Performance Analysis of CCGT Power Plant using ?· Performance Analysis of CCGT Power Plant using MATLAB/Simulink Based Simulation . ... Combined Cycle Gas Turbine ... Performance Analysis of CCGT Power Plant using ...
International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 285 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART Performance Analysis of CCGT Power Plant using MATLAB/Simulink Based Simulation J. N. RAI1, NAIMUL HASAN2, B. B. ARORA3, RAJESH GARAI4, RAHUL KAPOOR5, IBRAHEEM6 1,4,5Department of Electrical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India; 2,6Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi, India; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India. Email: jnrai.phd@@gmail.com ABSTRACT Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. In modern gas turbine the temperature of the exhaust gases is in the range of 500 oC to 550 oC. Modern steam power plants have steam temperature in the range of 500 oC to 630 oC. Hence gas tur-bine exhaust can be utilized by a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a steam turbine based on Rankine cycle. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of gas turbine and using this model for opti-mizing the power of CCGT by varying parameters. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Keywords : Combined Cycle, optimization, dynamic model, Gas turbine, efficiency 1 INTRODUCTION lectrical energy is a basic requirement for the sustenance and development of the modern society. Most of the gen-eration today is met by plants utilizing fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and uranium. With the increase in the de-mand of electric power more generation is required. This problem can be solved by increasing the generation by either increasing the number of generating stations or by increasing the efficiency of the existing plants. As increasing the number of generating stations would be uneconomical and would cause problems related to installation, the generation has to be increased by the later method. The plants using fossil fuels as their source of energy have low efficiency as they are not able to fully utilize the calorific value of the fuel. One to increase the efficiency is by combining the generation of two or more thermal cycles in a single power plant. The input temperature to a steam turbine is about 540oC and the exhaust can be maintained at the atmospheric pres-sure, due to design consideration the input temperature is limited and the efficiency of the about 40%. The input temper-ature of the gas turbine can be as high as 1100oC but the ex-haust temperature can be lowered to about 500-600oC, the effi-ciency of a gas turbine is about 33%. It can be seen that to ob-tain higher efficiencies the exhaust of the gas turbine can used to drive the steam turbine giving efficiency up to 60%. The plant consists of a compressor, combustor, gas turbine, waste heat recovery boiler, steam turbine, and generator(s). The air is provided in the compressor which compresses the air and passes it to the combustion chamber, where the compressed air is mixed with the fuel and burnt. The mixture is then sent to the gas turbine where it expands and rotates the turbine. The heat of the flue gas is recovered in HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) which is used to supply steam to the steam turbine at proper temperature and pressure. Plant power output is the sum of the gas turbine and the steam tur-bine outputs. [6-9] 2. CCGT THERMODYNAMICS The airflow (W) in the gas turbine is given as a ioaao iP TW WP T= (1) E Figure 1. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine IJOARTInternational Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 286 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART Where Ti is ambient temperature and denotes the atmos-pheric pressure. The compressor discharge temperature is given as 11d icxT T = + (2) 1( )rox P W= (3) roP is the design compressor pressure ratio and y is the ratio of specific heats. The gas turbine inlet temperature Tf (K) is given by  ( ) ff d fo doWT T T TW= + (4) Where Wf is fuel flow per unit its rated value, o denotes rat-ed value, W denotes the airflow and Td denotes the compres-sor discharge temperature. Gas Turbine exhaust temperature Te (K) is given by  1[1 (1 ) ]e f tT T x= (5) Where t is turbine efficiency. The exhaust gas flow is practi-cally equal to the airflow. The efficiency of a combined cycle (unfired) is given as, Hor-lock  (1 )cc gt st gt = + (6) Where cc is the efficiency of the combined cycle, gt is the efficiency of Gas Turbine and st is the efficiency of Steam Turbine. The thermal efficiency of the simple gas turbine cycle is given as  Figure 2. Simulink Model of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine