogrammewasconductedbytheprojectpartnersIBDIandVWP,withthesupportoftheprojectpartnersITP,Waldland,andFRCuma.Twoofthetractorsusedforthescientificfieldtests(n3and8) joinedthefleetdemonstrationandmonitoringprogramme inthemiddleoftheprojectperiod,thusincreasingthedemonstrationfleettoatotalof13tractors,outofwhich5wererunbyITPinPoland,5byWaldland inAustria,and3byFRCuma inFrance.Thedurationofthedemonstration The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil46andmonitoring was 26months for tractors n 12, 47, and 912, respectively 15months fortractorsn3,8and16.15outofthe16JDtractorsused forscientific fieldtestsanddemonstrationwere6830Premium(85 kW), 6930 Premium (96 kW), 7430 Premium (103 kW) and 7530 Premium (114 kW) seriesmodelsthatwereconvertedto2GPPOoperation.Theywerechosenbecausetheywerethelargestandmostpowerful tractorsproducedat the JDproduction facility inMannheim/Germany, thusoffering thehighestpotentialeconomicbenefitwhenbeing fuelledwith2GPPO.All fourmodelsarepoweredbytheEUStage3Acompliant6068PowerTechPlusengineatdifferentpowerlevels.The6830Premiumand6930Premiummodelshavegot theCD6068HL481engineand the7430Premium and 7530 Premium ones the CD6068HL482 engine. The different power levels areimplementedbydifferentenginecontrolsoftwaresettings.The6068PowerTechPlusenginesusefourvalvetechnologywithahighpressurecommonrailsystemforfuel injection.Theyareturbochargedandhaveanexternalexhaustgasrecirculation(EGR)system includingacoolertoreduceNOxemissions.ThroughretrofittingwithanSCRisystem(SelectiveCatalyticReductionintegrated)fromEmitecinthemiddleoftheprojectperiod,4ofthemachievedcompliancewithEUStage3Bemission level. The conversion to 2GPPO operation implied modifications of the preheatingsystem,fuellinesandfilters,fuelpressurepumps,andtheelectroniccontrolunit(ECU)settings.Onetractor(n17),apreseries6210Rmodel,compliedwithEUStage3Bemission levelfromtheoutset.Compared to theEUStage3Acompliantmodels, itusesadieseloxidationcatalyst (DOC)andadieselparticulatefilter(DPF).TheDPFisregeneratedbyinjectingfuelintotheexhaustsystempriortheDOC.Thiscausesariseoftheexhaustgastemperature,which leadstoacombustionoftheorganicparticlesheldbackby theDPF.Theconversion to2GPPOoperationdiffers from theconversionconceptfortheStage3Acomplianttractormodelsastothefuelpreheatingsystem.Inthecourseof initialtesting,theenginefuelsupplywasseparatedfromtheDPFregenerationfuelsupply and separatediesel fuel storagewas installed. For theDPF regeneration,diesel fuelwascontinuedtobeusedinsteadof2GPPO.Asa resultof theconversion, theenginepowerwas slightly lowered.Thiswasdue to the lowercalorificvalueandthedifferent injectionbehaviourof2GPPOcomparedtodiesel. Itwouldhavebeenpossibletoconverttheenginessuchthatthesamepowerwouldhavebeenreachedwith2GPPO aswith diesel before the conversion.However, the powerwould then have exceeded theallowedlimitsincasethatanoperatordecidedtofuelthetractorwithdieselinsteadof2GPPO.Asnoautomatic fueldetectiondevicewas installedyet thatwouldhaveallowed switching theECUsettingsautomaticallybetweena2GPPOmodeandadieselmode,the lowerpowerwith2GPPOwasconsideredtobeanacceptablecompromise.Atfirst,fourJDEUStage3Acomplianttractors,n3and8ofthe7530Premiummodel,andn14and15ofthe6930Premiummodel,wereconvertedbyVWPto2GPPOoperationinOctober2008atJD inMannheim.Aftertheconversion,thetractorsperformanceandsystem functionalitywasassessedontestbenchesatJD.Thetractorswerethenusedforcomprehensivescientificfieldtestswith2GPPORS(2ndGenerationPurePlantOilbasedonRapeSeed)fuelfromMay2009on.Tractorn8wasretrofittedwithanSCRisystem inApril2010and furthertestedbytheprojectpartnerFRCumauntilJuly2011 intheframeworkofthefleetdemonstrationandmonitoringprogramme. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil47Tractor n3was further tested by the partnerWaldland fromMay 2010 until July 2011. ItwasretrofittedwithanSCRisystem inJuly2010.Thetractorsn14and15continuedtobeusedforscientific field testsby JDandTFZuntil July2011.Theywere retrofittedwithanSCRisystem inspring2011.TenfurtherJDEUStage3Acompliant,6830,7530and7430Premiummodeltractors(n12,47,912)wereconvertedto2GPPOoperationandcheckedonthetestbenchatthebeginningof2009.Theyweredemonstratedandmonitored inPoland,AustriaandFrancefromspring2009untilmidsummer 2011. The tractorsn 3 and 8 joined thedemonstration andmonitoringprogramme inspring2010aswellasafurtherEUStage3Atractor(n16,7430Premiummodel).The JDEUStage3Bcompliant tractor (n17,preseries6210Rmodel)wasconverted to2GPPOoperationandcheckedonatestbenchatJD inautumn2010. Itwasusedforscientificfieldtestsfromspringuntilmidsummer2011. ItwasfurtherconvertedtoEUStage4through installationofanSCRi system inAugust/September2011and testedduring10operationhourson JD