PSY 368 Human Memory Memory Implicit memory. Outline Implicit versus explicit memory Definitions Dissociations Process-dissociation procedure Theories.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> PSY 368 Human Memory Memory Implicit memory </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Outline Implicit versus explicit memory Definitions Dissociations Process-dissociation procedure Theories accounting for Implicit vs. Explicit memory </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Demo PDP exercise Pass out sheets and read instructions Collecting the data: count up number of study words that were written down for each task, write this on your sheet PleasantnessVowels Inclusion Exclusion </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Questions to Think About Does the type of memory test matter? Weve seen that the answer is yes. So far have covered intentional vs. incidental, and recall vs. recognition. These have largely been what are considered direct tests of memory (know that it is a memory test related to something earlier). There are also indirect tests of memory (dont know that the test is related to memory/to something done earlier) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Memory Tasks indirectdirect incidental implicit memory expts. Levels of Processing expts. intentional ?explicit memory expts. Test Instructions Study Instructions Implicit Memory : Often defined as "memory without awareness Also Non-declarative &amp; procedural (Squire, Knowlton, &amp; Mesen, 1993) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Perceptual Tasks Word identification Word stem completion Word fragment completion Degraded word naming Anagram solution Lexical decision Implicit Memory Tasks Non-Verbal Tasks Picture fragment naming Object decision task Possible/impossible object decision Conceptual Tasks Word association Category instance generation Answering general knowledge questions Often defined as "memory without awareness </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Perceptual Tasks Word identification Word stem completion Word fragment completion Degraded word naming Anagram solution Lexical decision Implicit Memory Tasks Non-Verbal Tasks Picture fragment naming Object decision task Possible/impossible object decision Conceptual Tasks Word association Category instance generation Answering general knowledge questions Often defined as "memory without awareness </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Examples Study : bird, house, balloon, horse, rocket, dolphin (maybe levels of processing, or divided attention manipulation) Tests : Lexical decision bronk no - - horse yes -- Stem Completion - hor- horde vs horse Fragment Completion - h_r_s_ hares vs horse Category exemplar production - Animal-? pig vs horse Word Association - saddle - ? leather bags horse Implicit Memory Tasks </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Examples Study : bird, house, balloon, horse, rocket, dolphin (maybe levels of processing, or divided attention manipulation) Tests : Picture fragment naming Implicit Memory Tasks </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Warrington and Weiskrantz (1968, 1970, 1974) showed differences in memory performance for amnesic patients Warrington Do amnesics have memory? Amnesic patients Can t complete typical explicit memory tasks Typically dont even remember seeing a list Performance on implicit tasks is similar to control participants </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Search for Dissociations Suggests that these tasks rely on different forms of memory Dissociation = different effects of an IV on the two test types (similar to the recognition vs. recall dissociations) Explicit vs. Implicit Memory </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Study tasks Read aloud w/o context COLD Read w/ context hot COLD Generate from context hot - ??? Test tasks Recognition Perceptual Identification Explicit vs. Implicit Memory Jacoby (1983): Generation Effect Opposite pattern of results with implicit task </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Roediger &amp; Weldon, (1987) Study tasks Lists of pictures and words Test tasks Free recall of pictures and words Word fragment completion Priming effect: compared studied vs. unstudied completions Explicit vs. Implicit Memory </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Study Full attention read word as quickly as possible Divided attention Name the color the word is presented in Rajarm, Srinivas, &amp; Travers (2001) Attention Effect Explicit vs. Implicit Memory Test Word stem completion 2 instructions Use words from earlier list First word you think of </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Tulving, Schacter, &amp; Stark (1982): Forgetting Effects Explicit vs. Implicit Memory Study List of words Test Word fragment completion After 1 hr. &amp; 7 days later Memory score = priming effect Compare fragment completions of old vs. new items </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Tasks are not process pure (Jacoby, 1991) Indirect measures of memory may be contaminated by intentional uses of memory E.g., in stem completion task, subjects might remember items from previous list