IJOARTInternational Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 287 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART 11(1 )( )( 1) 1ppc pa ppk p = + (7) Where, 1c ta k = Where pp is the isentropic temperature ratio (T2/T1), k1 is the cycle maximum temperature ratio (T3/T1). Differentiating (6) gives  ( )1 1cc st gt stgt gt= + (8) The overall efficiency improves with the increase in gas tur-bine efficiency if 0ccgt> (9) From equation (8) and (9) one obtains: 11st stgt gt < (10) 3. DESCRIPTION OF SIMULINK MODEL Several CCGT models have been developed in past few dec-ades with to describe the behavior of gas turbine. The basic gas turbine model equations (Rowen Model II) [4-5] for a sin-gle shaft system were given by Rowen in 1992. Fig. 2 shows a dynamic model of a combined cycle gas turbine. This model consists of various blocks describing various pa-rameters whose variations have to be studied in order to op-timize the performance of combined cycle. There are blocks related with speed/load, temperature control, fuel control, air control and other blocks for gas turbine, waste heat recovery boiler/steam turbine, rotor shaft, and temperature transducer. The speed/load block (governor) for determining the fuel supply Fd when compared with a reference load and rotor speed deviation (1-N) . The temperature control block (overheat control) is for control-ling the exhaust temperature (Te oC) of the gas turbine so that the gas turbine does not get injured. The temperature is meas-ured with the help of various transducers and compared with a reference temperature. Then the output of the temperature control is combined with speed/load control to determine the fuel demand (using low select value).This control block has been used for plotting the graph in Fig 7. The fuel control block (valve positioner and fuel control) per-forms according to the minimum value provided by the speed/load control and temperature control and determines the fuel flow Wf . The air control block (saturation 3 and saturation 4) is to adjust the air flow in the gas turbine to attain a desired exhaust tem-perature so that the temperature is kept below a reference temperature by an appropriate offset. This control block is used for plotting the graph in Fig. 8. All the parameters used in the model are given in Table 1. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 2. Combined Cycle Efficiency versus Gas Turbine Efficiency Fig. 3 shows the plot of overall efficiency versus gas turbine efficiency with varying steam turbine efficiency as per equa-tion (6). It can be seen that combined cycle efficiency increases with the increase of both gas turbine efficiency and the steam turbine efficiency. IJOARTInternational Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 288 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART Figure 3. Gas Turbine efficiency versus rate of change of Steam turbine efficiency Fig. 4 shows the plot of allowable reduction in steam process efficiency with respect to gas turbine efficiency versus gas tur-bine efficiency for constant steam turbine efficiency equal to 24%. As the gas turbine efficiency is increased the allowable reduction also increases for which the overall combined cycle efficiency increases which is represented by area 2 as per equation (10). Figure 4. Gas Turbine Efficiency versus Maximum Cycle Temperature Ratio Fig. 5 shows the variation of gas turbine efficiency with cycle maximum temperature ratio T3/T1=5.679, keeping the pres-sure ratio constant in accordance to equation (7). It shows that the turbine efficiency can be increased by increasing the max-imum temperature ratio of Simple Gas Turbine Cycle. The rate of rise in efficiency of gas turbine decreases as the temperature ratio is increased. Figure 5. Exhaust Temperature versus Fuel flow Fig.6. shows how exhaust temperature of the gas turbine var-ies with the fuel flow as per equation (5). It can be seen that the exhaust temperature increases with more fuel flow as more energy is supplied when the flow is increased and hence increase in temperature. With the increase in air flow there is a decrease in the rate of rise of the temperature. Figure 6. Exhaust Temperature ( C ) versus Time Figure 7. Air Flow (p.u.) versus Time Fig.7. shows the variation of exhaust temperature with time. The exhaust temperature first increases due to more fuel flow till a reference temperature after which the air flow is in-creased in the gas turbine to keep the fuel to air ratio constant so that there is specified burning of the fuel in the gas turbine. Due to increase in the air flow in the gas turbine the tempera-IJOARTInternational Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 289 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART ture of the