PHOTOSYNTHESIS & RESPIRATION Slide 2 What is ATP? ATP = Adenosine TriPhosphate Adenine + Ribose + 3 Phosphates Adenine Ribose ADENOSINE Phosphate Triphosphate Slide 3 Why ATP? Phosphates have a large amount of chemical energy. Whenever a bond holding a phosphate is broken, a large amount of usable cellular energy is released. ADENOSINE PP P PPP ENERGY Slide 4 ATP CYCLE Occurs continuously in cells About 10 million new ATP molecules are made in every cell every second!!! ADP 1.Stored Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds. 2. Releasing Energy Energy released by breaking bonds used to power cells 3. Energy Depleted ADP has less chemical energy than ATP 4. Making ATP Energy released by other chemical reactions and processes can be used to bond a phosphate to ADP to make ATP + P Slide 5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Series of complex chemical processes that convert light energy into carbohydrates Overall Equation light + H 2 O + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Occurs in Chloroplasts Two types of reactions Light Dependent Light Independent (aka. Calvin Cycle, Dark rxn) Slide 6 Photosynthesis Overview Fill in the picture on the top left of notes as animation plays http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/ bio111/animations/0054.swf http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/ bio111/animations/0054.swf Slide 7 FOCUS On.. Light dependent reaction Occurs in thylakoid membrane Photolysis of H 2 O Light + 2H 2 O 4H + + O 2 Make NADPH & ATP http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter10/animations.html# http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter10/animations.html# Slide 8 FOCUS On.. Light Independent Reaction CALVIN CYCLE Occurs in Stroma of Chloroplast Use of CO 2 to create Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Use of ATP & NADPH from Light reactions ATP for energy to power chemical reactions NADPH hydrogen source to add to CO 2 to make sugars Must cycle through 6 times in order to create one glucose molecule http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio111/animat ions/0055.swf http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio111/animat ions/0055.swf Slide 9 Falcon Five 10/20 Test your photosynthetic knowledge: 1. The Calvin Cycle includes a. Light dependent rxns b. electron transport chain c. light independent rxns 2. The Calvin Cycle takes place in the a. mitochondriab. stromac. nucleusd. thylakoid membrane 3. What product of the light dependent rxn is used in the Calvin Cycle a. oxygenb. carbon dioxidec. NADPHd. chlorophyll 4. What is used in the first step of the Calvin Cycle a. oxygenb. carbon dioxidec. hydrogend. water 5. How many rounds of the Calvin Cycle are needed to form one glucose molecule? a. oneb. sixc. twod. three 6. Describe the two energy storing steps of photosynthesis. Slide 10 Cellular Respiration Where does the Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) & O 2 from photosynthesis go? Used by both plant & animal cells to create ATP!!! Releases energy Makes cell energy Close to the reverse of photosynthesis ! Cellular Respiration Equation O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Slide 11 Cellular Respiration 3 step process Glycolysis Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Slide 12 Step 1: GLYCOLYSIS 2 ATP2 ADP4 ADP4 ATP 2 NAD 2 NADH Glucose 2 - PGAL 2 - Pyruvate Occurs in Cytoplasm of cell Anaerobic process (no O 2 required) Net production of 2 ATP (make 4 but use 2) Releases only 2% of chemical energy that is stored in Glucose Slide 13 Step 2: Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle Occurs in Mitochondria Matrix Requires presence of O 2 2 Pyruvate from Glycolysis transformed into Acetyl CoA & enters cycle Net production of: 2 ATP 2 FADH 6 NADH Slide 14 Step 3 Electron Transport Chain Remaining energy of glucose in electrons carried by NADH & FADH NADH & FADH enter electron transport chain in mitochondria cristae Produce 32 more ATP From Krebs Cycle From Alteration of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA Slide 15 Summary of Cellular Respiration 22 32 H2OH2O CO 2 In Matrix In Cristae Slide 16 What if there is not enough or no O 2 present? Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeast) Pyruvate + NADH Ethanol + NAD + CO 2 Used in baking, beer & wine production Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH Lactic Acid + NAD Strenuous exercise = cant get all the O 2 your cells need so use lactic acid fermentation = Sore muscles!!!