internaltestingfieldnearMannheimwithacultivator.Itshouldbenotedthat,duetochanges inthecourseoftheproject,thetractor identificationnumber5doesnotexist.Hence, thenumbersrun from 1 through 17, leaving 5 out, andalltogether16tractorsweretested inthefieldand/ordemonstratedandmonitored.All field testanddemonstration tractorswereinitiallyplanned torunon2GPPORS fuelandon lowblendsofotheroilswith2GPPORS. Itwas after the scientific field tests anddemonstration and monitoring had alreadystarted that the unexpected result of theengineand fueldevelopmentworkwas foundthatother2GPPO than2GPPORS couldalsobeused,withoutblending, insuitablyadaptedengines without encountering any problem,power deficit or increased emission levels, if the oils were completely demineralised. As aconsequence, the testanddemonstrationplanwaschanged inOctober2009and itwasdecidedthat largeramountsof2GPPOSF(2ndGenerationPlantOilbasedonSunFlowerseed),2GPPOCS(2ndGenerationPurePlantOilbasedonCamelina Sativa seed), 2GPPOJA (2ndPureGenerationPlantOilbasedonJatrophaseed),and2GPPOMG(2ndPureGenerationPlantOilbasedonMaizeGerm)wouldbeusedasfuel.Sotractorn3ranwith2GPPOSF(sinceJune2010),tractorn5with2GPPOCS(sinceJuly2010),andtractorn15with2GPPOMG(ApriltoJune2010)and2GPPOJA(sinceNovember2010)inadditionto2GPPORSfuel.Figure13:ConvertedEUStage3Bcomplianttractor The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil48Afterproduction,the2GPPOwasstoredinIntermediateBulkContainers(IBC)of1,000literseach.The fuel was delivered to the partners in an IBC. Special fuel stations were used at thedemonstrationthatcouldbeconnecteddirectlytotheIBC.Thewholesupplychainwasdesignedtoavoidanycontaminationwithdustorwateraslongasthecorrectprocedureswerefollowed.AdditivessuppliedbyJD,ordevelopedandproducedbyLubrizolpriortotheproject,weremixedinto the demonstrated 2GPPO fuels. These additiveswere socalled keepclean (JD) andmultifunctional diesel additives (MFDA) (Lubrizol). They optimize the combustion and preventcombustionresidualsdepositionintheinjectionsystem.ThelubricantsusedforthefieldtestsanddemonstrationweretheE7andE9calledlubricantsdevelopedwithin2ndVegOil.Figure14:showsthetractormasterplanwhichprovidesdetailsofthescientificfieldtestsandthedemonstrationandmonitoringprogrammewithin2ndVegOil.Tractorn15wasalsotestedwithasmallamountof2ndgenerationcoconut,palmand soyoil in the frameworkofa linked researchproject.Thetractorfleetdemonstrationandmonitoringwasconductedjointlywithfarmers,whooperated11outofthe13tractorsintheirnormalfarmingoperations.TwotractorswereoperatedbyITPonthe institutesownexperimental farm inPoznan/Poland.The local JD tractordealers inPoland,AustriaandFrancewereinvolvedinthedemonstrationandmonitoring,andprovidedlocalsupport.In general, the tractor operator bought a tractor from the local dealerwho ordered it at JD inMannheim.Thetractorwasthenconvertedto2GPPOoperationinMannheimanddeliveredtotheoperatorviathelocaldealer.Theaimwastooperateeachtractoratleast500hoursperyearandalltractors700hoursperyearontheaverage.TractoroperatorsanddealersunderwentcomprehensivetrainingbytheprojectpartnerVWP,andweresupportedbyspecificallyprepared technicaldocumentationandoperating instructions thatwereestablished inEnglish(masterversion),German,PolishandFrench.Operatorcontractswereconcludedbetweenthetractoroperatorsandtherespectivenationalprojectpartner(ITPinPoland,Waldland in Austria and FRCuma in France). The contract regulated the duties of the tractoroperator with regard to the proper operation and monitoring and supported him withcomprehensive technical guarantees and support. The first point of contact for the tractoroperators incaseoftechnicalproblemsorquestionswastherespective localdealer. Iftherewasanysuspicionthattheproblemwasdueto2GPPO,VWPwascontacted.ThefuelwasdeliveredbythefirstreferencepressatlundBioenergieGmbH inAustriaandthesecond referencepressat theCumaVertePrairie inFrance.Thequalityof theoil from the thirdreference press at the experimental farm of ITP in Poznan, Poland, could not be stabilised at asufficientlyhighlevelduringthedemonstrationfleetoperationandwasthereforenotusedasfuelin2ndVegOil. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil49status 29.08.2011 SCRi JD insurance new operator other oilstractor demo tractor tractor O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N DID partner type PIN Dealer Operator Test spec. Conv. date Lubricant Fuel Fuel additive 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 419 ITP 6830 L06830K512170 KUHN (Poznan) ITP Poznan VWP 14.01.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 10010 ITP 6830 L06830K596568 Contractus (Bialystok) Zajkowski VWP 13.01.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 10011 ITP 6830 L06830K614003 Contractus (Bialystok) Kkolewski VWP 25.03.