OwlTeacher.com Earth's Natural Resources Unit 4 World Geography.
Slide 1 OwlTeacher.com Earth's Natural Resources Unit 4 World Geography Slide 2 OwlTeacher.com What Are Natural Resources? natural resource- any useful material found in the environment raw material- a resource or material that is still in its natural state, before being processed or manufactured into a useful product recyclable resource- a resource that cycles through natural processes in the environment (water, nitrogen, carbon) renewable resource- a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used (trees, water) nonrenewable resource- a resource that cannot be replaced once it is used; they include fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and minerals such as iron, copper, and gold fossil fuel- any one of several nonrenewable resources created from the remains of plants and animals Slide 3 OwlTeacher.com A raw material is a resource that must be altered or changed before it can be used. Most resources must be changed before people use them. Example: Trees are the raw materials for paper and wood. A natural resource is anything from the Earth that helps meet peoples needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Examples: water, trees, animals Slide 4 OwlTeacher.com Three Kinds of Resources RecyclableRenewableNonrenewable Cycle naturally through the environment because of the way the Earth works The Earth will always have the same amount of them. Examples: water, nitrogen, carbon Includes trees and other living things: They can be destroyed or wiped out. However, these resources can be replaced, if careful, to maintain a steady supply. Examples: trees, chickens, corn When these are used up, they cannot be replaced. Most nonliving things are nonrenewable. Examples: minerals, coal, natural gas, petroleum (oil), metals Slide 5 OwlTeacher.com Ancient Energy: Fossil Fuel Turning lights on, keeping your house heated or air conditioned, and running your car all require fossil fuels. Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas, and petroleum. Fossil fuels were created over millions of years from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals. Fossil fuels are no longer being created. As a result, they are nonrenewable resources. If people continue using coal, natural gas, and petroleum at todays rate, the Earth will run out of fossil fuels in 100 to 200 years. Slide 6 OwlTeacher.com A Special Resource: Energy Everyone in the world needs energy, but energy resources are not evenly spread around the world. If a country does not have enough energy resources of its own, it must buy them from other countries. The biggest users of energy are industrial nations such as the United States and the countries of Western Europe. Slide 7 OwlTeacher.com In the 1970s, the United States used so much energy that it had to begin buying oil from OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). As a result, the United States had to pay whatever the producing countries asked. When OPEC limited supplies and raised prices, the United States experienced oil shortages. Americans began to see that they needed to find more sources of energy. Slide 8 OwlTeacher.com Top Petroleum Consumers and Producers Producers United States12.1% Saudi Arabia 11.5% Russia8.5% Iran 4.9% Mexico 4.5% China 4.3% Norway 4.2% Venezuela4.1% United Kingdom4.0% Canada3.5% Slide 9 OwlTeacher.com Stages of Resource Development First LevelSecond LevelThird Level People use land and resources directly to make products. People are beginning to develop their land. Examples: hunting, fishing, mining, herding, farming People turn raw materials into things they use. This process is called manufacturing. Example: A farmer takes his corn to a mill. The miller grinds corn into corn meal, and the miller sells the corn meal for more processing. Products are distributed to people who want them. People are producing a service. Examples: Service industries include transportation systems and communications products such as computers and satellites. Slide 10 OwlTeacher.com Economic Patterns: Developed and Developing Countries Two hundred years ago, people produced goods in their homes or small shops. Then, came a great change: People invented machines to make goods and found new sources of power to run the machines. Today, most manufacturing takes place in factories. This change in the way people made goods was called the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution created a new pattern of economic activity. It separated countries into two groups Developed Nations are those countries that have many industries Developing Nations are those countries that have few industries. Slide 11 OwlTeacher.com Industrial Societies Developed Nations: A Fact Sheet About one quarter of the worlds population lives in developed nations. They use goods made in factories. Their industries consume a lot of raw materials and use power-driven machinery. Factories produce goods for the countrys citizens and for sale to other countries. Most people live in towns and cities and work in business and industry. Slide 12 OwlTeacher.com Industrial Societies Developed Nations: A Fact Sheet Most people have enough food and water and can get a good education and adequate health care. They rely on commercial farming, which raises tremendous amounts of