and use them to complete the stems Direct measures may be influenced by unconscious or automatic influences (Jacoby, Toth, &amp; Yonelinas, 1993) Process-Dissociation Procedure was developed to separate automatic (unconscious) and conscious processes Mixing Measures </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Jacoby (1991) Read a list of words List 1 Hear a list of words List 2 Two recognition tests: Both tests include List 1, List 2 and novel words. Inclusion = complete task with studied or any item Respond old if word was on either list. Exclusion = complete task with item NOT studied (exclude studied items) Respond old only if word was on List 2. Process Dissociation Procedure </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Can calculate C and A for each condition in the experiment C = (Proportion of studied items in inclusion) - (Proportion of studied items in exclusion) A = (Proportion of studied items in exclusion) / (1-C) The C and A values are estimated as proportions - values between 0 and 1.0 Data Proportion of studied items in inclusion = C + (1-C)(A) Proportion of studied items in exclusion = (1-C)(A) Jacoby (1991) Process Dissociation Procedure </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Exclusion : Respond old only if word was on List 2. Use equations to calculate conscious (C) and automatic (A) memory from target performance on the tasks P(old) = A(1-C) Subject will only respond old to List 1 words if two things happen: A: The automatic process responds old due to a feeling of familiarity (1-C): The intentional process fails to recognise the word (if it had, it would recall it was from List 1) Jacoby (1991) Process Dissociation Procedure </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Inclusion : Respond old if word was on either list. Use equations to calculate conscious (C) and automatic (A) memory from target performance on the tasks P(old) = C + A (1-C) If either process concludes old, the subject will respond old A: Automatic process will also have a certain probability of concluding old for List 1 words C: Conscious (intentional) process will have a certain probability of concluding old for List 1 words Jacoby (1991) Process Dissociation Procedure </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Jacoby (1991) Read a list of words List 1 Hear a list of words List 2 Inclusion = Respond old if word was on either list. Exclusion = Respond old only if word was on List 2. Process Dissociation Procedure Inclusion testP(old) = 0.48 Exclusion testP(old) = 0.37* C = Inclusion Exclusion = 0.11 A = Exclusion / (1-C) = 0.37 / 0.89 = 0.42 *in exclusion condition, OLD are errors </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Jacoby, Toth, &amp; Yolelinas (1993): Attentional effects Process Dissociation Procedure Study : read words full attention divided attention read aloud while listening for odd numbers Task : stem completion: inclusion : complete with list word or guess green stem inclusion (may use as a cue from list) exclusion : complete with new words only red stem exclusion (complete with word not from list) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Jacoby, Toth, &amp; Yolelinas (1993) (Exp 1b) Process Dissociation Procedure Divided attention: Inclusion task: P(old) Exclusion task: P(old) Results: Inclusion:div (46%) &lt; full (61%) Exclusion: div (46%) &gt; full (36%) Interpretation: div attention knocked out recollection recollection accuracy in both conditions </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Process Dissociation Procedure ConsciousAutomatic Full.25.47 Divided.00.46 Jacoby, Toth, &amp; Yolelinas (1993) (Exp 1b) Conclusions Conscious recollection greatly reduced under divided attention condition </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Toth, Reingold, and Jacoby (1994): Levels of Processing ConsciousAutomatic Deep.27.42 Shallow.03.45 Study Pleasantness rating Shared vowels Test Stem completion task Study Read word Say aloud missing word in sentence Test Stem completion task ConsciousAutomatic Read.21.48 Generate.34.28 Process Dissociation Procedure </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Four major approaches have been proposed The Activation view Multiple Memory systems view Transfer appropriate processing view Bias View Accounting for Implicit and Explicit Effects STOP HERE FOR TODAY </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Insert slide here Activation view </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Many believe there are different systems of memory What is a system? Could involve different brain areas (amnesia) Could involve different rates of forgetting Memory Systems </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Squire (1987) Memory Systems </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Squire (1987) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Memory Systems Brain areas Brain imaging studies found that different areas of the brain are used when completing implicit and explicit tasks But there isn t just one structure involved in each type of memory And different kinds of implicit tasks seem to involve different areas Conclusion: brain area involvement may be a function of type of processing and type