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 10012 ITP 6830 L06830G612350 Contractus (Bialystok) Brulinski VWP 31.03.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 1001 FRCUMA 6830 L06830P606579 Bonfils, M. Piaser Cuma de faverge VWP 04.02.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 1002 FRCUMA 7530 L07530K616305 Bonfils, M. Piaser Cuma de faverge VWP 07.05.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 1004 Waldland 7530 L07530N604252 LHG Geinberg Mertelseder VWP 21.01.2009 E9 RS Lubrizol5 Waldland 7430 L07430R604221 LTC Korneuburgkoverein / from 13.Feb.2010 MR Zwettl-Weitra KEGVWP 21.01.2009 E9 CS or RS JD Protect 1006 Waldland 6830 L06830R604694 RLH Wieselburg Oberleitner VWP 21.01.2009 E7 RSLubrizol / since 1.07.2011 JD Protect 1007 Waldland 7430 L07430R604472 LTC Wr.Neustadt Rasner VWP 21.01.2009 E7 RS JD Protect 10015 JDWM 6930 L06930N586574 Kringell VWP 20.08.2009 E7 / since SCRi E9JA, MG, RSJD Protect 100 + Cetan improver14 JDWM 6930 L06930N613519 Grub VWP 15.04.2009 E9 RS Lubrizol + Cetan improver3 JDWM 7530 L07530N613561 Waldland @ koverein VWP 31.03.2009E7 / since SCRi E9 SF, RS Lubrizol / since koverein JD Protect 1008 JDWM 7530 L07530N613532 FRCUMA @ Cuma Verte PrairieJD serial washers 31.03.2009 E9 RS JD Protect 100 16 JDWM 7430 L07430K494001 ITP@ITP Poznan VWP 03.2010 E7 RS JD Protect 100 3a conv.6210R JDWM legend : RS 2G-PVO-RS 2nd generation pure vegetable oil rape seedSF 2G-PVO-SF 2nd generation pure vegetable oil sunflowerCS 2G-PVO-CS 2nd generation ure vegetable oil camelina sativaMG 2G-PVO-MG 2nd generation pure vegetable oil maize germJA 2G-PVO-JA 2nd generation pure vegetable oil jatrophablend - mixture of 2G-PVO-RS and 2G-PVO-CSJD Protect 100 JD Additiv YU00100 @ 1000ppmLubrizol OS229434E = LZ9048 @200ppmCetan improver OS62648 = LZ8090 @1000ppmStage 3a fieldt. JDWM @ITP T5.7 @VWP T5.917 JDWM L06210RT9P620601 VWP 20.04.2011 E9 RS JD Protect 100 Stage 3a conv. T5.1 Stage 3a fieldt. JDWM @JDWM T5.2 (probably May 2010 email Dieringer 19.3.2010) Stage 3a fieldt.with SCRi JDWM @Waldland with SF T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.1 Stage 3a fieldt. JDWM @JDWM T5.2 (probably June 2010 email Charles 19.3.2010) Stage 3a fieldt.with SCRi JDWM @FRCUMA T5.7 @VWP T5.9 Stage 3a conv. T5.1 Stage 3a fieldt. JDWM @TFZ T5.2 Stage 3a fieldt. prob. from Feb.2011 with SCRi @TFZ T5.2 with JA and MGor RSStage 3a conv. T5.1 Stage 3a fieldt. JDWM @JDWM T5.2 Stage 3a fieldt.prob. from Feb.2011 with SCRi @JDWM @TFZ T5.2Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @Waldland with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @Waldland with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @Waldland with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @Waldland with CS and RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @FRCUMA with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @FRCUMA with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @ITP with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @ITP with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @ITP with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.9Stage 3a conv. T5.8 Stage 3a fieldt. @ITP with RS T5.7 @VWP T5.92008 2009 2010 2011Stage 3b conv. T5.3Stage 3b fieldt. JDWM@JDWM with RS T5.4Stage 4 conv. T5.5Stage 4 fieldt. JDWM@ JDWM with RS T5.6Figure14:Tractormasterplan The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil50Thedemonstrationandmonitoringaimedatestablishingacomprehensivedatabaseonthetractorengine power, durability and the condition of the engine lubricant. For that purpose,measurementsweremadeandmonitoring logbookswerekept.Measurementsweremadeoftheenginepower,thequalityofthefueloilandthelubricants.Thequalityofthefueloilwasassessedbylaboratoryanalysisofsamplesoftheproducedoils.Samplesofthelubricantweresubjectedtolaboratoryanalysis(seeabove).Fortestingthetractorsafterconversionto2GPPOoperation,astationarydynamometerinafullyinstrumented test cell at JD inMannheimwas used, aswell as amobile PowerTakeOff (PTO)dynamometer.FRCumaand ITPused localPTOdynos.Each350OP the tractorsweremeasuredwiththePTOdyno.Themonitoring logbookswere setup in four languages.Theywere tobe filled inby the tractoroperatorsonadailybasis.Figure15:showsasheetofthelogbook.Figure15:SheetoftheoperationlogbookForevaluatingthetractors fuelconsumptionsandtomakethemcomparableamongeachother,16 operationmodeswere defined, ofwhich 15 corresponded to defined fieldworks, andwerearranged infourdifferent load levelgroups.The16thmodeservedasacategoryforactivitiesthatthetractoroperatorcouldnotallocateotherwise.Theoperationmodewasnoted inthe