Overview energy is required for all cellular work most organisms produce ATP by using energy stored in the bonds of organic molecules such as carbohydrates.

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  • Overview energy is required for all cellular work most organisms produce ATP by using energy stored in the bonds of organic molecules such as carbohydrates (mostly glucose), fats, and proteins exothermic process (-G) most respiration is aerobic (use O 2 ) and some is anaerobic (does not use O 2 )
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  • Aerobic Respiration oxidation of food, such as glucose, to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy (36 ATP) occurs in three main phases that happen through many gradual reactions 1. Glycolysis 1. The Link Reaction 2. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle 3. ETS (Electron Transport System)
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  • Link Reaction
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  • Anerobic Respiration respiration carried out in the absence of oxygen purpose is to oxidize NADH back to NAD + which is recycled back for glycolysis meaning it keeps glycolysis going and therefore only makes 2 ATP end products are alcohol or lactic acid two methods
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  • 1. Alcoholic fermentation common with bacteria and yeast (fungi) the pyruvates from glycolysis are transformed into ethyl alcohol (toxic to organism) CO 2 is given off process is energetically wasteful because so much of the free energy of glucose (some 95%) remains in the alcohol (a good fuel) glucose energy (ATP) + ethanol + carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
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  • 2. Lactate Fermentation occurs in bacteria and animal muscle tissue the pyruvates from glycolysis are converted to lactate (lactic acid) energetically wasteful because so much free energy remains in the lactic acid molecule it can also be debilitating because of the drop in pH of overworked muscles glucose energy (ATP) + lactic acid
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  • Role of Cu and Fe in electron and oxygen transport (B.9.2) The electron transport system accepts hydrogen atoms and passes their electrons from one member of the chain to the next It is a series of redox reactions involving the transport of electrons. Cytochromes- Oxidizing Enzymes Consisting of a protein,a porphyrin ring, a copper or iron ion (Cu 2+, Fe 2+ )
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  • Cyto-chrome Structure 20
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  • Cytochromes Contain Cu 2+ or Fe 3+ ions. The porphyrin ligand contains 4 nitrogen atoms, each of which donates 2 electrons. Oxidation Stage C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O 6CO 2 +24H + +24e - Fe 3+ + e- Fe 2+ (Metal ion is reduced) Cu 2+ + e- Cu + Reduction stage O 2 + 4H + +4e- 2H 2 O Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + e- (Metal ion is oxidized) Cu + Cu 2+ + e- 21
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  • Cytochrome Oxidase
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  • Role of Haemoglobin in Cellular Respiration. Respiratory pigment that carries oxygen in the blood during respiration Contains a heme group with an iron atom a its center. Iron atom binds to O 2 in lungs When Hb is oxygenated it appears bright red. Hb carries O 2 through the blood stream to cells in the body. At high carbon dioxide concentrations as are found at the cell level hemoglobin releases O 2 to the cells. Hemoglobin binds to the carbon dioxide molecules which are then transported back to the lungs where the carbon dioxide is exhaled. Carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN - ) are poisonous because they form irreversible complex ions with the iron preventing it from carrying oxygen. Contains 4 large polypeptide units and 4 Fe atoms each surrounded by a porphyrin ligand. This is the heme (haem) group.


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