of memory </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Memory Systems Forgetting Tulving et al. (1989) showed a difference in forgetting rate for recognition and fragment completion Confirmed with other tasks (stem completion) </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Memory Systems Forgetting But these studies looked at long-term forgetting (days, months) Didn t follow RIC or use PDP </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Memory Systems Forgetting More recent studies showed no difference in forgetting rates for implicit/explicit stem completion Used RIC and PDP </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Memory Systems </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Jacoby (1990) proposed that implicit vs. explicit memory is confounded with two different kinds of memory processes (associated with two kinds of information) Mixing Implicit and Explicit Effects Memory system Mode of Processing Declarative (Episodic) Procedural (Priming) Perceptual (Data-driven) Perceptual identification Word Fragment Completion Meaning based (conceptually-driven) Free Recall Recognition </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Processing View Based on TAP view Tasks used for implicit memory usually have perceptual cues app- a_p_l_ Explicit tasks often are more conceptual </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Processing View Differences found between implicit/explicit tasks could reflect perceptual/conceptual differences Tested by Blaxton (1989) </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Processing View ExplicitImplicit Perceptual Task ????Stem and fragment completion Conceptual Task Free recall???? </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Processing View ExplicitImplicit Perceptual Task Graphemic cued recall Stem and fragment completion Conceptual Task Free recallGen. Knowledge </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Processing View Read/Generate study Compared tasks across both dimensions </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Processing View Shows that match between study and test processing is more important Weldon &amp; Roediger (1987) found different picture superiority effect for two implicit tasks </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Summary of Implicit/Explicit TAP may be more important than memory process Implicit and explicit tasks are not process pure PDP offers a measurement method for processes Implicit/Explicit memory show dissociations on several variables </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Explicit vs. Implicit memory Generation effect (Java, 1993) - found for explicit but reversed for implicit Subjects studied words - read or generated Completed implicit and explicit stem completion </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Explicit vs. Implicit memory Level of Processing (Roediger et al., 1992) - found for explicit but not implicit Subjects studied words - pleasantness vs. letter tasks Completed implicit and explicit stem and fragment completion </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Explicit vs. Implicit memory Attention (Mulligan, 1998) - dividing attention at study reduces explicit not implicit Study - just study words vs. study words and do extra task Test - implicit/explicit fragment completion </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Explicit vs. Implicit memory Forgetting (Tulving, Schacter, &amp; Stark, 1982) - difference in forgetting rates for explicit/implicit task performance Looked at performance for recognition and implicit fragment completion at 1 hr and 2 days Recognition performance declined, but implicit task performance did not </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Processing View Studied pictures and words Tested with picture fragment naming and word fragment completion Picture fragment naming = name degraded picture with first thing it looks like </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Processing View </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Supports the perceptual/conceptual distinction But distinction not always shown Weldon and Coyote (1996) compared picture/word memory with category production tasks Found picture superiority for explicit category production, but no difference for implicit task </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Hayman and Tulving (1989) Measure correlation between explicit and implicit task performance If not correlated (independent), then tasks measure different processes Stochastic Independence </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Dual-process theories Process Dissociation Procedure (Jacoby, 1991) Task : Participants study two sets of items in different contexts Two different recognition tests follow: Inclusion Condition : Say yes if they recognize an item from either context Correct recognition = Recollection + Familiarity Exclusion Condition : Say yes only if they recognize an item from one of the two contexts Familiarity = False alarms in exclusion condition Recollection = Inclusions correct recognition minus Familiarity Dissociating Recollection and Familiarity </li> </ul>

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