logbook, The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil51togetherwith the operation hour status, fuel consumption, lubricant level and events such aslubricantdrainandECUfailurecodes.All but one tractor reached the scheduledminimum of 500 annual operation hours per year.Alltogether, the tractorswere operated 20,117 hours under the demonstration andmonitoringprogramme.Therateofdocumentation(operationmoderecorded)was90%,theaverageload70%and the average fuel consumption was 13.5 liters per operating hour. At the end of thedemonstrationandmonitoringprogramme,sometractorswerepartiallydissembledandsubmittedto thorough inspection inorder to check theengine condition after2GPPOuse. Thiswasdonenotablywiththosetractorsthathadbeenoperatedwithotheroilsthan2GPPORS.Thescientific field testprogramme involvedonly five tractorsandshorteroperationperiods,butwasslightlymorecomprehensivethanthetractorfleetdemonstrationandmonitoringprogrammewithregardstotheassessedparameters,degreeofdetailofmeasurements,andadditionaltractorinvestigations.Inparticular,emissionsweremeasuredforthetractorsn14and15.TheEUStage3B compliant tractors were submitted to an endoscope inspection of the DPF after eachregenerationcycle.Thescientificfieldtestprogrammecoveredtheoperationwith2GPPOMGand2GPPOJA.Itwaslinkedtoanotherresearchprojectwithinwhichsmallamountsof2ndgenerationcoconut,palmandsoyoilweretested.ThefivetractorswereoperatedbyJDontheirtestfieldnearthefactoryinMannheim.Twotractorsjoined the demonstration andmonitoring programme halfway through the project. Two furthertractorswereoperatedby farmers inBavariaunder the close supervisionofTFZ,one starting inMay 2009, andone inMarch 2010on.Altogether, the tractorswere tested for 5,701operationhourswithinthescientifictestprogramme,including10successfullycompletedoperatinghoursofanEUStage4complianttractor.Contrarytothedemonstrationandmonitoringprogramme,specialoperations(mode16)accountedforasignificantpartofthetotaloperationtime.The scientific field tests and the tractor fleet demonstration andmonitoring have shown thattractorswithadvancedenginesthatareconvertedto2GPPOoperationcanrunondifferentkindsof2GPPO,withastableandgoodengineperformanceandwithverylowemissionlevels.ThePTOmeasurementswerefoundtobeagoodmethodtoobservethetractorsconditionoverthetestingperiod.Nocatastrophictechnical failure,suchasenginedestruction,occurredduringtheproject,andonlyminortechnicalproblemswith fuel filtersand injectorswere foundtoberelatedto2GPPO.Forinstance,afewcasesofpowerlosscouldbetracedbacktofuelimpuritiesandsolvedbycleaning the injectors or the fuel supply system. Fuel impurities can be traced back tocontaminations due to irregular handling of 2GPPO or use of other fuels. This underlines theparamountimportanceofadheringtostoragerequirementswhenusing2GPPOs.Concerning lubricants, both tested lubricants achieved a good performance. Regarding fueladditives,itcouldbeseenthattheLubrizoladditivemoreoftenledtotechnicalproblems,suchaspowerloss,thantheJDProtect100.ItisassumedthatthisisduetotoolowdosingoftheLubrizoladditive compared to JD Protect 100. Last but not least, the tractor operators feedback waspositiveintermsofthetractorperformance,andseveraltractorswillcontinuetobeoperatedwith2GPPObythesameoperators. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil52FuelstandarddevelopmentAmajor dissemination effort as part of the 2ndVegOil projectwas to draft an acceptable textproposal for a standard that can be accepted by all the Member States of the EuropeanStandardizationCommittee (CEN).The resultingEuropeanNorm (EN)needs fullproductand testmethodassessmentandcorrelationoffieldexperienceregardingdistributionsystemsandengines.Theprojectduration,theapplicationof,andexperiencewiththeproductaroundEuropewasnotadequatetoachievethatgoal.Asan intermediatestep,aproposalforasocalledCENWorkshopwasmade.TheWorkshopwasacceptedandinitiatedbyCENin2009.Additionalexpertsotherthantheprojectpartnersweresoughtandfound.AfterakickofmeetinginApril2010,thegroupcontinuedtoworkwith12organizationsonafuelspecification.Afterthesixthmeeting,thetextwasconcludedandpresentedtoCENforpublicationasasocalledCENWorkshopAgreement.Ithasbeenpublishedon7December2011asCWA16379:2011,FuelsandbiofuelsPureplantoil fuel fordieselengineconceptsRequirementsandtestmethods. It ispubliclyavailableasareferencedocumentfromtheCENMembersNationalStandardBodies(see:http://www.cen.eu/cen/News/PressReleases/Pages/biodiesel.aspx).The final document specifiesthe minimum properties ofpure plant oil that arenecessary to achieve smoothdeployment of this fuel indieselengines,withorwithoutexhaust gas aftertreatment,compatible for pure plant oilcombustion. In the CWA, twopure plant oil fuel classes aredefined. These are effectivelytailored