gas turbine drops. It can be seen that at time~75 sec the exhaust temperature reaches a reference value after which it decreases. From Fig.8 it can be seen that the IGV (Inlet Guide Vanes) start opening to allow more flow of air and thus reducing the exhaust temperature as can be seen by the drop in the exhaust temperature after 75 sec. 5. CONCLUSIONS A model of CCGT was developed and variation of efficiency by varying various parameters was studied. The results of which can be summarized as follows:- (1) The efficiency of Gas Turbine increases with the max-imum cycle temperature ratio. The exhaust tempera-ture of the Gas turbine can be increased up to a limit only due to structural limitations. But inlet Tempera-ture (T1) can be lowered which increases the maxi-mum cycle temperature ratio (T3/T1) which in turn will increase the Gas turbine efficiency. (2) Improving the gas turbine efficiency does not neces-sarily mean the increase in the overall efficiency of the combined cycle. The efficiency of gas turbine and steam turbine depend upon the input and the output temperature of the turbine. Increasing the gas turbine efficiency would cause lower input steam tempera-ture for steam turbine for given output temperature so the efficiency of the steam turbine would decrease causing the drop in the overall efficiency of the com-bined cycle. (3) The temperature exhaust of the gas turbine is also an important parameter which has to be maintained as by increasing fuel flow more power output can be ob-tained but it would cause a rise in the temperature but since the temperature has to be limited below a safe value as an increase in temperature can cause the turbine components to get damaged. The temperature is controlled by more air flow in the turbine. Table 1. System Parameters REFERENCES  N. Kakimoto, K. Baba, , "Performance of gas turbine-based plants during frequency drops," IEEE Transactions on Power Sys-tems, vol.18, pp. 1110- 1115, Aug. 2003.  S. Al-Zubaidy, F.S. Bhinder, "Towards optimizing the efficiency of electrical power generation," Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, vol.3, pp. 1857-1862, Aug. 1996.  K. Kunitomi, A. Kurita, H. Okamoto, Y. Tada, S. Ihara, P. Pour-beik, W. W. Price, A. B. Leirbukt, and J. J. Sanchez-Gasca, Modeling frequency dependency of gas turbine output, Proc. IEEE/Power Eng. Soc. Winter Meeting, Jan. 2001.  W. I. Rowen, Simplified mathematical representations of heavy-duty gas turbines, Trans. Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng., vol. 105, pp. 865869, Oct. 1983.  F. P. de Mello and D. J. Ahner, Dynamic models for combined cycle plants in power system studies, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 9, pp. 16981708, Aug. 1994. Symbol Description Value iT Compressor inlet temperature 30 C doT Compressor discharge tempera-ture 390 C foT Gas turbine inlet temperature 1085C eoT Gas turbine exhaust tempera-ture 535 C roP Compressor pressure ratio 11.5 Ratio of specific heat 1.4 c Compressor efficiency 0.85 t Turbine efficiency 0.85 R Speed Regulation 0.04 tT Temperature control integration rate 0.469 maxcT Temperature control upper limit 1.1 mincT Temperature control lower limit 0 maxdF Fuel control upper limit 1.5 mindF Fuel control lower limit 0 vT Valve positioner time constant 0.05 fuT Fuel system time constant 0.4 wT Air control time constant 0.4669 cdT Compressor volume time con-stant 0.2 0K Gas turbine output coefficient 0.0033 1K Steam turbine output coefficient 0.00043 gT Governor time constant 0.05 4K Gain of radiation shield 0.8 5K Gain of radiation shield 0.2 3T Radiation shield time constant 15 4T Thermocouple time constant 2.5 5T Temperature control time constant 3.3 3K Ratio of fuel adjustment 0.77 6K Fuel valve lower limit 0.23 mT Tube metal heat capacitance time constant of waste heat recovery boiler 5 bT Boiler storage time constant of waste heat recovery boiler 20 iT Turbine rotor time constant 18.5 IJOARTInternational Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, M ay-2013 290 ISSN 2278-7763 Copyright 2013 SciResPub. IJOART  John H Horlock, "Advanced gas turbine cycles," Pergamon Press, 2003.  Rolf Kehlhofer, Rukes Bert, Hannemann Frank, and Stirnimann Franz. "Combined-cycle gas & steam turbine power plants," PennWell, 2009.  F. Drbal Lawrence, G. Boston Patricia, L. Westra Kay-la, Black& Veatch. Power Plant Engineering. p. 241 Springer. 1996.  G. Lalor, M. O'Malley, "Frequency control on an island power system with increasing proportions of combined cycle gas tur-bines," IEEE Power Tech Conference Proceedings, Bologna , vol.4, pp. 7, June 2003. IJOART1 Introduction2. CCGT THERMODYNAMICS3. Description of Simulink Model4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION5. CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES