Paul Hughes Retired Annuitant Mobile Source Control Division Air Resources Board

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Californias Light-Duty Vehicle Control Program India-California Air Pollution Mitigation Program October 21, 2013 Oakland, California. Paul Hughes Retired Annuitant Mobile Source Control Division Air Resources Board. Transportations Contribution to California Emissions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PowerPoint Presentation

Californias Light-Duty Vehicle Control Program

India-California Air Pollution Mitigation ProgramOctober 21, 2013Oakland, California

Paul HughesRetired AnnuitantMobile Source Control DivisionAir Resources Board

1Transportations Contribution to California Emissions2Vehicle Emissions Depend OnHow clean is the fuelReduces engine out emissionsMaximizes efficiency of aftertreatmentHow well the fuel is combustedCombustion chamber design, fuel control, etc.How effectively the exhaust is treated33Cleaner Burning GasolineGasoline1992 Phase I Cleaner Burning GasolineEliminated lead in gasoline.RVP reduced from 9.0 to 7.8 psi.Applies during warmer weather monthsEvaporative emissions benefitRequired the addition of 10% oxygenates. 1996 Phase II Cleaner Burning GasolineSulfur levels reduced from 151 ppmw to 30 ppmwRVP reduced to 7.0 psiEvaporative emissions benefitReduced ozone precursors by 300 tons/day. Equivalent to taking 3.5 million cars off the road. 2002 Phase III Cleaner Burning GasolineProhibited use of MTBE as oxygenate - replaced by ethanolSulfur levels reduced to 15 ppmw

44Alternative FuelsCNGLow reactivity for ozonePrimarily used by centrally fueled fleetsBuses, medium-duty trucks and delivery vans, taxisLimited light-duty vehicle modelsEthanolUsed as an oxygenate in gasoline (E10)Flex-fuel vehicles (E0-E85)PropaneLimited light-duty vehicle modelsElectricityElectric vehicles, Plug-in HEVsUpstream emissions dependent on power sourceHydrogenFuel Cell VehiclesUpstream emissions dependent on fuel source55LEV Program 1994-2010LEV IAdopted 1990Implemented 1994-2003First program to provide multiple emission standards (bins) and fleet average requirementProvides flexibilityAssures continued emission reductionsFirst program to take fuel contribution to exhaust emissions into accountReactivity factorsLEV IIAdopted 1998Implemented 2004-2010Light trucks meet passenger car standardsNOx focused

6Long-term programs provide certainty and lead time for manufacturers

6Advanced Clean CarsMulti-pronged approach to meeting mid- and long-term emission reductions from light duty vehicles77Advanced Clean Cars Program GoalsContinued progress towards ozone attainmentReduce localized exposurePM, toxicsEnsure commercialization of ultra-clean vehiclesReduce GHG emissions80% by 2050


Transp. Sector 38%; LDV 28%

8LEV III: Reducing Criteria Emissions9150,000-mile New Vehicle Fleet Average Emissions

75% Reduction in fleet average emissions 2015-20251 mg/mi PM standard in 2025 maintains current PM emission level of well controlled PFI engines LEV III Particulate Matter Standards9Technology and Costs(Gasoline)Technology ComponentFrom ULEV to SULEVPC/LDT1LDT24-cyl6-cyl8-cyl4-cyl6-cyl8-cylSystems with additional technology costsGreater catalyst loading $23$31$39$23$31$39Optimized close-coupled catalyst(s)$0$0$0$0$0$0Secondary air$0$19$58$0$19$58HC adsorber (active)$0$0$17$0$0$17Optimized thermal management$6$6$6$6$6$6Low thermal mass turbocharger$0$0$0$0$0$0Evaporative equipment$13$13$13$13$13$13 Total incremental cost$42$69$134$42$69$134 Total incremental price$50$83$161$50$83$1611010Vehicle Cost(Gasoline)VehicleCategoryInitial baseline certification levelEngine sizeAverage incremental pricea ($/vehicle)Average incremental priceb ($/vehicle)4-cyl6-cyl8-cylPC/LDT1LEV$87$142$248$130$55ULEV$50$83$161$68SULEV$0$0$0$0LDT2LEV$87$142$248$159$117ULEV$50$83$161$111SULEV$0$0$0$011a Sales-weighted average for each initial certification levelb Sales-weighted average for vehicle category11LEV III Smog-Related Emission Benefits12

12Keeping Cars CleanExtended emission standard durability requirementLEV I 100,000 miles, LEV II 120,000 miles, LEV III 150,000 milesManufacturer in-use verificationTest low and high mileage vehiclesAgency in-use verification programTest low and high mileage vehiclesOn-Board DiagnosticsProvides rapid diagnostics of complex emission control systemsEnables cost-effective repairEnsures component robustnessSmog Check ProgramBiennial check of in-use vehicle emissionsWill incorporate OBD only check for 2000+ vehicles into program1313California Greenhouse GoalsAB 1493 (2002) - PavleyAchieve maximum feasible and cost effective reduction of GHG emissions from motor vehicles AB 32 (2006) California Global Warming Solutions ActReduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020Governors Executive Order S-03-05 (2005)Reduce GHG emissions to 80% below 1990 levels1414

Meeting Greenhouse Gas Goals(80% reduction from 1990 levels by 2050)1515LEV III: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Follows Pavley requirements (2009-2016)First light-duty GHG program in USTemplate for federal 2012-2016 requirementsLEV III regulations continue emission reductions for all new vehicles-Greenhouse gas (GHG) standards reduce climate emissions by 34%1617Federal CoordinationARB rulemaking paralleled federal regulation timingDeemed to comply provisionARB has deemed compliance with US EPA GHG regulation as sufficient for ARB GHG regulation complianceMid-Term ReviewARB intends to participate in the federal agencies Mid-Term Review to review standards for model years 2022-2025 (to be completed by April 2018).17

18Emerging GHG Technology SolutionsOff-the-shelf low-GHG technology becomes commonplace

Variable valve controlDirect injectionTurbochargingCylinder deactivationCooled exhaust gas recirculationOptimized controls8-speed transmissionContinuously variableDual clutch transmissionEngine stop-startHybrid power assistAerodynamicsLow rolling resistance tiresAdvanced lightweight materialsLow-GWP refrigerantElectric accessoriesEngine DrivelineVehicle18Public Charging InfrastructureExisting Public InfrastructureClose to 1000 Level 2 stations with over 2800 connectors 67 quick chargers Future ActivitiesCEC recent awards $2.5M for 39 quick chargers in So CalNRG settlement: $100 million200 combo fast charge/Level 2 station (Freedom Stations)Infrastructure for 10,000 level 2 EVSEs for multi-family housing, workplace, schools and hospitals.

Map courtesy of plugshare.com19AB8/AB118 Hydrogen Infrastructure Annual requirements:CEC allocates $20 million/year of AB 118 funds toward hydrogen infrastructure until there are 100 public stations ARB collects data on FCEV numbers ARB assesses need for additional stations and reports findings to CEC

CaFCP: A California Road Map. July 20122021Substantial GHG ReductionMajor impact as low-GHG vehicles replace older vehiclesGHG reduction in California: 27% in 2035 and 33% by 2050Cumulative: 870 million metric tons through 2050

BaselineWith RegulationPassenger Vehicle GHG Emissions (million metric ton CO2e)27%33%2122Flexibility Preserves Vehicle ChoiceFleet average requirement for criteria emissionsCompany sales-weighted averaging for GHG emissionsFootprint-indexed targetsSeparate car and truck standardsCredit banking (5-year carryforward, 3-year carryback)Technology-specific credit opportunitiesOff-cycle emission reductionsRecognizes reductions achieved outside of test cyclesTruck hybridizationA/C efficiency improvements and low GWP refrigerants

2223ACC Program: Vehicle Technology CostRegulations impose increasing costs from 2015 to 2025Incremental 2025 price increase to consumers: $1,900/vehicleAt $1,900/vehicle , vehicle prices would increase by about 8%Fuel savings are 3 times greater than cost; payback period is within 3 yearsAverage 2025 vehicle price2324Consumer Savings Exceed Technology Cost

24SummaryState vehicle standards main reason air quality has improved in CARegulations have been effective95+% criteria emission reductionSignificant GHG emission reductionsFull model availabilityCosts have been reasonable - no diminishing returns2525Contacts and ReferencesAdvanced Clean CarsStaffMichael McCarthy - Hughes Waugh -



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