towards use in dieselengines without, and dieselengineswithexhaustgasaftertreatment(catalyst,filter).Bothclasses are intended for, butnot limited to, use in heavydutyvehicles.Thisisalsoduetothefactthatallfielddatawastakenfromtractorsunderthe2ndVegOilproject.The CWAwill be usable on a voluntary basis for engine clearance, fuel acceptance andwherenecessary fuellingstationallowance,supportingboth local regulationsand international trade. Inthe longer term, furtherwork in thisarea, including steps towardsamore formal standard,willdepend on whether pure plant oil and the adapted engines become available as a generalautomotiveconcept.Table4:Thresholdvaluesofnewdraftstandard(CWA16379:2011) The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil53ProjectassessmentThe development and demonstration activities in 2ndVegOil were accompanied by a projectassessment in linewith thePREMIAassessment framework.The latter isa commonassessmentframework for demonstration actions of alternativemotor fuels in transport. Itwas developedwithintheECFP6projectPREMIAR&D,DemonstrationandIncentiveProgrammesEffectivenesstoFacilitateandSecureMarketIntroductionofAlternativeMotorFuels(AMF).Thoughitwasfirstappliedinaprojectdealingwithhydrogenfuelforpassengercars,itisgeneralandflexibleenoughtoallowassessingtheotheralternativetransportoptions,too.3The PREMIA assessment framework allows comparison of the use of alternative motor fuelsaccording to different aspects, but does not include a complete life cycle analysis (LCA). As2ndVegOildealtwithtractors,insteadofpassengercars,anadaptationofthePREMIAassessmentframeworkwasmade.Forthispurpose,areferencesystemanda2ndVegOilsystemweredefined.ThePREMIAclassificationsystemofassessmentparameterswasadopted,butanadjustmentwasmadeoftheassessmentparametersandthewaytheyaredetermined.Among the various parameters that are proposed to be assessed by the PREMIA assessmentframework,thefocusoftheworkwasaimedatthepotentialforgreenhousegasemission(GHGE)savings.Thelatterwascalculatedbyusing(1)theBioGraceGHGtool4,whichisfreesoftwarethathasbeendeveloped intheframeofthe IntelligentEnergyforEurope(IEE)projectBIOGRACEand(2) an inhouse mathematical model, which has been developed in parallel to the 2ndVegOilproject.Bothmethodsareequivalent,andallowcalculatingGHGE in linewith theEURenewableEnergyDirective (RED) (2009/28/EC)5andtheEUFuelQualityDirective (FQD) (2009/30/EC)6.Thisensures that the resultsobtainedarecomparablewithotherassessments in the fieldofbiofuelsthatcomplyequallywiththetwomentioneddirectives.Afirstmajorfindingwasthatusing2ndGenerationPurePlantOilfromRapeSeeds(2GPPORS)asfuelinthecultivationofrapeseedthatisusedfor2GPPORSproduction,raisestheGHGEsavingsfromthestandardvalueof57%toabove60%,i.e.abovetheminimumvaluethatisimposedbytheREDandFQDfrom2018on.EvenhigherGHGEsavingscanbeobtainedwith2ndGenerationPurePlantOilfromCamelinaSativaseeds (2GPPOCS) that are produced in mixed cultivation with wheat for instance. The keyparameter is the lowerheatingvalue toGHGE ratioof thecultivation (HER), i.e. the ratioof thelowerheatingvalueofthecoproducedcropstotheGHGErelatedtothecultivation.WheathasabetterHERthan36.79MJ/gCO2eq,whichwasfoundtobetheminimumvalueforacropmixture,achievingaGHGEsavingof60%,iftheoilcropisprocessedinanmannerequivalenttothestandardrape seedoilproductionprocess (seeblackhorizontal curve for a fictitiousmixturewherebothcomponents have a HER of 36.79MJ/g CO2eq in Figure 16:). Theminimum HER is different if 3(Pelkmans,VanPoppel,&Govaerts,December2006) 4www.biograce.net(BiograceHarmonisedCalculationofBiofuelGreenhouseGasEmissionsinEurope,2011) 5(RenewableEnergyDirective(RED),2009) 6(FuelQualityDirective(FQD),2009) The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil54deviationsoccur from the standardproductionprocess that isunderlying theREDandFQD (e.g.differentoilyieldduringpressing),butthedifferenceissmallinmostcases.Hence,forawiderangeofmixtures,thehighHERofwheatcompensatesthe lowHERofcamelinasativa.Ifthe latterwascombinedwithacropXthathasthesameHERascamelinasativa,theGHGEsavingwouldremainbelow60%forallmixtures(seeCSXcurvesinFigure16:).Mixedcroppinghasallowed theproductionofhigheryields for thecrop fractions thanwouldbeexpected from linear interpolationof themonoculture yields7,8. For this reason, the yieldshavebeeninterpolatednotonlylinearly,butalsobyasquarefunctionthatfitswithliteraturevalues.Thenonlinear curves in Figure 16:, comparedwith the linear ones, show the effect of this squarefunctioninterpolation,i.e.theeffectofthehigheryieldsobtainedbymixedcroppingcomparedtomonocultures. There is a gain of a few percent of GHGE saving. Hence,mixed cropping is aneffective option for optimizing theGHGE saving. The