Photosynthesis ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- basic energy source of all cells, chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy Adenine,

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Photosynthesis ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- basic energy source of all cells, chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy Adenine, 5- carbon sugar (ribose), and 3 phosphate groups ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-chemical compound similar to ATP, but has two phosphate groups Key for storing energy How is the energy that is stored in ATP released? Chemical bond between second and third phosphate group is broken Because of the characteristics of ATP, it is an exceptional source of energy Slide 2 Sec 2- Photosynthesis: An Overview Photosynthesis- series of reactions that uses light energy from sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen 6 CO + 6 HO CHO+ 6 O In addition to water and carbon dioxide, it requires light and chlorophyll, molecule in chloroplasts Plants gather the suns energy with light absorbing molecules called pigments Chlorophyll- principal light absorbing pigment Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b Absorbs light very well in certain regions of visible spectrum, green light is reflected Slide 3 Sec 3- Reactions in Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts Thylakoids- sac-like photosynthetic membranes inside chloroplasts Arrange in stacks known as grana Proteins in thylakoids organize chlorophyll into photosystems 2 types of photosystems- light collecting units of the chloroplast 2 types of reactions in photosystems- light dependent reactions and light independent reactions= Calvin cycle Light dependent reactions-thylakoid membranes Calvin cycle= stroma, a region outside thylakoid membranes Slide 4 Slide 5 Electron Carriers Sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll= great deal of energy Electron carriers transport high energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules NADP- electron carrier High energy electrons used to build molecules for cell Slide 6 Light Dependent Reactions Requires light Converts ADP and NADP into ATP and NADPH and produces oxygen Steps of light dependent reaction Light is absorbed by electrons in photosystem II Are electrons ever used up? Where do the electrons come from? High energy electrons move through electron transport chain to photosystem I Photosystem I reenergizes electrons released. Electrons are used to form NADPH Positively charged hydrogen ions fill up thylakoid membrane Hydrogen ions pass through ATP synthase, ADP is converted into ATP Slide 7 Slide 8 Calvin Cycle Plants use energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high energy compounds Does not require light, known as light- independent reactions Steps of Calvin cycle CO enters the cycle, 6 carbon dioxide molecules combined with six 5 carbon molecules to form twelve 3- carbon molecules ATP and NADPH are used to convert twelve carbon molecules into higher energy forms Two 3 carbon molecules removed from cycle to form sugars, lipids, amino acids 10 remaining 3- carbon molecules converted into six 5- carbon molecules- used in next cycle Plants use sugars to build cellulose Slide 9


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