food. These farms are run by companies and use modern technology. Each part of the economy relies on the other. Problems: unemployment, pollution, shortages of natural resources Slide 13 OwlTeacher.com Developing Nations Every culture is not like the United States. Most of the people of the world (about 75%) live in developing countries. They do not have great wealth. Many work at subsistence farmingraising just enough food for their families or communities, not for profit. These farms require a lot of labor and do not yield a lot of crops. The only commercial farms are plantations, which produce a single crop for export. They are usually owned by only a few people. Certain groups herd animals. In desert regions, nomads travel from place to place to find food and water for their animals. In some developing nations, people live as hunter- gatherers. Slide 14 OwlTeacher.com Challenges in Developing Nations What challenges do they face? What challenges do they face? Disease food shortages unsafe water poor education poor health services job scarcity in the cities and frequently changing governments are just a few of the challenges developing nations face. Slide 15 OwlTeacher.com Why do they face so many challenges? One reason is rapid population growth, which strains resources. In the late 1990s, for example, the supply of fresh water became a problem. There are many other reasons as well. Slide 16 OwlTeacher.com Is anything being done to improve conditions? Yes. Some developing nations are beginning to use their natural resources, or sell them to other countries. Developed countries sometimes help in the form of foreign aid, or gifts and loans from one government to another. Businesses in developed countries may also help by building factories in developing nations. These factories provide jobs and money. Slide 17 OwlTeacher.com The World: Economic Activity Slide 18 OwlTeacher.com Danger to Land, Water, and Air An ecosystem is a place where living elements depend on one anotherand on nonliving elementsfor their survival. Examples of ecosystems: the Sahara Desert, the Amazon River valley, the Great Plains If one part of an ecosystem changes, other parts are also affected. Some changes can destroy an ecosystem. Example: Deforestation in South America is an example. Many rain forests are being destroyed. As a result, many plant and animal species will become extinct. Slide 19 OwlTeacher.com Protecting Endangered Species Usually, more than one thing threatens a species. Causes of Extinction: People may build houses or businesses on land that is the habitat of particular animals or plants. The air, soil, or water may become too polluted. A species may be hunted until it disappears. Slide 20 OwlTeacher.com Protecting Endangered Species Methods of Prevention: Laws, such as the Endangered Species Act of 1973 gave the government power to protect species that might become extinct. Some people disagree with such laws. They believe that humans should be able to use natural resources as they need them. Slide 21 OwlTeacher.com Other Forms of Damage Acid Rain Acid rain carries dangerous chemicals. It is formed when fossil fuels used by industries are released into the air and combine with water vapor in the air. What is being done? Canada and the United States have laws to reduce acid rain. Factories and cars are installing devices to clean up the fumes they release. Slide 22 OwlTeacher.com Pollution Waste dumped into rivers, lakes, and oceans destroys or harms living things in the water and also endangers people. Fertilizers and pesticides from farms also pollute water. Slide 23 OwlTeacher.com The Ozone Layer The ozone layer, a layer of gas in the upper part of our atmosphere, blocks most of the suns harmful ultraviolet rays. Chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer. What is being done? The Montreal Protocol of 1987 led nations to limit their use of ozone-destroying chemicals, including CFCs. Slide 24 OwlTeacher.com Global Warming What is global warming? Global warming is a slow increase in Earths temperature. What causes it? It may be caused by gases like carbon dioxide that are released into the air. They are called greenhouse gases. Slide 25 OwlTeacher.com Where do these gases come from? Industrial countries produce 75 percent of these gases. They are released when fossil fuels (which produce most of the worlds electricity) burn. Developing countries produce these gases when they burn forests to clear land and use wood for heating or cooking. Slide 26 OwlTeacher.com How does global warming take place? Normally, heat on Earth escapes back into space. Some scientists theorize that greenhouse gases trap the heat and reflect it back to Earth, resulting in a rise in Earths average temperature. greenhouse effect This is called the greenhouse effect. Slide 27 OwlTeacher.com The Challenge of Energy Because pollution is often tied to using fossil fuels, scientists are exploring other ways to get inexpensive energy. Their research concentrates on nuclear power, water, wind, and the sun. Slide 28 OwlTeacher.com The Challenge of Energy Individuals can protect the environment too. For example: The United States produces more waste than any other nation in the world. To change that, people now recycle old materials to make new products. Today, most American cities have recycling programs.