decisive parameters are theHER and theparametersthatdescribethemixingeffect.Withtheseparameters,suitablemixturesofoilcropswithaccompanyingcropscanbeselected.Figure16:GHGEsavingasafunctionofthecamelinasativa(CS)contentinmixtureswithwheat(W)orafictitiousgraincrop(X)withthesameHERascamelinasativa 7(Paulsen) 8(Gollner,2010) The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil55ItwasfurtherfoundthatthecontributionofN2OfromthecombustionprocesstotheoverallGHGemissions is probably very small. However, this contribution could become very large if NOxreductionstrategiesfail incompletelyreducingNOxtoN2,andmajorpartsofNOxarereducedtoN2O only. Future work is needed to determine exactly howmuch N2O is released during thecombustionprocessandhowtheamountofN2OisinfluencedbydifferentNOxreductionstrategies.Table5:Calculationoflandusefor2GPPOproductionTerm Symbol Source/Formula Number UnitEnergyyieldinrapeseedspercultivationarea erapeseed BioGraceGHGtool 73.975 MJ/haFractionofenergyinrapeseedsthatarrivesasoilfuelinthetank fenergy,PPO BioGraceGHGtool 58,22% MJ/MJFractionoftotalcultivationareaallocatedtooilfuelinthetank farea,PPO ownconsiderations 61,25% ha/haEnergyyieldinrapeseedoilinthetankperallocatedcultivationarea ePPO =fenergy,PPO/farea,PPOerapeseed 70.313 MJ/haCultivationareaperMJofrapeseedoilinthetank aPPO =1/ePPO 1,42E05 ha/MJCultivationareaperkWhofrapeseedoilinthetank aPPO =aPPO,MJ/(3,6kWh/MJ) 3,95E06 ha/kWhEfficiencyofengine engine 2ndVegOilDel2.3vs2*) 36,70% kWh/kWhCultivationareaneededperkWhenergydeliveredtoshaft ashaft =ashaft/engine 1,08E05 ha/kWhCultivationareaneededperkWhenergydeliveredtoshaft ashaft =ashaft105m2/ha 0,11 m2/kWh*)TheefficiencyoftheJDPowerTechPVXengineisconfidential.Here,theefficiencyoftheJD6068PowerTechPlusengineisusedinsteadasagoodapproximation.Concerning the land use, the figure has been calculated for 2GPPORS and amounts to0.11m2/kWh,wheretheareaallocatedtotheoil(asopposedtotheareaallocatedtotheoilcake)isexpressed intermsofmechanicalenergydeliveredbytheenginecrankshaft.Thevaluesforother2GPPOstillneedtobedetermined,andthenacomparisonneedstobemadewithotherbiofuels.Itisassumedbytheprojectconsortiumthat2GPPOhavegenerallyabetterlanduseperformancethan severalotherbiofuels,because2GPPO isproduced jointlywith a valuablebyproduct,oilcake,whichisrichinproteinsandavaluablefodder.Concerningmost parameters that are related to vehicle performance, operation and use, thedifferencesbetweenthereferenceandthe2GPPOcasearealmostnegligible. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil566. OutlookExploitationofresultsTheprojecthaspavedthewaytowardstheseriesproductionofapureplantoilfuelledtractorandotherheavydutymachinery.Theprojectpartners,particularlyJohnDeere,willcontinuefinetuningtheachieveddevelopmentstomakethemreadyforseriesproduction.Themarketisnotyetreadytoallowabusinesscaseforapureplantoilfuelledtractor,butthesituationcanchangequickly ifthe fuelprice continues to rise. In themeantime, themarket is limited to a smallernumberofcustomerdesignedagriculturalandotherheavydutyequipmentthat isadaptedtopureplantoiloperationwiththetechnologydevelopedinthisproject.The CWA 16379:2011, Fuels and biofuels Pure plant oil fuel for diesel engine concepts Requirements and testmethods,will be usable on a voluntary basis for engine clearance, fuelacceptanceand,wherenecessaryfuellingstationallowance,supportingbothlocalregulationsandinternational trade. In the longer term, furtherwork in thisarea, includingsteps towardsamoreformalstandard,willdependonwhetherpureplantoilandtheadaptedenginesbecomeavailableasageneralautomotiveconcept.PotentialimpactContributiontobiofuelsupplyintheEUThisprojecthaswidenedtherangeofplantoilsthatcanbemadesuitableforuseastransportfuelby proper pressing, blending and additives. E.G. camelina sativa alone can contribute to a fewpercentofthetotal fueldemandoftheEU,withoutneedingmuchextra land forbeinggrown, ifmixedcultivationisappliedtocerealsandfodderpeaculturesintheEU.Asasideeffect,thiswouldenableanearlycompleteswitchoftheagriculturalareasconcernedtoorganicagriculture,therebystronglyenhancingthesustainabilityofagricultureintheEU.Duetothehighflamepointandthetotalharmlessnessforsoilandwater,plantoilsareverysafeandenvironmentally friendly fuels and areperfectly suitable forenvironmentally sensitive areasand for vehicles operating in agriculture. They are therefore a very valuable element of acomprehensivebiofuelsupplystrategy.Withinthemixofdifferentbiofuels,whichhavethepotentialtoreducetheEUsdependencyonimportedfossilfuels,plantoilfuelsarepotentiallythemostcompatiblewithfoodandrawmaterialproduction.Oilseedshavetwoproducts:oilandoilcakewhichcanbeusedasproteinrichanimalfoodorevenhumanfood.Inaddition,thestrawofoilplantscanbeusedforbiogasgeneration. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil57ContributiontoenginedevelopmentThisprojecthasallowedplantoilfuelandenginetechnologytomakeabigleapforwardsbymakingfuelengineconceptsavailablethatfulfilltheforthcomingEuro6normwhichisvalidsince1January2012.Thisisaquantumleap,bearinginmindthatevenmanyenginespecialistshaveneverheardaboutengineconcepts,whichenablethecurrentlypermittedemissionlevelstobeachievedwhenfuellingtheenginewithplantoilfuel.The strategy pursued in this project, to go ahead with tractor engine development anddemonstration,as long asnohybrid vehiclesareavailable in sufficientnumber for conductingamediumscaledemonstration,anticipatedtheforthcomingdevelopmentofhighefficientand lowemission hybrid vehicles. Thanks to an additional comprehensive activity on hybrid enginedevelopment,thisprojecthaspreparedthegroundforaquick implementationofplantoiluse inhybridengines,assoonasthesecomeontothemarket.ContributiontostandardsWith thepublicationof theCWA16379:2011,FuelsandbiofuelsPureplantoil fuel fordieselengineconceptsRequirementsandtestmethods,on7December2011,2ndVegOilhasprovidedasignificantcontributiontowardsamoreformalstandard,whosefinalformulationwilldependonwhether pure plant oil and the adapted engines become available as a general automotive oragriculturalconcept.TheCWAwillthenbeasteppingstoneforarevisedspecificationorforotherstandards.ContributiontooverallsustainabledevelopmentPlantoilshave,untilnow,notalwaysbeen consideredasa fully sustainablealternative to fossilfuels.The reason is thatmainly rapeseedoilhasbeenusedso far,and rapeseedcanhardlybecultivatedorganically.Inaddition,thelowyieldofoilperhectare,comparedtotheyieldofbiogasperhectareofenergyplantsthataredigestedortosyntheticbiofuelsstillunderdevelopment isfrequentlycited.Thisprojecthasshownthatthereportedareaneedhastobecorrectedatleastbytakingtheenergycontentofthecoproducedoilcakeintoaccount.Ifplantoilsareproducedasacoproductofamaincropinmixedcultivation,theadditionalareaneedismuchsmalleragain.Thiswidenstherangeofoptionsforsustainablefuelsupply.Promoting plant oil as a fuel, this being the purpose of this project, in fact makes a strongcontributiontosustainability.Thisappliesfirstlyeconomicallyandsocially,becauseitprovidesneweconomic opportunities for SMEs and farmers in rural areas, and secondlywith regard to theenvironment,becauseithasaverygoodenergybalanceinproductionandfeaturesthelowestrisksfortheenvironment.This project has thus contributed to increasing environmental sustainability; first, by developingvery lowemission fuelengine concepts, and secondly,by consideringoilplantsother than rapeseed,whichhaveanevenbetterenvironmentalperformance. The2ndVegOilConsortium 2ndGenerationPurePlantOil58ContributiontopromotionofSMEsandfarmersPlantoilcanbeproducedby farmersandSMEs,whoprofit fromthewholevaluecreationchain.Thisdistinguishesplantoilnotablyfrombioethanoland, inparticular,fromsyntheticfuels,whichareproducedbythethermochemicalpathway.Thelatterrequireslargeproductionunitsinordertoachieveanacceptableoverallefficiency,atleastiftheproducedfuelisthemainproductandnotjustacoproductofelectricityandheatgeneration.Thus,plantoiloffersthemostcomprehensivechancesforthepromotionofSMEandfarmers.In thisproject,a focuswasputonmethods forproducing2ndgenerationplantoil fuels in smalldecentralisedoilpresses.Thereferenceoilpresses,whichwerebuilttosupplythedemonstrationfleet, are owned by SMEs. The concept and technologies to produce very high quality oil,decentralised insmalloilpresses,willbe furtherdisseminatedby theprojectconsortiumbeyondtheendoftheproject.Ownersofsmalloilpressesarethemaintargetgroupofthedisseminationactivities.Vehiclesrunningonplantoiloffernewopportunities forsmallmechanicalworkshops toenter inthe business of engine conversion andmaintenance of plant oil fuelled vehicles. In this projectalready, localworkshops in the target areas in France,Austria and Polandwere trained on thebasicsofengineconversionandmaintenance.ProposalsconcerningthepoliticalframeworkInthecourseofthiswork,theconsortiumnoticedaninconsistencyintheuseoftheGreenHouseGasEmission(GHGE)referencevaluefordieselfuelwithintheFuelQualityDirective(FQD)anditsimplementation.The consortium requests that thisbe corrected in the forthcoming revisedFQDandsuggesttouse,inthecasethatabiofuelisreplacingdieselfuel,87.64gCO2eq/MJinsteadof83.8gCO2eq/MJasfossilfuelcomparator,i.e.thevalue,whichisalsousedinthepublicversion4oftheBioGraceGHGTool for theGHGEofdieselwhendiesel isusedasauxiliary fuel inabiofuelproductionprocess.ThiswillslightlyincreasethecalculatedGHGEsavingsofbiofuelsthatreplacedieselfuel.Theconsortiumalsoadvocatesathresholdfortheconsiderationofcarbonstockchangescausedbyindirect land use changes (ILUC factor) for biofuels, which are produced by an agriculturalenterpriseandused forownuse,orconsumedwithinthe localregion.For furtherspecifyingthiscriterion, a limit could be set at 10% of the agricultural portion of an area that is used for theproductionofbiofuelsforownuseorforconsumptioninthelocalregion.Ifpureplantoil fromagriculturalproduction isusedby theagriculturalenterprise itself, thethusproduced fuelshouldbeexempted fromany tax.Theexemptionshouldalsoapply, ifpartof theproduction,e.g.theoilpressing,isconductedbyanotherenterprise. The 2nd VegOil Consortium 2nd Generation Pure Plant Oil For greater reliability in assessing differences in GHGE that are due to regional characteristics, and to ensure that conditions are met for the non-consideration of indirect land use changes, cooperation is recommended with regional marketing initiatives such as UNSER LAND, which certify the regional origin of products and similar criteria, very often in relation to sustainability aspects. The use of typical regional values for the GHGE calculations for bio-fuels could be legitimised by a certification of such bio-fuels by accredited certification systems of regional marketing initiatives. Further RTD to be done The following development work needs still to be done before series production of pure plant oil tractors of EU Stage 4 emission class can start: In terms of 2G-PPO injection, further scientific research is required to better understand the complex behaviour of fuel injectors. The complex mechanism of deposit formation in internal combustion engines fuelled with PPO needs to be investigated. The use of 2G-PPO also for the regeneration of the DPF needs to be developed. The long-term exhaust gas cleaning performance needs to be investigated, in particular for EU stage IV. A fuel detection and automatic switching of the ECU between 2G-PPO and diesel operation is needed. Concerning the fuel development, further research is needed to develop farming practices for mixed cultivation of camelina sativa with cereals and other field crops. The research might also be extended to other new oil crops that are found to be suitable companions for mixed cultivation. Further need for research exists, also with regard to the functional relationships of N2O field emissions, nitrogen fertilisation, soil conditions and climate/ weather. This work has also shown that GHGE calculations with European average values can lead to big differences to actual GHGE under real cultivation and production conditions. Here, further research is needed about the possibilities to conduct more precise regionally differentiated calculations with a reasonable effort. Enfocus Software - Customer Support The 2nd VegOil Consortium 2nd Generation Pure Plant Oil This publication has been produced with financial support of the European Commission in the frame of the FP7 Seventh Framework Programme under the grant agreement N TREN/FP7EN/219004/2ndVegOil. The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. The term pure vegetable oil (PVO) which figures in the title of the project was decided to be abandoned in the course of the project and was replaced by pure plant oil (PPO). The latter is the expression which is used among others in the European Standardization Committee (CEN) Workshop Agreement CWA 16379, Fuels and biofuels Pure plant oil fuel for diesel engine concepts Requirements and test methods, which is one of the major outcomes of this project. For this reason, the term pure plant oil is used thoroughly within this document. LEWERENZ Medien+Druck GmbH Gewerbestrae 2 - OT Buro 06869 Coswig (Anhalt) ISBN 978-3-86829-464-4 Enfocus Software - Customer Support /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /CropGrayImages true /GrayImageMinResolution 300 /GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /CropMonoImages true /MonoImageMinResolution 1200 /MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /CheckCompliance [ /None ] /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName () /PDFXTrapped /False /Description > /Namespace [ (Adobe) (Common) (1.0) ] /OtherNamespaces [ > /FormElements false /GenerateStructure true /IncludeBookmarks false /IncludeHyperlinks false /IncludeInteractive false /IncludeLayers false /IncludeProfiles true /MultimediaHandling /UseObjectSettings /Namespace [ (Adobe) (CreativeSuite) (2.0) ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfileSelector /NA /PreserveEditing true /UntaggedCMYKHandling /LeaveUntagged /UntaggedRGBHandling /LeaveUntagged /UseDocumentBleed false >> ]>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

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